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No 64. MONDAY, MAY 14.
-Hic vivimus ambitiofâ
Paupertate omnes—


admired in the Gazette. But whatever compliments may be made on these occafions, the true mourners are the mercers, filkmen, lacemen, and milliners. A prince of a merciful and royal difpofition would reflect with great anxiety upon the profpect of his death, if he confidered what numbers would be reduced to mifery by that accident only; who would think it of moment enough to direct, that in the notification of his departure, the honour done to him might be reftrained to thofe of the houfhold of the prince to whom it fhould be fignified. He would think a general mourning to be in a lefs degree the fame ceremony which is practifed in barbarous nations, of killing their flaves to attend the obfequies of their kings.


Juv. Sat. iii. 183. The face of wealth in poverty we wear. HE most improper things we commit in the conduct of our lives, we are led into by the force of fashion. Inftances might be given, in which a prevailing cuftom makes us act against the rules of nature, law, and common fenfe; but at prefent I fhall confine my confideration of the effect it has upon men's minds, by looking into our behaviour when it is the fashion to go into mourning. The custom of representing the grief we have for the tofs of the dead by our habits, certainly had its rife from the real forrow of fuch as were too much diftreffed to take the proper care they ought of their drefs. By degrees it prevailed, that fuch as had this inward oppreffion upon their minds, made an apology for not joining with the reft of the world in their ordinary diverfions by drefs fuited to their condition. This therefore was at first affumed by fuch only as were under real diftrefs; to whom it was a relief that they had nothing about them fo light and gay as to be irkfome to the gloom and melancholy of their inward reflections, or that might mifreprefent them to others. In procefs of time this laudable diftinction of the forrowful was loft, and mourning is now worn by heirs and widows. You fee nothing but magnificence and folemnity in the equipage of the relict, and an air of releafe from fervitude in the pomp of a fon who has loft a wealthy father. This fafhion of forrow is now become a generous part of the ceremonial between princes and fovereigns, who in the language of all nations are filed brothers to each other, and put on the purple upon the death of any potentate with whom they live in amity. Courtiers, and all who with themfelves fuch, are immediately feized with grief from head to foot upon this difafter to their prince; fo that one may know, by the very buckles of a gentleman-ufher, what degree of friendfhip any deceafed monarch maintained with the court to which he belongs. A good courtier's habit and behaviour is hieroglyphical on these occaLions; he deals much in whispers, and you may fee he dreffes according to the best intelligence. The general affectation among men, of appearing greater than they are, makes the whole world run into the habit of the court. You fee the lady, who the day before was as various as a rainbow, upon the time appointed for beginning to mourn, as dark as a cloud. This humour does not prevail only on those whofe fortunes can fupport any change in their equipage, not on thofe only whofe incomes demand the wantonnefs of new appearances; but on fuch alfo who have just enough to clothe them. An old acquaintance of mine, of ninety pounds a year, who has naturally the vanity of being a man of fashion deep at his heart, is very much put to it to bear the mortality of princes. He made a new black fuit upon the death of the King of Spain, he turned it for the King of Portugal, and he now keeps his chamber while it is fcouring for the emperor. He is a good eco-alty. nomist in his extravagance, and makes only a fresh Hack button upon his iron-gray fait for any potntate of fmall territories; he indeed adds his crape hatband for a prince whofe exploits he has.

