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|| thou wilt redeem it, redeem it; but if Boaz proposes to the kidsman of whom he had spoken to redeem

thou wilt not redeem it, then tell me, that Elimelecb's land, and to marry Ruth; which he declines to 11 may know: h for there is none to redeem do, 1-8. Boaz buys the inheritance and marries Ruth, 912. She bears Obed the grandfather of David, 13-17. The genealogy from Pharez to David, 18-22.

|| he said, I will redeem il. THEN went Boaz up a to the gate, ll 5 Then said Boaz, What day thou

I and sat him down there: and, be- || buyest the field of the hand of Naomi, hold, the kinsman of whom Boaz spake thou must buy it also of Ruth the Mocame by; unto whom he said, Ho, such abitess, the wife of the dead, i to raise a one, turn aside, sit down here. And he up the name of the dead upon his inherturned aside, and sat down.

itance. 2 And he took ten men of the elders | 6 And the kinsman said, I cannot reof the city, and said, Sit ye down here. || deem it for myself, lest I mar mine own And they sat down.

inheritance: redeem thou my right to 3 And e he said unto the kinsman, I thyself; for I cannot redeem it. Naomi that is come again out of the coun-| 7 Now this was the manner in former try of Moab, selleth a parcel of land time in Israel, concerning redeeming, and which was our brother Elimelech's: concerning changing, for to confirm all

4 And * I thought to advertise thee, ll things; ka man plucked off his shoe, and saying, 'Buy it 8 before the inhabitants, I gave it to his neighbor: and this was a and before the elders of my people. If|| testimony in Israel. a Deut. 16:18. 17:5. 21:19. 26: Lam. 5:14. Acts 6:12.

8 Therefore the kinsman said unto 7. Job 29:7. 31:21. Am. 5:10 e Ps. 112:5. Prov. 13:10. ---12,15.

* Heb. I said I will reveal in | Boaz, Buy it for thee: so he drew off his b 3:12.

thine ear. cls. 55:1. Zech. 2:6.

f Jer. 32:7-9. Rom. 12:17. 2

12:17. 2 || shoe. d Ex. 18:21,22, Deut. 29:10.31: 1 Cor. 8:21. Phil. 4:9.

b Lev. 25:25-29.

| 6. Matt. 22:24. Luke 20:28. 28. 1 Kings 21:9. Prov. 31:23. g Gen. 23:18. Jer. 32:10-12. i 3:13. Gen. 38:8. Deut. 25:5, k Deut. 25:7-10.

7:25–28. 1 Tim. 5:13-15.)—The married I tice, and regard to the law of God, their wealth state, when properly entered into, is a rest, as may be pronounced blessed, and their use of it much as any thing on earth can be so called; honorable.-We must not, however, rest satisseeing it ought to fix the affections, and form fied even with a clear conscience in the sight a connexion for life: it therefore should be en- ll of God; but should endeavor to preserve a clear gaged in with great seriousness, and with earn character, and to avoid whatever may occasion est prayers for the direction and blessing of slander, or excite suspicion: (2 Cor. 8:20,21. 1 God upon it, and with an eye to his precept and Thes. 5:22.) and we ought to be as tender of the providence: and parents should carefully ad- | reputation of others as of our own.-In every vise their children in this inoportant concern, undertaking we should be diligent in using “that it may be well with them,” especially as proper ineans, and then calmly leave the whole to the interests of their souls. The more will. to the Lord's decision.-But without any iming any one is, for conscience'sake, to re propriety, we poor polluted sinners may apply nounce worldly interests, the greater care to Jesus Christ, our nearest Kinsman and should others employ in promoting his advan. Brother, as dwelling in human nature, to tage.-But good intentions will not justify im spread his skirt over us, and to espouse our proper means; and it is well for us, that we souls to himself; to take us under his almighty have to do with a God of mercy, who takes bet. care, and to admit us to share in all his ter care of our interest, purity, credit, and unsearchable riches. If we truly desire to peace, than we often do of our own and of each be his, though many defects and mistakes atother's.- Parents should be very cautious what tend our application to him, he will not reject injunctions they lay upon their children; lestus; we cannot do it unseasonably; he will confilial affection and deference should ensnare descend to encourage and assist us; and gratheir consciences, and lead them into tempta- ciously accept all our endeavors to serve him; tion: for the authority even of a parent will and most kindly notice our love to him, and not justify a sinful action.-Few men have such our desire of his salvation. When we have apcommand of their passions, and candor of mind, plied to bim, he will not rest till he has accomas to injure neither the virtue nor the reputa plished our desires; and in the mean time he tion of females, who indiscreetly put them. I will communicate blessings to us and ours, in selves in their way: and yet to take advantage answer to our prayers: nor can we too earnof a woman's affection and confidence, for her estly desire and seek this same rest for our irreparable detriment, is much baser than de- l children and friends, that it may be well with frauding those who implicitly trust in us. || them also. (Note, Mall. 11:28–30.) They, however, who value either their chastity or their character, should flee from such situa

