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fore, while not accepting everything set forth in the preceding paper, nor taking time to comment on minor points, I desire to say that the writer of it has contributed a very important idea concerning "Jacob's Isle," and one which will call for a modification of the views set forth in chapter XI of our present Manual, on that subject. By further research, after reading the preceding article, I discovered that the Jews in their scriptures speak of isles in three senses:

"First," (following Kitto) "that of dry land in opposition to water, as, 'I will make the rivers islands' (Isaiah 42: 15), i. e., dry up the rivers, converting their courses into land. In Isaiah 20: 6, the isle of Ashdod means the country, [i. e. of Ashdod] and is so rendered in the margin. In Isaiah 23: 2, 6, 'the isle,' means the country of Tyre, and in Ezekiel 27: 6, 7, that of Chittim and Elisha. See also Job 22: 30.

"Second, it is used both in Hebrew and English, according to its geographical meaning; for a country surrounded by water, as in Jeremiah 47: 4, 'the isle (margin) of Caphtor,' which is probably that of Cyprus. The isles of the sea' (Esther 10: 1), are evidently put in opposition to 'the land,' or continent. In Psalm 97: 1, 'the multitude of the isles' seem distinguished from the earth or continents, and are evidently added to complete the description of the whole world.

"Third: The word is used by the Hebrews to designate all those countries divided from them by the sea. In Isaiah 11: 11, after an enumeration of countries lying on their own continent, the words, 'and the islands of the sea,' are added in order to comprehend those situated beyond the ocean. The following are additional instances of this usage of the word, which is of very frequent occurrence: Isaiah 42: 10; 59: 18; 66: 19; Jeremiah 25: 22; Ezekiel 27: 3, 15; Zephaniah 2: 11. It is also observed by Sir Isaac Newton (commenting no Daniel, p. 276), ‘By the earth the Jews understood the great continent of Asia and Africa, to which they had access by land; and by the isles of the sea they understood the places to which they sailed by sea, particularly all Europe."

Substantially the same views as the foregoing are maintained in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (Hackett's edition), art. "Isle."

It is this third sense in which the Hebrews used the term

"isle," "isles," or "isles of the sea," that is contended for by Mr. Mansfield. And while the Jews at times used the term as we use it in English, meaning a small division of land surrounded by water, it is a fact that it was frequently used in this latter sense, viz., as referring to all those lands distant from Jerusalem, that had to be reached by crossing the sea, without reference to their being either islands or continents, as we understand the terms; that is the literary sense or use of the word among the Jews. And if it was in this literary sense rather than in the physical one that Jacob used it-and it must be conceded that that is most likely, then it would relieve us of the necessity of maintaining that the Nephites, in the days of Jacob, occupied an island; that is, a small body of land as contrasted with a continent surrounded by water. And such, I believe, is the reasonable conclusion to arrive at, and one that may reasonably be accepted, instead of the views on that head set forth in our Manual, chapter XI. This would reduce the value of chapter XI to being merely a valuable collection of the accounts of those mighty cataclysms, in various parts of the earth, that would make it easy to believe that such cataclysms as are described in the Book of Mormon are not only possible but probable.


Magistrate Crane, of Harlem, New York, police court, recently declared against cigarettes in most vigorous language. Here are some of his sayings, which have great weight because of his long experience with crime:

"Every cigarette means a dream of some future crime.

"The first cigarette a boy or man smokes is the first step in a future criminal career.

"Cigarettes mean death before it is due."

Of everybody arraigned before him, irrespective of the charge, he inquired: “Do you smoke cigarettes?" If the prisoner admitted that he did, he was lectured, and if he said "No," the magistrate compelled him to hold up his hands that his fingers might be examined for nicotine stains.



The changes which break up at intervals the prosperity of men, are advertisements of a nature whose law is growth.—Emerson.