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I had been wonderfully at a lofs for many months together, to guess at the character of a man who came now and then to our coffee-houfe; he ever ended a news-paper with this reflection, Well, I fee all the foreign princes are in good health.' If you asked, Pray Sir, what fays the Poftman from Vienna? he answered, ' Make us thankful, the German princes are all well.' What does he fay from Barcelona? He does not fpeak but that the country agrees very well with the new queen.' After very much inquiry, I found this man of univerfal loyalty was a wholefale dealer in filks and ribbons; his way is, it feems, if he hires a weaver, or workman, to have it inferted in his articles, That all this fhall be well and truly performed, provided no foreign potentate shall depart this life within the time abovementioned. It happens in all public mournings, that the many trades which depend upon our habits, are during that folly either pinched with prefent want, or terrified with the apparent approach of it. All the atonement which men can make for wanton expences, which is a fort of infulting the fcarcity under which others labour, is, that the fuperfluities of the wealthy give fupplies to the neceffities of the poor; but, inftead of any other good arifing from the affectation of being in courtly habits of mourning, all order feems to be destroyed by it; and the true honour, which one court does to another on that occafion, lofes its force and efficacy. When a fo. reign minifter beholds the court of a nation, which flourishes in riches and plenty, lay afide, upon the lofs of his master, all marks of fplendor and magnificence, though the head of fuch a joyful people, he will conceive a greater idea of the honour done his mafter, than when he fees the generality of the people in the fame habit. When one is afraid to afk the wife of a tradefman whom she has loft of her family; and after fome preparation endeavours to know whom the mourns for; how ridiculous is it to hear her explain herself, that we have loft one of the house of Auftria? Princes are elevated fo highly above the rest of mankind, that it is a prefumptuous diftinction to take a part in honours done to their memories, except we have authority for it, by being related in a particular manner to the court which pays that veneration to their friendship, and feems to exprefs on fuch an occafion the fenfe of the uncertainty of human life in general, by affuming the habit of forrow, though in the full poffettion of triumph and roy



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Demetrius and Tigellius, know your place;
Go hence, and whine among the fchool-boy race.
FTER having at large explained what wit

Now for Mrs. Harriot; fhe laughs at obedience to an absent mother, whofe tenderness Bufy defcribes to be very exquifite, for that the is fo "pleased with finding Harriot again, that the "cannot chide her for being out of the way." This witty daughter, and fine lady, has fo little refpect for this good woman, that the ridicules her air in taking leave, and cries, "In what "ftruggle is my poor mother yonder? See, see "her head tottering, her eyes staring, and her un

Ais, and defcribed the falfe appearances of "der-lip trembling," But all this is atoned for,

"in her looks that makes it so surprising!" Then to recommend her as a fit fpoufe for his hero, the poet makes her speak her fenfe of marriage very ingenioufly; "I think," fays fhe, "I might be brought to endure him, and that is all a reafonable woman fhould expect in an husband." It is, methinks, unnatural that we are not made to understand how the that was bred under a filly pious old mother, that would never trust her out of her fight, came to be so polite.

it, all that labour feems but an ufelefs inquiry, because he has more wit than is usual in her without fome time be spent in confidering the ap- "fex, and as much malice, though fhe is as wild. plication of it. The feat of wit, when one speaks" as you would with her, and has a demureners as a man of the town and the world, is the playhouse; I fhall therefore fill this paper with reflections upon the use of it in that place. The application of wit in the theatre has as ftrong an affect upon the manners of our gentlemen, as the tafte of it has upon the writings of our authors. It may, perhaps, look like a very prefumptuous work, though not foreign from the duty of a Spectator, to tax the writings of fuch as have long had the general applause of a nation; but I fhall always make reason, truth, and nature, the measures of praise and difpraise; if those are for me, the generality of opinion is of no confequence against me; if they are against me, the general opinion cannot long support me.

Without further preface, I am going to look into fome of our most applauded plays, and fee whether they deserve the figure they at prefent bear in the imaginations of men, or not.

