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should happen to your Lordship, who could bring into the service of your sovereign the arts and policies of ancient Greece and Rome; as well as the moft exact knowledge of our own conftitution in particular, and of the interests of Europe in general; to which I must also add, a certain dignity in Yourself, that (to say the least of it) has been always equal to those great honours which have been conferred upon You. It is very

well known how much the Church owed to You in the most dangerous day it ever faw, that of the arraignment of its prelates ; and how far the Civil Power, in the late and present reign, has been indebted to your counsels and wisdom.

But to enumerate the great advantages which the publick has received from your adminiftration, would be a more proper work for an history than for an address of this nature,

Your Lordship appears as great in your private life, as in the most important offices which You have born. I would therefore rather choose to speak of the pleasure You afford all who are admitted into your conversation, of Your elegant tafte in all the polite parts of learning, of Your great humanity and complacency of manners, and of the surprising influence which is peculiar to You in making every one who converses with Your Lordship, prefer You to himself, without thinking the less meanly of his own talents. But if I should take notice of all that might be observed in Your Lordship, I should have nothing new to say upon any other character of Distinction.

I am, My LORD,
Your Lordship’s most obedient,
Most devoted, humble Servant,

The SPECTATOR.

Τ Η Ε

S P E C T A T O R.

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No .. THURSDAY, MARCH 1,1710-11. *publick exercises of the college, I scarce uttered

the quantity of an hundred words; and, indeed, Non fumum ex falgore, fed ex fumo dare lucem do not remember that I ever spoke three sentences Cogitat, ut speciosa dehinc miracula promat. together in my whole life. Whilft I was in

HOR. Ars Poet. ver. 143. learned body, I applied myself with so muc'i One with a Haih begins, and ends in smoke; gence to my studies, that there are very few reThe other out of smoke brings glorious light,

brated books, either in the learned or the modern And (without raising expectation high)

tongues, which I am not acquainted with. Surprizes us with dazzling miracles. Roscommon. travel into foreign countries; and therefore left

Upon the death of my father, I was resolved to HAVE obferved, that a reader seldom peruses the university, with the character of an odd, un

a book with pleasure, till he knows whether accountable fellow, that had a great deal of learn. the writer of it be a black or a fair man, of a mild ing, if I would but thew it. An insatiable thirst or choleric difpofition, married or a bachelor; after knowledge carried me into all the countries with other particulars of the like nature, that con- of Europe, in which there was any thing new or duce very much to the right understanding of an strange to be seen; nay, to such a degree was my author. To gratify this curiosity, which is so na- curiosity raised, that having read the controversies tural to a reader, I design this paper and my next of some great men concerning the antiquities of das prefatory discourses to my following writings, Egypt, I made a voyage to Grand Cairo, on purand Thall give some account in them of the several' pose to take the measure of a pyramid ; and as 100n persons that are engaged in this work. As the chief as I had set myself right in that particular, retrouble of compiling, digesting, and correcting, turned to my native country with great satisfaction, will fall to my share, I inust do myself the justice I have passed my latter years in this city, where to open the work with my own history.

I am frequently seen in moit public places, though I was born to a small hereditary estate, which, there are not above half a dozen of my select friends. according to the tradition of the village where it that know me; of whom my next paper fall give lies, was bounded by the same hedges and ditches a more particular account. There is 110 place of in William the Conqueror's time that it is at pre- general resort, wherein I do not often make my fent, and has been delivered down from father to appearance; sometimes I am seen thrusting my fon whcle and entire, without the loss or acqui. head into a round of politicians at Will's, and lifsition of a single field or meadow, during the space tening with great attention to the narratives that of six hundred years. There runs a story in the are made in those little circular audiences. Some. family, that when my mother was gone with child times I finoke a pipe at Child's, and whilft I seem of me about three months, the dreamt that the attentive to notlıing but the Portman, overhear the *as brought to bed of a judge: Whether tliis conversation of every table in the room. I appear might proceed from a law-suit which was then on Sunday nights at St. James's corfee-house; and depending in the family, or my father's being a sometimes join the little committee of politicks justice of the peace, I cannot determine; for I in the inner room, as one who comes there to hear am not so vain as to think it prefaged ary dignity and improve. My face is likewise very well known t'iat I should arrive at in my future life, though at the Grecian, the Cocoa-Tree, and in the clicaties that wa the interpretation wirich the neighbour- both of Drury-Lane and the Hay-Market. I have bood put upon it. The gravity of my behaviour been taken for a merchant upon the Exchange for at my very first appearance in the world, and all above these ten years, and fonetimes país los a the time that I fucked, seenied to favour my mo- Jew in the assembly of 1tock-jobbers at Jonathan's, ther's dream ; for, as she has often told me, I in mort, wherever I see a cluster of people, ! :threw away my rattle before I wis two incntlıs ways inix with them, though I never open niy öld, and would not inake use of my coral until lips bur in my own club. they had taken away the bells from it.