NOTES. tions; in which they can only be preserved by CHAP. IV. V. 1–8. Considerable difficul. the same power, that preserved the young men ties arise, in explaining this transaction conin the fiery furnace.-All our plenty should be sistently with the laws before given; and in. shared with the poor and industrious: and all deed it does not appear in whose possession the our feasting should be so moderated, that it may estate of Elimelech was at this time. It is bow. neither unfit us for our ordinary employments, ever probable, that it had been sold till the nor for the exercises of devotion. When in year of jubilee: (Notes, Lev. 25:14-17,25—28.) such circumstances, men can retain the do and as Elimelech had no male issue surviving, minion over their passions, and conduct them- || and it could not be alienated from his family, selves with tenderness, prudence, piety, jus-ll the nearest relation would have a right to re.

9 And Boaz said unto the elders, and unto Judah,) of the seed which the unto all the people, 'Ye are witnesses | LORD shall give thee of this young wo this day, that I have bought all that was man. Elimelech's, and all that was Chilion's | 13 | So Boaz y took Ruth, and she and Mahlon's, of the hand of Naomi. l was his wife: and when he went in unto

10 Moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the her, 2 the Lord gave her conception, and wife of Mahlon, m have I purchased to she bare a son. be my wife, to raise up the name of the 14 And a the women said unto Naomi, dead upon his inheritance, that the Blessed be the LORD, ' which hath not name of the dead be not cut off from left thee this day without a skinsman, among his brethren, and from the gated that his name may be famous in Isof his place: 'ye are witnesses this rael. day.

Il 15 And he shall be unto thee a restor11 And all the people that were in the er of thy life, and il a nourisher of thine gate, and the elders, said, We are wit- | old age: e for thy daughter-in-law, which nesses. p The LORD make the woman loveth thee, which is better to thee than that is come into thine house like 9 Ra- seven sons, hath born him. chel and like Leah, which two did ' build il 16 And Naomi took the child, and laid the house of Israel: and * do thou wor- it in her bosom, and became nurse unto it. thily in 3 Ephralah, and t be famous in Il 17 And & the women her neighbors Beth-lehem:

gave it a name, saying, There is a son 12 And let thy house be like the born to Naomi; and they called his name house of Pharez, (u whom Tamar bare

x 1 Sam. 2:20.

| Heb. caused to cease unto I Gen. 23:16–18. Jer. 32:10_ q Gen. 29:32–35. 30:1—24. | 35:16-20. 46:3—27. Num. 26: 2 12. Gen. 21:1-3. 25:21. 29: Or, redeemer.

31. 30:2,22,23. 33-5. 1 Sam. 1: à 21,22, Gen. 12:2. Is. 11:1-4.

y 3:11.


m Gen. 29:18,19,27. Prov. 18: r Deut. 25:9. Prov. 14:1.
22. 19:14. 31:10.11. Hos. 3:2. * Or, get thee riches, or, power.
12:12. Eph. 5:25.

s 1:2. Gen. 35:19. Ps. 132:6.
n Josh. 7:9. Ps. 34:16. 109: 5. Mic. 5:2. Matt. 2:6.
Is. 48:19. Zech. 13:2.