In reflecting upon thefe works, I fhall chiefly dwell upon that for which each refpective play is moft celebrated. The prefent paper shall be employed upon Sir Fopling Flutter. The received character of this play is, that it is the pattern of genteel comedy. Dorimant and Harriot are the characters of greateft confequence: and if these are low and mean, the reputation of the play is very unjust,

I will take for granted, that a fine gentleman fhould be honeft in his actions, and refined in his language. Instead of this, our hero in this piece is a direct knave in his designs, and a clown in his language, Bellair is his admirer and friend; in return of which, because he is forfooth a greater wit than his said friend, he thinks it reafonable to perfuade him to marry a young lady, whofe virtue, he thinks, will last no longer than till she is a wife, and then she cannot but fall to his fhare, as he is an irresistible fine gentleman. The falfhood to Mrs. Loveit, and the barbarity of triumphing over her anguish for lofing him, is another inftance of his honefty, as well as his goodAs to his fine language; he calls the orange-woman, who it seems is inclined to grow fat, "An over-grown jade, with a flasket of guts "before her;" and falutes her with a pretty "phrafe of, How now, double tripe ?" Upon the mention of a country gentlewoman, whom he knows nothing of, no one can imagine why, he "will lay his life the is fome awkward ill"fashioned country toad, who, not having above "four dozen of hairs on her head, has adorned "her baldness with a large white fruz, that fhe "may look fparkishly in the fore-front of the "king's box at an old play." Unnatural mixture of fenfelefs common-place!


As to the generofity of his temper, he tells his poor footman. "If he did not wait better" he would turn him away, in the infolent phrafe of "I'll uncafe you,"

It cannot be denied, but that the negligence of every thing, which engages the attention of the fober and valuable part of mankind, appears very well drawn in this piece; but it is denied, that it is neceffary to the character of a fine gentleman, that he should in that manner trample upon all order and decency. As for the character of Dorimant, it is more of a coxcomb than that of Fopling. He says of one of his companions, that a good correfpondence between them is their mutual intereft. Speaking of that friend, he declares, their being much together makes the "women think the better of his understanding, " and judge more favourably of my reputation. "It makes him pass upon fome for a man of very good fenfe, and me upon others for a very "civil perfon."

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This whole celebrated piece is a perfect contradiction to good manners, good fenfe, and common honesty; and as there is nothing in it but what is built upon the ruin of virtue and innocence, according to the notion of merit in this comedy, I take the fhoemaker to be, in reality, the fine gentleman of the play; for it feems he is an Atheist, if we may depend upon his character as given by the orange-woman, who is herself far from being the loweft in the play. She fays of a fine man, who is Dorimant's companion, there " is not fuch another heathen in the town, except " the floemaker." His pretenfion to be the hero of the Drama appears ftill more in his own defcription of his way of living with his lady. "There is," fays he, "never a man in town lives "more like a gentleman with his wife than I do; "I never mind her motions; fhe never inquires "into mine. We fpeak to one another civilly, "hate one another heartily; and because it is "vulgar to lie and foak together, we have each "of us our feveral fettle-bed." That of foaking together is as good as if Dorimant had spoken it himself; and, I think, fince he puts human nature in as ugly a form as the circumftance will bear, and is a ftanch unbeliever, he is very much wronged in having no part of the good fortune bestowed in the laft act.

To speak plainly of this whole work, I think nothing but being loft to a fenfe of innocence and virtue can make any one fee this comedy, without obferving more frequent occafion to move


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HOR. Od. III. vi. 21.

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To the Spectator.

TAKE the freedom of asking your advice in behalf of a young country kinfwoman of mine who is lately come to town, and under my care for her education. She is very pretty, but you can't imagine how unformed a creature it is. She comes to my hands juft as nature left her, half finifhed, and without any acquired improvements. When I look on her I often think of the Belle Sauvage mentioned in one of your papers. Dear Mr. Spectator, help me to make her comprehend the visible graces of fpeech, and the dumb eloquence of motion; for the is at prefent a perfect stranger to both. • She knows no way to exprefs herself but by her S tongue, and that always to fignify her meaning. Her eyes ferve her yet only to fee with, and he is utterly a foreigner to the language of looks and glances. In this I fancy you could help her better than any body. I have bestowed two months in teaching her to figh when she is not concerned, and to fmile when she is not pleafed; and am ashamed to own the makes little or no improvement. Then he is no more able now to walk, than fhe was to go at a year old. By walking you will eafily know I mean that regular but cafy motion, which gives our perfons fo irrififtible a grace as if we moved to mufic, and is a kind of difengaged figure, or, if I may fo fpeak, recitative dancing. But the want of this I cannot blame in her, for I find fhe has no ear, and means nothing by walking but to change her place. I could pardon too her blufhing, if the knew how to carry herfelf in it, and if it did not manifeftly injure her complexion.