Thus I live in the world rather as a speciator of As for the rest of my infancy, there being 110. mankind, than as one of the fpecies by wcia thing in it remarkable, i' ihall pass it over in silence. rpeano I have made myself a fpeculativostutelma!, I find, ther, during my nonage, I had the reputa. ididier, merchant, and artii, without the met tion of a váry fullcn youtlı; but was always a sa- dling with any pract cal part in life. lam very vourite of my ichoolnaitcr, who used to say, “that well versed in the theory of a huband or a father, my parts were sclid, and would wear vell.” I and candiscernche error int.ccconomy.bufiner, hari not been long at the iniversity, before I dif- and diversion of others, better than thoi who are tingui el myself by a most; rofund silence; for engaged in them; as lianders--by discover blous, during the space of eigent yearò, excepting in the which are ap: to escape those who are its tie santé

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I never espoused any party with violence, and am grand father was inventor of that famous counrefoived to observe an exact neutrality between the try-dance which is called after him. All who Whigs and Tories, unless I shall be forced to declare know that shire are very well acquainted with myself by the hostilities of either side. In short, I the parts and merits of Sir Roger. He is a have acted in all the parts of my life as a looker-on, gentleman that is very singular in his behavi. which is the character I intend to preserve in this our, but his fingularities proceed from his good paper.

sense, and are contradictions to the manners of I have given the reader just so much of my history the world, only as he thinks the world is in the and character, as to let him sec I am not altogether wrong. However, this humour creates him no unqualified for the business I have undertaken. As enemies, for he does nothing with fourness or obfor other particulars in my life and adventures, I ftinacy; and his being unconfined to modes and Thall insert them in following papers as I shall see forms makes him but the readier and more caoccasion. In the mean time, when I confider how pable to please and oblige all who know him. much I have seen, read, and heard, I begin to blame When he is in town, he lives in Soho-Square. It my own taciturnity; and since I have neither time is said, he keeps himself a bachelor, by reason he por inclination to communicate the fulness of my was crosed in love by a perverse beautiful widow heart in speech, I am resolved to do it in writing, of the next county to him. Before this disappointand to print myself out, if possible, before I die. ment, Sir Roger was what you call a fine gentleI have been often told by my friends, that it is pity man, had often fupped with my Lord Rochester and so many usefuldiscoveries which I have made should Sir George Etherage, fought a duel upon his first be in the possession of a filent man. For this reason coming to town, and kicked Bully Dawson in a therefore, I shall publish a sheet-full of thoughts public coffee-house for calling him youngster. But every morning, for the benefit of my contenapo- being ill-used by the above-mentioned widow, he raries; and if I can any way contribute to the di- was very serious for a year and a half; and though, version or improvement of the country in which I his temper being naturally jovial, he at last got live, I shall leave it, when I am summoned out of over it, he grew careless of himself, and never it, with the secret satisfaction of thinking that I dresled afterwards. He continues to wear a coat have not lived in vain.

and doublet of the same cut that were in fashion at There are three very material points which I have the time of his repulse, which, in his merry hunot spoken to in this paper; and which, for several mours, he tells us, has been in and out twelve important reasons, I must keep to myself, at least times since he firit wore it. It is said Sir Roger for some time : I mean, an account of my name,

grew humble in his desires after he had forgot this my age, and my lodgings. I muit confess, I would cruel beauty, insomuch, that it is reported he has gratify my Reader in any thing that is reasonable; frequently offended in point of chastity with beggars but as for these three particulars, though I am sen- and gypsies: but this is looked upon by his friends fible they might tend very much to the embellish- rather as a matter of raillery than truth. He is ment of my paper, I cannot yet come to a resolution now in the fixty-sixth year, chearful, gay and hearty ; of communicating them to the Public. They would keeps a good house both in town and country; a indeed draw me out of that obfcurity which I have great lover of mankind; but there is such a mirthenjoyed for many years, and exposé me in public ful cast in his behaviour, that he is rather beloved places to several fálutes and civilities, which have than esteemed. His tenants grow rich, his serbeen always very disagrecable to me; for the

vants look satisfied, all the young women profess greatest pain I can suffer is, the being talked co, love to him, and the young men are glad of his and being ftared at. It is for this reason likewise, company; when he comes into a houle, he calls that I keep my complexion and dress as very great the servants by their names, and talks all the way secrets; though it is not impossible, but I may make up-stairs to a visit. I must not omit, that sie discoveries of both, in the progress of the work I Roger is a justice of the Quorum; that he fills the have undertaken.