It Heb. proclaim thy name. ols. 8:2,3. Mal. 2:14. Heb. 13: i Gen. 46:12. Num. 26:20-22. 4.

u Gen. 38:29. 1 Chr. 2:4. Matt. p Gen. 24:60. Ps. 127:3-5. 1:3. 128:3--6.

| 27. 2:5. Ps. 113:9. 127:3.

Matt. 1:5-10. a Luke 1:58. Rom. 12:15. 1 || Heb, to nourish thy grey hairs. Cor. 12:26.

Gen. 45:11. 47:12. Ps. 55-29. b Gen. 29:35. Ps. 34:1-3. 103: Is. 46:4. | 1,2, 1 Thes. 5:18. 2 Thes. 1: 1 e 1:16-18.

fi Sam. 1:8. Prov. 18:24. I c Gen. 24:27.

5 Luke 1:58–63.


deem it, by repaying the proportion of the the elders of his city, by legal process, gare up purchase-money; except as Ruth, Elimelech's his claim; Boaz, by marrying "Ruth, possessed daughter-in-law, was entitled to his inherit-| the whole right of Elimelech. Yet according ance, according to the law given in the case of to the law of God, and the custom in Israel, the those who left daughters only. (Notes, Num. 27: | eldest son of this marriage must be considered 1-11.)–To obviate therefore all doubt and as the heir of Elimelech, and of Mahlon the difficulty in this matter, Boaz proposed to this former husband of Ruth: so that the land would kinsman of Elimelech, that he should both re- be called by the name of one of them, and not deem the estate and marry Ruth; in which case by that of Boaz, that the family might not be the estate would certainly belong to his eldest considered as extinct. son by her: but if he was unwilling to do it, he V. 11, 12. Gale.] (Marg. Ref. on v. 1, a.desired him to renounce his claim, and he Note, Job 29:7–11.) The public recognition would marry her, and redeem the land for him of Boaz's taking Ruth to wife, by the elders of self. The kinsman however was not willing to his city, accompanied by benedictions and marry the poor widow, lest he should injure his prayers, may be considered as the customary circumstances, or create himself disturbance; | method of distinguishing honorable marriage for perhaps he had at this time a wife and fam- | from illicit connexions. It is observable, that ily: he therefore resigned all claim to the estate only Rachel and Leah are mentioned, as havalso. This transaction respects all the several || ing “built the house of Israel;" and that Bilbah laws above referred to; and doubtless the whole lland Zilpab, Jacob's concubines, are not named. was settled in the most regular, legal, and cus -The law, forbidding the admission of Moabtomary manner: and as the pulling off the shoe ites into the congregation of Israel, seems not was not done by Ruth with the prescribed cere to have related to marriages with such as emmonies, but, as it appears, by the kinsman him | braced the true religion; especially in such self; it seems not to refer merely to the law | peculiar circumstances: for there is no intimaabout refusing to marry a brother's widow, but | tion in Scripture that Boaz acted iinproperly to have been the custom in transferring inher- ll on this occasion. (Note, Deut. 23:3--5.) itances. (Note, Deut. 25:5–10.) The manner Il V. 13--15. Naomi was congratulated on this in which Boaz brought forward this business, | occasion, more than either Boaz or Ruth; as evinced a strict regard to openness, fairness, she had the ruins of her family thus providenand equity; and also an affection for Ruth, tially repaired, and her old age solaced after whom it is evident he was desirous of marry the death of her husband and sons, through her ing, provided the kinsman was willing to re- || daughter-in-law, who had loved her, and been linquish bis prior claim.

a greater blessing to her than seven sons. The V 9, 10. 'As Orpah had preferred her con-l piety of the language, and the conduct o

of all nexions in Moab to her prospects in Israel, she parties on this occasion, should not pass unnowas not considered in this transaction; and ticed.-The term kinsman, or redeemer, seems Naomi transferred all her claim to Ruth. Con- || here applied to Naomi's grandson, as inheriting sequently, when the nearest kinsman, before ll the rights of the whole family. (14,15.)