They tell me you are a perfon who have feen
the world, and are a judge of fine-breeding;
which makes me ambitious of fome inftruc-
tions from you for her improvement; which
when you have favoured me with, fhall fur-
ther advife with you about the difpofal of this
'fair forefter in marriage; for I will make it no
fecret to you, that her perfon and education
are to be her fortune. I am,

Your very humble fervant,
• Culimene,'

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EING employed by Celimene to make up and fend to you her letter, I make bold to recommend the cafe therein mentioned to your confideration, becaufe fhe and I happen to differ a little in our notions. I, who am a rough man, am afraid the young girl is in a fair way to be spoiled; therefore pray, Mr. Spectator, let us have your opinion of this fine thing called Fine-Breeding; for I am afraid it differs too much from that plain thing called Good• Breeding.

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Your most humble fervant."

The general miftake among us in the educating our children, is, that in our daughters we take care of their perfons and neglect their minds; in our fons, we are fo intent upon adorning their minds, that we wholly neglect their bodies. It is from this that you fhall fee a young lady cele brated and admired in all the affemblies about town, when her elder brother is afraid to come into a room. From this ill management it arifes that we frequently obferve a man's life is half fpent before he is taken notice of; and a woman in the prime of her years is out of fashion and neglected. The boy I fhall confider upon fome other occafion, and at prefent ftick to the girl and I am the more inclined to this, because I have feveral letters which complain to me that my female readers have not understood me some days last past, and take themfelves to be unconcerned in the prefent turn of my writings. When a girl is fafely brought from her nurse, before the is capable of forming one fimple notion of any thing in life, the is delivered to the hands of her dancing-mafter; and with a collar round her neck, the pretty wild thing is taught a fantastical gravity of behaviour, and forced to a particular way of holding her head, heaving her breaft, and moving with her whole body; and all this under pain of never having an hufband, if the fteps, looks, or moves awry. This gives the young lady wonderful workings of imagination, what is to pafs between her and this hufband that the is every moment told of, and for whom the feems to be educated. Thus her fancy is engaged. to turn all her endeavours to the ornament of her perfon, as what muft determine her good and ill in this life; and the naturally thinks, if the is tail enough, the is wife enough for any thing for which her education makes her think he is defigned. To make her an agreeable person is the main purpose of her parents; to that is all their cofts, to that is all their care directed and from this general folly of parents we owe our prefent numerous race of coquettes. These reflections puzzle me, when I think of giving my advice on the fubject of managing the wild thing mentioned in the letter of my correfpondent. But fure there is a middle way to be followed; the management of a young lady's perfon is not to be over-looked, but the erudition of her mind is much more to be regarded. According as this is managed, you will fee the mind follow the appetites of the body, or the body express the virtues of the mind.


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N° 67. THURSDAY, MAY 17.
Saltare elegantiùs quàm necesse est probæ. SALUST.
Too fine a' dancer for a virtuous woman.

one of his dialogues, introduces

a philofopher chiding his friend for his being a lover of dancing, and a frequenter of balls. The other undertakes the defence of his favourite diverfion, which, he says, was at first invented by the goddess Rhea, and preserved the life of Jupiter himself, from the cruelty of his father Saturn. He proceeds to fhew, that it had been approved by the greatest men in all ages; that Homer calls Merion a Fine Dancer; and fays, that the graceful mien and great agility which he had acquired by that exercise, diftinguished him above the reft in the armies, both of Greeks and Trojans.