chair at a quarter-feflion with great abilities, and After having been thus particular upon myself, I three months ago gained univerial applause by exMall in to-morrow's paper give an account of those plaining a passage in the game-act. Gentlemen who are concerned with me in this

The Gentleman next in eltcem and authority work; for, as I have before intimated, a plan of it among us, is another bachelor, who is a memis laid and concerted, as all other matters of im

ber of the Inner-Temple; a man of great probity, portance are, in a club. However, as my friends wit, and understanding; but he has chosen his have engaged me to stand in the front, those, who place of refidence, rather to obey the direction of an have a mind to correspond with me, may direct old humoursome father, than in purluit of his own their letters to the Speciator, at Mr. Buckley's, in inclinations. He was placed there to ftudy the Lircle-Britain. For I must further acquaint the laws of the land, and is the most learned of any reader, that though our club meets only on Tuef- of the house in those of the stage. Aristotle and days and Thursdays, we have appointed a committee Longinus aro much better underitood by him than to fit every night for the inspection of all such pa.

Littlecon or Coke. The father feads up evepers as may contribute to the advancement of the ry post questions relating to marriage-articles, public weal.

teases, and tenures, in the neighburhood; all wlaicó questions ho agrees with an attorney to an

fwer and take care of in the lump, He is liudying FRIDAY, MARCH 2,

the passions themselves, when he should be enEx alii sex

quiring into the debates among men which arise Et plures uno conclament øre----Juv. Sat. 7. v. 167. from them. · He knows tha argument of each of

the orations of Demosthence and Tully; but nat Six more at leaft join their consenting voice.

one care lo the reports of our own courts. No one DIE of society is a of ever him a , but , except his met, dis game Sir Roger de Coocring. His vient This turn make him at orice bollen

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and agrecable: as few of his thoughts are drawn the man who would make a figure, especially in a from business, they are most of them fit for con- military way, must get over all false modefty, and versation. His taste of books is a little too just for alfist his patron against the importunity of other the age he lives in; he has read all but approves pretenders, by a proper assurance in his own vindicaof very few. His familiarity with the customs, tion. He says it is a civil cowardice to be backward manners, actions, and writings of the ancients, in afferting what you ought to expect, as it is a makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs military fear to be slow in attacking when it is your to him in the present world. He is an excellent duty. With this candour does the Gentleman speak critick, and the time of the play is his hour of of himself and others. The same frankness runs business ; exactly at five he passes through New- through all his conversation. The military part of Inn, crosses through Russel-Court, and takes a turn his life has furnished him with many adventures, at Will's till the play begins; he has his shoes in the relation of which he is very agreeable to the rubbed and his periwig powdered at the barber's as company; for he is never overbearing, though acyou go in to the Rose. It is for the good of the customed to command men in the utmost degree audience when he is at the play, for the actors below him ; nor ever too obsequious, from an habit have an ambition to please him.