Obed: he is the father of Jesse, the fa-|| 20 And Amminadab begat Nahshon, ther of David.

and Nahshon begat * Salmon, 18 | Now these are the generations of 21 And Salmon begat Boaz, mand Pharez: “Pharez begat Hezron,

Boaz begat Obed, 19 And Hezron begat · Ram, and Ram || 22 And Obed begat Jesse, and Jesse begat Amminadab,

begat o David.

k Num. 1:7. Matt. 1:4. Luke | m 1 Chr. 2:12. Matt. 1:5, Luk bi Chr. 4:1. Matt. 1:3. Lukeli 1 Chr. 2:9,10. Matt. 1.4. Luke

3:33. Phares. Esrom.

| 3:33. Aram. Aminadab.

3:32. Yaasson.

3:32. Booz. 1 * Or, Salmah.

ni Sam. 16:1. Is. 11:1. Ti Chr. 2:11. Salma. Matt. 1:5. 1 0 1 Chr. 2:16. Matt. 1:6. Luke Luke 3:32.

| 3:31.

V. 17. The women named the child, doubt- entirely their own; as the Lord will raise up less by the approbation of all parties. “Obed" || other friends for such as love and trust in him, signifies a servant, or serviceable; probably inti- || and especially for those who have shewn themmating a confidence, that Obed would be very || selves willing to bear hardship for his sake. useful to his family and people. From him | Nay, such persons, however poor, are a blessing Christ descended: and thus peculiar blessings to all connected with them. Especially they and honor redounded to Boaz, who had not dis- | are to be valued in the marriage-relation: “A dained the low estate of Ruth, but had paid due prudent wife is from the LORD," and "the price honor to his deceased relations, and their de- of a virtuous woman is above rubies.” (Notes, cayed family; while the kinsman, who refused || Prov. 19:14. 31:10.)-As marriage is honorable so to do, is not allowed a name in the book of in the sight of God, it ought to be publicly con. God, but is disgracefully consigned to obliv- | tracted and recognised, that it may be distin. ion,

guished from those deeds of darkness which reV. 18—22. Pharez was born about 1714 | quire concealment: and it is likely to be comyears before Christ, and David was born about || fortable when the law of God is regarded, and 630 years after, and ten generations seem too || his blessing supplicated. In this important few for such a length of time. But the difficul- concern, (as in all others,) pious people should ty is very greatly increased, when it is recol. 1 pray for each other, that the parties may live lected, that Salmon married Rachab, (doubtless together in peace, be good examples, do worthe same as Rahab, Matt. 1:5.) about 1450 B. C. thily in the church and in the world, and train leaving 365 years or more, tó only four gener- | up families for future usefulness, when they ations! Some learned men bave attempted to have served their generation, and are fallen shew, that possibly Salman, Boaz, Obed, and asleep.-The birth of children also calls for uniJesse, were remarkably long-lived; and that ted prayers, that they may be indeed a comfort Boaz, Obed, Jesse, and David were born in the || to their parents, blessings to society, and bless. extreme old age of their respective fathers: buted themselves: for without the blessing of God, this at least is not probable, and it is certain none of these things can be expected; and the that Jesse lived till David arrived at full man Il general disuse of this pious language and behav. hood. (Notes, 1 Sam. 17:12,13. 22:3,4.) It is ior, by professing Christians, too plainly evinces therefore much more natural to suppose, that that true religion is at a low ebb among us. We some names are omitted in the genealogy; as should never promise ourselves much comfort we know the case to bave been in the genealo- | from any earthly object; for our heaviest trials gies given by the evangelists. (Note, Matt. 1: often arise from those quarters whence we ex2–17.)