He adds, that Pyrrhus gained more reputation by inventing the dance which is called after his name, than by all his other actions: that the Lacedæmonians, who were the bravest people in Greece, gave great encouragement to this diverfion, and made their Hormus, a dance much refembling the French Brawl, famous over all Afia: that there were ftill extant fome Theffalian ftatues erected to the honour of their best dancers and that he wondered how his brother philofopher could declare himself against the opinions of those two perfons, whom he profeffed fo much to admire, Homer and Hefiod; the latter of which compares valour and dancing together; and fays, That the gods have beftowed ⚫ fortitude on fome men, and on others a difpofition for dancing.'


Laftly, he puts him in mind that Socrates, who, in the judgment of Apollo, was the wifeft of men, was not only a profeffed admirer of this exercife in others, but learned it himself when he was an old man.

The morofe philofopher is fo much affected by these, and some other authorities, that he becomes a convert to his friend, and defires he would take him with him when he went to his next ball.

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'But as the best institutions are liable to corruptions, fo, Sir, I must acquaint you, that very great abufes are crept into this entertain'ment. I was amazed to fee my girl handed by, and handing, young fellows with fo much familiarity; and I could not have thought it had been in the child. They very often made ufe of a most impudent and lascivious fep called Setting, which I know not how to defcribe to you, but by telling you that it is the very reverse of back to back. At laft an impudent young dog bid the fiddlers play a dance called Moll Pately, and after having made two or three capers, ran to his partner, locked his arms in hers, and whisked her round cleverly above ground ' in fuch a manner, that I, who fat upon one of the loweft benches, faw further above her shoe 'than I can think fit to acquaint you with. I 'could no longer endure these enormities; wherefore, just as my girl was going to be made a whirligig, I ran in, seized on the child, and carried her home.

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I must confefs I am afraid that my correfpondent had too much reafon to be a little out of humour at the treatment of his daughter; but I I love to shelter myself under the examples of conclude that he would have been much more great men; and I think, I have fufficiently fhew- fo, had he feen one of thofe kiffing dances in ed that it is not below the dignity of thefe my which Will. Honeycomb affures mc they are oblifpeculations to take notice of the following let-ged to dwell almost a minute on the fair one's ter, which, I fuppofe, is fent me by some subftantial tradefman about Change.

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· SIR,

AM a man in years, and by an honeft industry in the world have acquired enough to give my children a liberal education, though I was an utter ftranger to it myself. My eldeft daughter, a girl of fixteen, has for fome ⚫ time been under the tuition of Monfieur Ri< gadoon, a dancing-master in the city; and I 'was prevailed upon by her and her mother to go last night to one of his balls. I muft own to you, Sir, that having never been at any fuch ⚫ place before, I was very much pleased and furprifed with that part of his entertainment which ⚫ he called French Dancing. There were feveral

lips, or they will be too quick for the mufic, and dance quite out of time.


I am not able however to give my final fentence against this diverfion; and am of Mr. Cowley's opinion, that fo much of dancing, at least, as belongs to the behaviour and an handsome carriage of the body, is extremely useful, if not ab. folutely necessary.

We generally form fuch ideas of people at first fight, as we are hardly ever perfuaded to lay afide afterwards: for this reason, a man would wish to have nothing difagreeable or uncomely in his approaches, and to be able to enter a room with a good grace.

I might add, that a moderate knowledge in the little rules of good-breeding gives a man fome affurance, and makes him easy in all companies. M


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It is the proper business of a dancing mafter to regulate these matters; though I take it to be a just observation, that unless you add fomething of your own to what thefe fine gentlemen teach you, and which they are wholly ignorant of themfelves, you will much fooner get the character of an affected fop, than of a well bred man.

As for Country-Dancing, it must indeed be confeffed that the great familiarities between the two fexes on this occafion may fometimes produce very dangerous confequences; and I have often thought that few ladies hearts are fo obdurate as not to be melted by the charms of mufic, the force of motion, and an handsome young fellow who is continually playing before their eyes, and convincing them that he has the perfect ufe of all his limbs.