of obeying men highly above him. The person of next confideration is Sir Andrew. But that our society may not appear a set of hu. Freeport, a merchant of great eminence in the city mourists, unacquainted with the gallantries and of London; a person of indefatigable industry, pleasures of the age, we have among us the gallant strong reason, and great experience. His notions Will Honeycomb; a Gentleman, who according to of trade are noble and generous, and (as every his years thould be in the decline of his life; but sich man has usually some sy way of jefting, which having ever been very careful of his person, and would make no great figure were he not a rich always had a very easy fortune, time has made but man) he calls the sea the British Common. He is a very little impresion, either by wrinkles on his acquainted with commerce in all its parts, and will forehead, or traces in his brain. His person is well tell you, that it is a Itupid and barbarous way to turned, of a good height. He is very ready at that extend dominion by arms; for true power is to be sort of discourse with which men usually entercain got by arts and industry. He will often argue, that if women. He has all his life dressed very well, and this part of our trade were well cultivated, we should remembers habits as others do men. He can smile gain from one nation; and if another, from ano- when one speaks to him, and laughs easily. He ther. I have heard him prove, diligence makes more knows the history of every mode, and can inform lafting acquisitions than valour, and that noth has you from which of the French king's wenches our ruined more nations than the sword. He abourds wives and daughters had this manner of curling in several frugal maxims, among which the great- their hair, that way of placing their hoods; whose eft favorite is, ' A penny saved is a penny got.' frailty was covered by such a sort of petticoat, and A general trader of good sense is pleasanter com- whose vanity to thew her foot made that part of the pany than a general scholar; and Sir Andrew hav- dress so short in such a year. In a word, all his ing'a natural unaffected eloquence, the perspicuity conversation and knowledge have been in the female of his discourse gives the same pleasure that wit world. As other men of his age will take notice would do in another man. He has made his for- to you what such a minister said upon fuch an octunes himself; and says that England may be richer cafion; he will tell you, when the Duke of Monthan other kingdoms, by as plain' methods as he mouth danced at court, such a woman was then himself is richer than other men ; though at the smitten; anather was taken with him at the head same time I can say this of him, that there is not of his troop in the Park. In all these important a point in the compass but blows home a frip in relations, he has ever about the same time received which he is an owner.

a kind glance or a blow of a fan from fome celeNext to Sir Andrew in the club-room sits Cap, brated beauty, mother of the present Lord fuch-atain Sentry, a Gentleman of great courage, good one. If you speak of a young commoner that said underftanding, but invincible modesty. He is one a lively thing in the house, he starts up, “ He has of those that deserve very well, but are very “ good blood in his veins; Tom Mirabell begat aukward at putting their talents within the obser- “ him; the rogue cheated me in that affair, that vation of such as should take notice of them. He

young fellow's mother used me more like a dog, was some years a captain, and behaved himself with “ than any woman I ever made advances to." This great gallantry in several sieges; but having a small way of talking of his very much enlivens the eftate of his own, and being next heir to Sir Roger, conversation among us of a more sedate turn; and he has quitted a way of life in which no man can I find there is not one of the company, but myself, rise suitably to his merit, who is not something of who rarely speak at all, but speaks of him as of that a courtier, as well as a soldier. I have heard him fort of man who is usually called a well-bred fine often lament, that in a profession where merit is Gentleman. To conclude his character, where placed in so conspicuous a view, impudence should women are not concerned, he is an honest worthy get the better of modesty. When he has talked to this purpose, I never heard him make a sour ex- I cannot tell whether I am to account him, whom preilion, but frankly confess that he left the world I am next to speak of, 'as one of our company; for because he was not fit for it. A strict honefty, and he visits us but seldom, but, when he does, it adds an even regular 'benzviour, are in themselves ob- to every man elle a new enjoyment of himself. He Racles to him that must press through crowds, is a clergyman, a very philosophick man, of general who endeavour at the same end with himself, the learning, great sanctity of life, and the most exact favour of a commander. He will however in his good-breeding. He has the misfortune to be of a way of talk excufe Generals, for not dispoling ac- very weak conftitution, and consequently cannot cording to mens desert, or inquiring into it, for, accept of such cares and business as preferments in says he, that great man who has a mind to help me, his function would oblige him to; he is therefore has as many to break through to come at me, as I have annong divines what a chamber-counsellor is among to come at him: therefore he will conclude that lawyers. The probity of bis mind, and the inte

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grity of his life, create him followers; as being tary consumptions, that, in the twinkling of an eloquent or loud advances others. He feldom intro- eye, the 'would fall away from the moit florid duces the subject he speaks upon; but we are so far complection, and the most healthful state of body, gone in years, that he observes when he is among and wither into a skeleton. Her recoveries were us, an earnestness to have him fall on some divine often as sudden as her decays, insomuch that the topic, which he always treats with nuch authority, would revive in a moment out of a wasting diftemas one who has no interests in this world, as one per into a habit of the higheit health and vigour. who is hattening to the object of all his wishes, and I had very soon an opportunity of observing conceives hope from his decays and infirmities. these quick turns and changes in her constitution: These are my ordinary companions.