pected most satisfaction, and our greatest sol.

ace from those whence we expected none: in. PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS. deed one truly Christian friend may be better Diligence in business, punctuality to engage- to us, than all our children and relations.-Rut ments, integrity, and fair dealing in the affairs if these streams are so refreshing, what may we of common life, not only adorn a profession of not expect from the Fountain? Let us then godliness, but tend to prosperity in the ordina- || look to Jesus, our Redeemer, who “though he ry course of Providence.-Men are generally was rich, for our sakes became poor,” and at ready to embrace opportunities of increasing the price of his sufferings both ransomed our intheir estates, but few know the valne of godli- heritance, and purchased us to be espoused unness: nor can it be expected, that those, who | to him in truth and righteousness; not induced supremely valne carnal things, will make a due by our worthiness or excellence, but by his estimate of spiritual excellency in the charac own unfathomable love to our polluted souls. ter of others. Such are frequently the wise | To this union he invites the perishing sinner: men of this world; they do not attend to the this relation to the poor despised believer, he concerns of their souls, and they reject the sal- | avows and glories in. May we therefore joyvation of Christ, for fear of marring their in- || fully accept of his salvation, expect all our fe. heritance!” Indeed, selfishness not only oblit. || licity from him, and devote ourselves to his sererates all charity and justice, but extinguishes || vice; and, being “bought with a price, let us natural affection; and causes men to treat with Iglorify him with our bodies and spirits, which disdain their nearest relatives, however excel. are his;" obeying his commandments, imitating lent, if poor and in need of their assistance. | his example, and recommending him and his But the loss, in the final event of things, will be salvation by word and deed to all around us!

[13 THE




This book and the following form but one in the Hebrew canon, and derive their name from

Samuel; though he could not write more than the former part (perhaps twerty-four chapters) of the first book.-The remainder of them is, with great probability, ascribed to the prophets Nathan and Gad: for we read in Chronicles, “Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold they are written in the book of Samuel the seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer.” (1 Chr. 29:29.) It is therefore very reasonable to con. clude, that Samuel wrote the first acts of David; and Nathan and Gad, continuing the history after Samuel's death, wrote his last acts, or the records of his reign till near his death; and that the whole was formed into one book, which was ascribed to Samuel, as the more eminent person, and as the latter part formed a sort of appendix to the history wbich he had begun.-It inay also be observed, that in the time of Samuel a new epoch commenced: the government by judges was changed for that of kings: and Samuel anointed both those kings whose history is here given, and was himself a principal person in all these transactions.-From the Vulgate Latin translation, these books are also called “The first and the second books of Kings;" and consequently the two following are "The third and fourth books of Kings."When Eli was judge and high priest of Israel, Samuel was born: and wbile Eli's indulged sons were bringing destruction on themselves and their family, and almost on the nation; Samuel was growing up in wisdom and piety, to be an illustrious prophet, and the reformer, deliverer, and judge of Israel. Yet the people, at length ungratefully weary of his mild government, desired a king: and Saul having been placed over them, his family was soon set aside for his disobedience to God; and David was anointed as his successor. The rest of the book is taken up with an account of David's illustrious actions, and the harassing persecutions which he endured, till the death of Saul opened his way to mount the throne. It is not agreed, how many years elapsed during these events; some confining them within eighty years, and others extending them to a hundred and fifteen.-It is evident that this book was extant, when the first book of Kings was written. (Compare 2:35,36. with 1 Kings 2:27.) Almost every subsequent part of Scripture refers to the events recorded in it, as of undoubted certainty: especially very many of the Psalms are poems made on occasion of one or other ot them.-Our Lord and his apostles quote it, as a part of the sacred Oracles. (Matt. 12:3,4. Acts 7:45,46. 13:21, 22.)—The history of David, the son of Jesse, forms a sort of introduction to all the prophecies concerning his family; and especially concerning Christ, who sprang from the root of Jesse, was distinguished as the Son of David, and inherited the throne of David. (l's. 2: 72: 89:19_37. Is. 9:6,7. 11:1-10. Acts 2:25–31.) The narrative itself may in some sense be considered as prophetical, recording many typical events, which bad their accomplishment in Christ. The book likewise contains several direct prophecies concerning the fami. lies of Eli and Saul, which were speedily fulfilled: and the song of Hannah concludes with a prophecy of our Lord, in which he is, for the first time, predicted expressly as the Messiah, the anointed of God. (2:10.)