When I was a boy, it was my privilege to haul wood from the canyons. Father was too apprehensive to send so young a boy alone, so he went along. The hills were steep, and often the roads were temporary ones formed by our wagon and others, in their abrupt descent from the summits to the valley below. The lower wheels dug down into the loose earth, making a deep depression, or rut; for safety, we always sat on the upper side of the load, prepared to jump,in case it should appear that the load, getting top-heavy, might topple over. We used an improvised brake, made of soft, green quaking-asp, and suspended in front of the hind wheels from logs on either side of the wagon. On the right side of the brake was the brake pole, so fixed that by attaching a rope to its upper end, by means of a pulley one of us could hold the wagon in check. I generally drove the mules, while father, seated at the rear, guided the brake, holding the load from the animals' heels. One day we were going down a sidling, steep grade, in this order, with a heavy load. As we were on the steepest part of the hill, one end of the brake dropped, thus disabling it. The load plunged suddenly onto the mules. The speed was uncomfortably accelerated. Father yelled, in his commanding way, "Steer the animals up the side hill, you chump!" Tugging at the lines with all my strength without success, I turned and cried out: "I can't; we're in a rut."

We jumped from the load, and about the time we were up


around, the mules, wagon and wood, landed in a mixed bunch at the foot of the hill.

A friend of mine had a similar experience last summer. He is a proud horseman, and also takes great pride in Jerseys, notwithstanding he has had two narrow escapes, within the past few months, from being trampled to death by vicious, well-fed bulls. Animals, let it be said in passing, like men, are apt to become vicious when they are too well provided for. It may be that my friend's Jerseys cost him more than he gets out of them. But all this is neither here nor there, as far as this anecdote goes. He invited me to ride behind his fine bay, in his sparkling new buggy; and since such an invitation is rare, in my experience, I readily accepted. We enjoyed a refreshing ride up one of the beautiful canyon roads near his place, turning up one of the side canyons for a change. All went well until we were returning from our side trip down a steep incline ending in the main-traveled road. As we were half way down, one of those infernal automobiles came puffing along said road, and upon sight of it, his horse decided to go faster. By quick mathematical calculation, I could see that unless the horse was suddenly turned out of his course, he would reach the intersection at the precise moment the automobile was due. I hurriedly suggested that he turn the horse; but just as I jumped, I heard him say: "I can't; the wheels 're in a rut." The buggy was sent for another day, and the motor of the automobile was disabled. Fortunately, a passing doctor made the riders quite comfortable.

There can be enlargement, and the man of today scarcely recognizes the man of yesterday. And such should be the outward biography of man in time, a putting off of dead circumstances day by day, as he renews his raiment day by day.-Emerson.

Going back to when I was a boy, I remember two young men who hauled lumber to the city from a local mill situated far back in the hills. That was before it was forbidden to cut timber on government land. Helmer, one of the young men, was the champion hauler, faithful as a man could be; up early and late; he fed his horses. well, and made big money for his employer; and, besides, satisfied himself, at his business. Everybody praised him. He made more

trips in a given time than anyone else, was prompt, exact, and a model, in every way. I remember how I envied him, as he sat on his great load, when he passed by, as the music of his loaded wagon greeted my ears in the field where fate seemed to have doomed me to the simple and tame task of curing hay.

One day it was noised about that another young man, Bulwer by name, a lucky-go-easy from a neighboring village, had been hired to haul lumber, and would compete with Helmer. This man had been put on the road out of some person's charitable recommendation, at a reduced salary. He made three or four trips, and then one day he laid over at the mill, apparently to rest. He was already beaten by his companion teamster, who shook his head, saying, "That chap, Bulwer, will be laid off for good. Too bad, for he is a good, considerate fellow." But when Bulwer went to town next time, after having unloaded, he went directly into the team-owner's city office, and confidentially told his employer that he had learned that the mill boss was about to let a contract to one person for hauling all the products of the mills to the city. Here was a good business opportunity. Would he take advantage of it? If not, Bulwer would take it himself. The snap was accepted. Bulwer multiplied his own salary, and doubled the teamowner's profits. Later they entered partnership in selling the lumber, also, and both made handsome additional profits. But Helmer continued hauling, and even Bulwer acknowledged that he had no match in this line. Bulwer now owns three or four sawmills, and several townships of timber in a neighboring state, with everything to match. He has dollars invested in nearly every financial and manufacturing enterprise in his native city, with bank and railroad stocks to spare.

But Helmer is still hauling. To be sure he has no lumber to haul, but he gets jobs in other lines, and he does faithful work, too, although he isn't what he used to be thirty years ago. His wife often wonders why Helmer don't do something different when so many chances lie around. Nobody has answered her, although one day a neighbor came very near to solving the question when he said: "He seems to have got into a rut."

The penetrating young man who has read thus far will have observed what a mental and physical disadvantage it is to get into

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