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tables, were piled, which were carved out of the solid wood, and being of rude workmanship, were clumsy and ill-shaped. In all probability these were the reclining stools before spoken of. The natives termed them "the seats of their god." Their gods, or idols,-tui-tokelau,— were placed on the outside, near by. The largest of these was fourteen feet high and eighteen inches in diameter. This was covered or enveloped in mats, and over all a narrow one was passed, shawlfashion, and tied in a knot in front, with the ends hanging down. The smaller idol was of stone, and four feet high, but only partially covered with mats. About ten feet in front of the idols was one of the hewn tables, which was hollowed out: it was four feet long by three broad, and the same in height. Near these was seen the barrel of a small windlass, which the natives said had belonged to a small vessel formerly wrecked on the island, and that only two of the men had been saved, who had since died. This was not the only relic of the disaster, for some of the beams were also seen. Mr. Hale made many inquiries relative to this matter, and they gave him the names of the men who were saved. He surmises, from their having Polynesian terminations, that it might have been a vessel with Sandwich Islanders on board, and he is somewhat strengthened in this opinion by finding the word "debolo" in use among them. The word had puzzled him at first, for the Sandwich Islanders had adopted it to express "the devil." There it was used as "o debolo," and signified an ancient god, Atua tafito.
In the male, around the largest pillar, were many spears and clubs, all much battered and worn, which had likewise been picked up from the sea, and resembled those of Feejee and Samoa. These were called "la-kau-tau" (wood of war); but they had no specific name for the different kinds. These were the only warlike weapons seen among them. A number of war-conchs were on the tables.
The well which supplied water was a short distance from the malæ. It was walled up, was about fifteen feet deep, and surrounded on the top by a high fence. The water was about two feet deep, and great care was taken to preserve it clean and pure.
The part of the town facing the sea was built up with a very good stone wall; along this were several small houses, while on the shore of the lagoon was a row of canoe-houses, some fifty in number. The canoes were some distance off in the lagoon, filled with the women and children.
Although they showed a decided disapprobation of the presence of our officers, yet they made no opposition to their examining the village. In some of the houses were found children and a few women; the old queen was discovered, hid under a mat, who, when found, was in great
terror. In contrast with the old queen, the younger females appeared very good-looking and well shaped.
The natives all showed a constant anxiety for the departure of our people, frequently repeating expressions which were interpreted that they were tired of their company; but all this time they carried on an active trade, and exhibited their thieving disposition very strongly. The officers lost many small articles, which were pilfered very dexterously; and if any things were dropped or suffered to be out of sight a moment, they were instantly concealed or made away with. Mr. Rich, when near the boat, gave his botanical collecting-case to a native to hold, who, the moment his back was turned, ran off with it; and it required a hard chase to overtake him.
In one part of the village, two drums were seen: one of these was a trough resembling those at the Feejee and Tonga Islands; the other was a cylindrical frame, set upright in the ground, with a piece of shark's skin drawn tightly over it, like those of Hawaii: the latter was beaten like our drums, with two sticks, and was intended as an accompaniment to dancing; for when it was beaten, the natives began that exercise. The motions of the dance were similar to those observed in other parts of Polynesia, only more varied.
The younger portion of the community, of both sexes, were naked ; while those more advanced in life wore the maro, which in the men was from six to eighteen inches wide. Some of these were very fine in texture, and bordered with fringe. The maro worn by the elder and it was presumed married women, consisted of a great number of leaves tied to a cord, and then slit into fine threads. These were kept well oiled and perfectly pliable, and formed a huge apron, resembling a bundle of straw tied around the loins: it was almost impossible to conceive a more unwieldy or ridiculous dress; its weight was about fifty pounds, which may give some idea of its size; if it were rolled up, it would never have been recognised as a part of female attire.
Their ornaments consisted of necklaces of shells and bone, ear-rings of the same, and false curls in front. It was observed, that their hair appeared to be thinner than that of the other islanders, though their heads did not approach to baldness.
In manufactures they seemed quite apt. They had two kinds of mats, the one about four feet square for sleeping, the other for clothing: they evinced some ingenuity in these, as well as in their fish-hooks, which were made of bone, shark's teeth, and shell; many of these were small and remarkably neat. They also had saws and files, formed of shark's skin stretched on sticks, which in their hands were quite
effective in wearing away the soft wood, &c. The construction of their drill was ingenious: it was pointed with a hard stone, and the mode of using it and producing the circular motion can be more readily comprehended by reference to the wood-cut.
The motion is communicated by a vertical movement of the hand, and when practised by a native, is exceedingly rapid. Their boxes or buckets are of various sizes, from the capacity of a gill to that of a gallon; they are cut out of the solid wood, and the top or lid is fitted in a neat manner. These are used to keep their fish-hooks and other small articles in, to preserve them from the wet. Like the natives of Oatafu, they do not appear to cultivate any thing, but derive their food from the cocoa-nut and pandanus, which are the only edible vegetable articles that grow on the island; but the far greater portion of their food is drawn from the sea. That they have sufficient nutriment, is amply proved by their robust and healthy looks.