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B. C. 1140. ATOW there was a certain man of I a Ramathaim-zophim, of mount

Elkanah a Lerite has two wives, 1, 2, He goes yearly to wor

ship at Shiloh, 3. He favors and comforts Hannah, when insulted by Pepinnah on account of her barrenness, 4-8. Hannah in zrief prays for a son, and vows to devote him to God as & perpetual Nazarite, 9 11. Eli through mistake at first rebukes, but afterwards blesses her, 12-18. She bears Samuel, stavs till ne is weaned, and then presents him to God, according to her vow, 19–28.

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-Notes, 1 Chr. 6:16–38.)-Ramathaim-zophim Chap. I. V. 1. Elkanah appears to have been was the place which is afterwards called Ra. a Levite of the family of Kohath. (Marg. Ref.)ll mah; (19) and from the dual number here used,

2 And he had e two wives; the name|| LORD, so she provoked her: therefore she of the one was Hannah, and the name wept, and did not eat. of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah || 8 Then said Elkanah her husband to had children, 'but Hannah had no chil- her, Hannah, P why weepest thou? and dren.

why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart 3 And this man went up out of his city | grieved? I am not I better to thee than * yearly 8 to worship, and to sacrifice unto ten sons? (Practical Observations.) the LORD of hosts in Shiloh: and the 9 So Hannah rose up after they itivo sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had the priests of the LORD, were there. | drunk: (now Eli the priest sat upon a

4. And when the time was that Elka- seat by a post of the temple of the nah k offered, he gave to Peninnah his LORD:) wife, and to all her sons and her daugh-I 10 And she was ll in bitterness of soul, ters, portions.

and prayed unto the LORD, and wept 5 But unto Hannah he gave a tworthy sore. portion: for 'he loved Hannah: but the 11 And she u vowed a vow, and said, LORD had mshut up her womb.

O LORD of hosts, if thou wilt indeed 6 And her "adversary also provok- * look on the affliction of thine handmaid, ed her sore, for to make her fret, because and y remember me, and not forget thine the Lord had shut up her womb. handmaid, but wilt give unto thine hand

7 And as he did so oyear by year, maid "a man-child, then I will give him $ when she went up to the house of the unto the LORD all the days of his life,


e Gen. 4:19. 29:23—29. Judg. 1 18.

p 2 Sam. 12:16,17. 2 Kings 8: Heb. 5:7. 8.30. Matt. 19:8.

k Lev. 3:4,5. 7:15. Deut. 12:17 112. Job 6:14. John 20:13, 15. It Gen. 50:10. Judg. 21:2. 2 Sam. f Gea. 16:1,2. 25:21. 29:31. 18. 16:11.

Thes. 5:14.

| 13:36. 2 Kings 20:3. Jer. 13: Judg. 132. Luke 1:7.

1 Or, double. Gen. 43:34. 45:22. I! 9 Ruth 4:15. Ps. 43:4. Is. 54:1, 17. 22:10. Heb. from year to year. Ex. 1 Gen. 29:30,31. Deut. 21:15.

Gen. 28:20. Num. 21:2. 30-3 23:14,17. 34:23. Deut. 16:16. m Gen. 20:18. 30:2.

r 3:3,15. 2 Sam. 7:2.

-8. Judy. 11:30. Ec. 5:4. Luke 2:41. n Lev. 18:18. Job 6:14.

|| Heb. bitter of soul. Ruth | xGen. 29:32. Ex. 4:31. 2 Sam. Deut. 12:5-7,11-14. Heb. angered her.