But as this kind of dance is the particular invention of our own country, and as every one is more or lefs a proficient in it, I would not difcountenance it; but rather fuppofe it may be practifed innocently by others, as well as myself who am often partner to my landlady's eldest daugh

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in difcourfe; but, instead of this, we find that converfation is never fo much straitned and confined as in numerous affemblies. When a multitude meet together upon any subject of difcourfe, their debates are taken up chiefly with forms and general pofitions; nay, if we come into a more contracted assembly of men and women, the talk generally runs upon the weather, fashion, news, and the like public topics. In proportion as converfation gets into clubs and knots of friends, it defcends into particulars, and grows more free and communicative: but the most open, instructive, and unreferved difcourfe, is that which paffes between two perfons who are familiar and intimate friends. On thefe occafions, a man gives a loose to every paffion and every thought that is uppermoft, difcovers his moft retired opinions of perfons and things, trics the beauty and ftrength of his fentiments, and expofes his whole foul to the examination of his friend.

Tully was the first who obferved, that friendfhip improves happiness and abates mifery, by the doubling of our joy and dividing our grief; a thought in which he hath been followed by all the effayers upon friendship, that have written fince his time. Sir Francis Bacon has finely defcribed other advantages, or, as he calls them, fruits of friendship; and indeed there is no fubject of morality which has been better handled and more exhausted than this. Among the feveral fine things which have heen spoken of it, I shall beg leave to quote fome out of a very ancient author, whofe book would be regarded by our modern wits as one of the most fhining tracts of morality that is extant, if it appeared under the name of a Confucius, or of any celebrated Grecian philofopher; I mean the little apocryphal treatise entitled, The wifdom of the Son of Sirach. How finely as he defcribed the art of making friends, by an obliging and affable behaviour; and laid

< From the Three Chairs in the Piazza, Covent- down that precept which a late excellent author

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6 SIR,



· May 16, 1711. S you are a Spectator, I think we, who make it our business to exhibit any thing to public view, ought to apply ourfelves to you for your approbation. I have travelled Europe, to furnish out a fhow for you, and have brought with me what has been admired in every country through which I paffed. You have declared in many papers, that your greatest delights are thofe of the eye, which I do not doubt but I fhall gratify with as beautiful objects as yours ever beheld. If caftles, forefts, ruins fine women, and graceful men, can please you. I dare promife you much fatisfaction, if you will appear at my auction on Friday next. A fight is, I fuppofe, as grateful to a Spectator, as a treat to another perfon, and therefore I hope you will pardon this invitation from,


has delivered as his own, 'That we should have many well-wishers, but few friends?' Sweet language will multiply friends; and a fairfpeaking tongue will increase kind greetings. Be in peace with many, nevertheless have but one counsellor of a thousand.' With what prudence does he caution us in the choice of our friends; and with what ftrokes of nature, I could' almost say of humour, has he described the behaviour of a treacherous and felf-interefted friend? If thou wouldst get a friend, prove him first, and be not hafty to credit him: for fome man is a friend for his own occafion, and will not abide in the day of thy trouble. And there is a friend, who being turned to emnity and ftrife will difcover thy reproach.' Again, Some friend is a companion at the table, and will not continue in the day of thy affliction: but in thy profperity he will be as thyfelf, and will be bold over thy fervants. If thou be brought low he will be against thee, and hide himself from thy face.' What can be more ftrong and pointed than the following verfe? Separate thyfelf from thine enemies, and take heed of thy friends.' In the next words he particularizes one of thofe fruits of friendship, which is described at length OVID. Met. i. 355. by the two famous authors above-mentioned, and

"Your moft obedient humble fervant,
"J. Graham.

No. 68. FRIDAY, MAY 18

Nos duo turba fumus-
We two are a multitude,

NE would think that the larger the company is in which we are engaged, the greater variety of thoughts and fubjects would be started

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falls into a general elogium of friendship, which is very juft as well as very fublime. A faithful friend is a strong defence; and he that hath found fuch an one, hath found a treasure. No thing doth countervail a faithful friend, and his

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