The population of this island is supposed to be about six hundred souls, most of whom dwell in the town. Those that were seen on Oatafu are supposed to belong to this island also; and it will be remembered that their canoes were there double ones, while all those seen at Bowditch Island were single. Throughout all Polynesia the double canoe is used in navigating from island to island. This will reconcile the fact that Oatafu, or Duke of York Island, when first visited, was found uninhabited, as is particularly mentioned by its discoverer.
After a stay of three hours at their town, Captain Hudson yielded to the pressing desire of the natives to get rid of him, and ordered all the officers and men to the boats. The natives showed their delight at this move, and were very assiduous in assisting their visiters to embark. The confusion of embarkation was taken advantage of by them, and numerous small articles were stolen, which were not missed till afterwards. Many of these thefts were committed in the most barefaced manner, and it is believed that they would have gone to much greater lengths, if they had not been restrained by their fears.
Along the coral reef were walls of coral, in the form of piers, eight or ten feet high, and from twenty-five to thirty feet long.
There was no sign of places for cooking, nor any appearance of fire, and it is believed that all their provisions are eaten raw. What strengthened this opinion, was the alarm the natives felt when they saw the sparks emanating from the flint and steel, and the emission of smoke from the mouths of those who were smoking cigars.
Dip and intensity observations were made here.
Upon reaching the ship, Captain Hudson determined to bear away for the situation of the island of the Gente Hermosas of Quiros.
They had reached the vicinity on the 31st of January, where they searched until the following day, when they made land, but were unable to finish the survey of the island for four days. Boats were sent to effect a landing, but the surf was found to be too heavy, and one that approached too near was caught in the rollers and thrown on the coral reef, fortunately without harm to any of the crew; the boat, however, was somewhat injured.
The position of this island is in longitude 170° 55′ 15′′ W., and latitude 11° 05′ S.; it is of coral formation, but has no lagoon; it is nearly round, and four miles and three-tenths in circumference; it may be classed with the high coral islands, and is elevated from fifteen to twenty-five feet above the level of the sea; it is well wooded with cocoa-nuts, pandanus, and other trees and shrubs. The sea breaks constantly on all parts, and no safe landing exists. Its situation differs from the position laid down for that of Quiros. Captain Hudson therefore called it Swain's Island, after the master of a whaler, who had informed him of its existence. When within a mile of the island, no bottom could be had with two hundred fathoms of line. This isolated spot gave no other evidence of its ever having been inhabited, except the groves of cocoa-nut trees. Pigeons, similar to those seen at the Samoan Group, were observed.
After securing observations for its position, the vessels bore away for Upolu, with the westerly breeze, which had continued for the last eight days, and been almost constant. This will serve to show that there is no real difficulty in the population of Polynesia migrating from west to east during this season of the year, when the trade-winds are almost entirely interrupted.
Until the 4th of February they had bad weather, and heavy squalls accompanied with thunder and lightning.
On the 5th of February, the mountains of Savaii were dimly visible, although they were between fifty and sixty miles off. On the 6th, they were off the island of Upolu, when Captain Hudson, to lose no time, despatched the tender, with two boats, to survey the south side of the island, while the launch, with the first cutter, was
to be sent round its east end, in order to complete the work in the least possible time. In the afternoon, the Peacock anchored in Apia Harbour.
Many minor things at Apia had changed, after an absence of fifteen months. Much of this was to be imputed to the different season of the year, it being now the rainy season; and from this cause, the luxuriance of growth had enveloped every thing in a sprightly green, that embosomed the village and white walls of the new church, of which the foundation was just laid at our former visit.
The day of their arrival was the Samoan Sabbath, and all was quiet and peaceful. Some of the officers landed in the afternoon, and were greeted by many of their old friends.
The improvements, beside the church, were a store and dwellinghouse, built by Mr. Cunningham, Her Britannic Majesty's Vice-Consul, who is likewise about erecting a saw-mill. The church is a very creditable building, and quite neat in its appearance, with walls of stone, and roofed after the native fashion. Near by are deposited the bones of the lamented missionary, Mr. Williams, and of Mr. Harris, which were brought here from Erromango by H. B. M. sloop Favourite, Captain Croker, who himself has since fallen in his endeavours to forward the missionary cause.
The missionary brig Camden, which had just returned from a cruise to Raratonga Island, was at anchor in the harbour.
As this was the season of bad weather, Captain Hudson made every arrangement to meet it; for the harbour of Apia is somewhat exposed to both the sea and the north wind, from which quarter it is said to blow most violently.
On the 12th of December preceding, they had experienced there a violent hurricane, which had blown down many trees, and done a great deal of damage to the fruit.
We are indebted to Mr. Cunningham for some observations on this storm, which are as follows.
On the 12th of December, 1840, they had light winds. from the southeast, the upper strata of clouds flying from southwest. The wind continued to increase until the 16th, when heavy squalls 'were experienced from the northeast. At 2 A. M. the wind was very heavy from the southeast, accompanied with rain, and some houses were blown down; at half-past two, the gusts were very heavy from the south-southeast. The barometer, although an injured one, fell as low as 24 in., its ordinary standing being 28 in.; the temperature was 88°. At 6 A. M., the wind again rose with rapidity, blowing down houses and trees, stripping them of their leaves, which filled the air in all