R There sat at her feet a couple of secretaries, who

received every hour letters from all parts of the
world, which the one or the other of them was

perpetually reading to her; and, according to the N° 3. SATURDAY, MARCH 3. news she heard, to which she was exceedingly atEt quoi quisque fcrè ftudio devinetus adhæret,

tentive, the changed colour, and discovered many Aut quibus in rebus multum jumus antè morati,

symptoms of health or fickness. Arque in qua ratione fuit contenta magis mens,

Behind the throne was a prodigious heap of bags in fomnis eadem plerumque videmur obire.

of money, which were piled upon one another fa

high that they touched the cieling. The floor, on Lucr. I. 4. v. 959. her right hand and on her left, was covered with -What studies please, what most delight,

vast sums of gold that rose up in pyramids on either And fill mens thoughts, they dream them u'er at fide of her : but this I did not so much wonde“ at, night.

CREECH. when I heard, upon inquiry, that she had the

same virtue in her touch, which the poets tell us N one of mylate rambles, or rather speculations, a Lydian king was formerl; pofleffed of; and that I looked into the great hall where the bank is the could convert whatever the pleased into that kept, and was not a little pleased to see the direc- precious metal. tors, secretaries, and clerks, with all the other After a little dizziness, and confused hurry of members of that wealthy corporation, ranged in thought, which a man often meets with in a their leveral stations, according to the parts they dream, methought the hall was alarmed, the doors act in that just-and regular æconomy. This revived flew open, and there entered half a dozen of the in my memory the many discourses which I had moft hideous phantoins that ļ had ever seen, even both read and heard concerning the decay of public in a dream, before that time. They came in two by credit, with the methods of restoring it, and which, two, though inatched in the most dissociable manin my opinion, have always been defective, because ner, and mingled together in a kind of dance, they have always been made with an eye to separate it would be tedious to describe their habits and interests, and party principles.

persons; for which reason, I shall only inform my The thoughts of the day gave my mind employ- /reader that the firft couple were Tyranny and Ament for the whole night, so that I fell insensibly narchy, the second were Bigorry and Atheism, the into a kind of methodical dream, which disposed third, the Genius of a Commonwealth, and a ali my. contemplations into i vifion or allegory, or

young man of about twenty-two years of age, what elic the reader snall please to call it.

whose name I could not learn. He had a sword Methought I returned to the great hall, where I in his right hand, which in the dance he often had been the morning before, but, to my surprise, brandished at the Act of Settlement; and a citiiritead of the company that I left there, I saw, to- zen, who stood by me, whispered in my ear, that wards the upper end of the hall, a beautiful virgin, he saw a sponge in his left hand. The dance of feated on a throne of gold. Her name (as they told so many jarring natures put me in mind of the sun, me) was Public Credit. The walls, initead of being moon, and earth, in the Rehearsal, that danced adorned with pictures and maps, were hung with together for no other end but to eclipse one ano many acts of parliament written in golden letters. ther. at the upper end of the hall was the Magna Charta, The reader will easily suppose, by what has with the act of uniformity on the right hand, and been before said, that the Lady on the throne would the act of toleration on the left. At the lower end have been almost frighted to distraction, had the of the hall was the act of Settlement, which was

seen but any one of these spect es; what then placed full in the eye of the virgin that sat upon must have been her condition when the saw them the throne. Both the tides of the hail were covered all in a body? She fainted and died away at the with such acts of parliament as had been made for fight. the establishineat of public funds. The Lady Et neque jam color eft mifo candore rubori; seemed to let an unspeakable value upon these se

Nec vigor, & vires, qua

inodò visa placebant ; verai pieces of furniture, iníomuch that the often

Nec corpus remanet--

Ovid. Met. 1.

3. V 491. refreshed her eye with them, and often smiled with

Hier spirits faint, a secret pleasure as the looked upon them; but, ac Her blooming cheks afiume a palid teint, the fame time, thewed a very particular uneafiress, And scarce her form remain's. it the saw any thing approaching that might hurt There was as great a change in the hill of mo. thom. She appeared indeed infinitely timorous in ney-bags, and the heaps of money, the former a!! her behaviour: and, wither it was from the frinking and falling into so many empty bags, delicacy of her constitution, or that she was trou- that I now found not above a tenth part of them bied with vapours, as I was afterwards told by had been filled with money. The reít that took one who I rund was none of her well-wishers, the up the same space, and made the same figure as changed colour, and ítartled at every thing the the bays that were really filled with money, had heard. She was likewise (as i afterwards found) a been blown up with air, and called into my me. greater valetudinarian than any i had ever met with mory" the bags full of wind, which Homer tells us cven in her own tex, and subject to tuch momen

his fiero received as a present from Æolus. The

* great

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