1:20. 2 Sam. 17:8. Job 7:11. 16:12. Ps. 25:18. Josh. 18:1. Judg. 18:31. Ps.2:19.

9:18. 10:1. Is. 38:16. 54:6. y 19. Gen. 8:1. 30:22. Ps. 132: 73:60. Jer. 7:12-14. Or, from the time that she, c. Lam. 3:15.

I 1.2. 19. 2:12—17,34. 3:13. 4:4,11,17, | Heb. from the going up.

s Ps. 50:15. 91:15. Luke 22:44. | Heb. seed of men.

it is supposed to have been divided into two | tending on the ministry of those, who appear at parts, upon distinct bills. The word “Zophim” least to be walking heaven-ward themselves, signifies watchmen, perhaps because some watch-as well as teaching others the true way thither, towers and watchmen were stationed there; for and not countenance either heretical teachers, “Ramah" signifies exaltalion: or it might be so or ungodly men. (Notes, Prov. 19:27. 1 John called from Zuph, Elkanah's ancestor.--Ephrath || 4:1-3. 2 John 7-11.) is the same as Beth-lehem; and probably Elka- || V.4–7. After the other appointed sacrifices nah, or bis ancestor Zuph, was called an || had been brought, the peace-offerings were Ephrathite, from being allied in the female line presented, on part of which the offerer feasted to a family of the tribe of Judah, whose inherit- with his family, having given to each a portion. ance lay there; or because he was born at On these occasions Elkanah shewed bis pecul. Ephrath. (Gen. 48:7.)

iar attention to Hannah by the customary in 'V. 2. Hannah seems to have been the first dications; which probably excited the envy and wife of Elkanab: but as she was barren, hell jealousy of Peninnah, as well as her proud probably took Peninnah,(as Abraham took Ha- contempt of Hannah's barrenness; and thus gar,) from an impatient desire of children: great uneasiness was occasioned. (Notes, Gen. (Nole, Gen. 16:1-3.) but the event shewed, || 16:4–6. 37:3.) For Hannah laid ii far more to that in deviating from the original law of mar. || heart than she onght; and her perpetual sor. riage, thongh in a manner then tolerated, he row distressed Elkanah, and greatly interrupt. little consulted his own peace and comfort. led the comfort and benefit of their religious or

V.3. The stated worship at Shiloh was ob- dinances; and this might be one reason why served, but probably in an irregular manner; | Hannah refused to partake of the sacrifices, lest otherwise Elkanah, a Levite, would have had the Lord should be displeased with her for eat. employment at the sanctuary. In those times ing them mourning. (Deut. 26:14. Hos. 9:4. of apostacy and idolatry, when "men abhor- Mal. 2:13. Notes, Neh. 8:9_12.) red the offering of the Lord," through the V. 8. Elkanah seems to have endured Peninwickedness of Eli's sons, (2:17.) it was commend nah's angry and malevolent tempers and conable in Elkanah to go up, though but once a duct with great patience: and he most tenderly year, perhaps at the Passover, to worship the remonstrated with Hannah concerning ber imLord; the original words, however, may mean, moderate grief; and reminded her, that, though that he went up at slaled times, probably at the she had no children, she possessed his affection, three great feasts. The Israelites were confin which would conduce more to her real comfort ed to one place, one altar, and one priesthood; than ten sons would without it: and that there. and therefore Elkanah could not go elsewhere. fore her situation was more desirable than that But, thongh the wickedness of ministers does of Peninnah.—This gentle rebuke prevailed not deprive the pious Christian of the blessing, with her to repress her grief, and perhaps to nor furnish a sufficient excuse for neglecting partake of the sacrifice: but that did not comthe ordinances of God; yet we, not being under fort her heart, till she had poured it out in a similar limitation, should certainly prefer at-il prayer. (18. Note, 9-11.)

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