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natured man; and upon our first going into a company of strangers, our benevolence or averfion, awe or contempt, rifes naturally towards feveral particular perfons, before we have heard them fpeak a fingle word, or fo much as know who they are.

Every paffion gives a particular caft to the countenance, and is apt to discover itself in some feature or other. I have feen an eye curfe for half an hour together, and an eyebrow call a man a fcoundrel. Nothing is more common than for lovers to complain, refent, languish, defpair, and die in dumb show. For my own part, I am fo apt to frame a notion of every man's humour or circumstances by his looks, that I have sometimes employed myself from Charing-Crofs to the Royal-Exchange in drawing the characters of those who have paffed by me. When I fee a man with a four rivelled face, I cannot forbear pitying his wife; and when I meet with an open ingenuous, countenance, think on the happiness of his friends, his family, and relations.

I cannot recollect the author of a famous faying to a stranger who stood filent in his company, "Speak that I may fee thee." But with fubmiffion, I think we may be better known by our looks than by our words, and that a man's fpeech is much more easily disguised than his countenance. In this cafe, however, I think the air of the whole face is much more expreffive than the lines of it: the truth of it is, the air is generally nothing else but the inward difpofition of the mind made vifible.

Those who have established phyfiognomy into an art, and laid down rules of judging mens tempers by their faces, have regarded the features much more than the air. Martial has a pretty epigram on this subject.

Crine ruber, niger ore, brevis pede, lumine læfus &
Rem magnam præftas Zoile, fi bonus es.

Epig. 54. 1. 12. "Thy beard and head are of a diff'rent dye; "Short of one foot, distorted in an eye: "With all these tokens of a knave complete, "Should'ft thou be honeft, thou'rt a dev'lifh "cheat.".

I have seen a very ingenious author on this fubject, who founds his fpeculations on the fuppofition, that as a man hath in the mould of his face a remote likeness to that of an ox, a fheep, a lion, an hog, or any other creature; he hath the fame refemblance in the frame of his mind, and is fubject to those paffions which are predominant in the creature that appears in his countenance. Accordingly he gives the prints of feveral faces that are of a different mould, and by a little overcharging the likeness, difcovers the figures ef thefe feveral kinds of brutal faces in human features. I remember, in the life of the famous Prince of Condé, the writer obferves, the face of that Prince was like the face of an eagle, and that the Prince was very well pleased to be told fo. In this cafe therefore we may be fure, that he had in his mind some general implicit notion of this art of phyfiognomy which I have just now mentioned; and that when his courtiers told him his face was made like an eagle's, he understood them in the fame manner as if they had told him, there was fomething in his looks which fhewed him to be ftrong, active, piercing, and of a royal descent. Whether or no the different motions of the animal fpirits in different paffions may have any ef,

fect on the mould of the face when the lineaments are pliable and tender, or whether the fame kind of fouls require the fame kind of habitations, I fhall leave to the confideration of the curious. In the mean time I think nothing can be more glorious than for a man to give the lye to his face, and to be an honeft, juft, good-natured man, in spite of all thofe marks and fignatures which nature feems to have fet upon him for the contrary. This very often happens among thofe, who, inftead of being exafperated by their own looks, or envying the looks of others, apply them felves intirely to the cultivating of their minds, and getting thofe beauties which are more lafting and more ornamental, I have seen many an amiable piece of deformity; and have observed a certain chearfulness in as bad a fyftem of features as ever was clapped together, which hath appeared more lovely than all the blooming charms of an infolent beauty. There is a double praise due to virtue, when it is lodged in a body that feems to have been prepared for the reception of vice; in many fuch cafes the foul and the body do not feem to be fellows.

Socrates was an extraordinary inftance of this nature. There chanced to be a great phyfiognomist in his time at Athens, who had made strange difcoveries of mens tempers and inclinations by their outward appearances. Socrates's difciples, that they might put this artist to the trial, carried him to their master, whom he had never seen before, and did not know he was then in company with him. After a fhort examination of his face, the phyfiognomist pronounced him the moft lewd, libidinous, drunken old fellow that he had ever met with in his whole life. Upon which the difciples all burft out a laughing, as thinking they had detected the falfhood and vanity of his art. But Socrates told them, that the principles of his art might be very true, notwithstanding his prefent mistake: for that he himself was naturally inclined to thofe particular vices which the phyfitognomist had discovered in his countenance, but that he had conquered the ftrong difpofitions he was born with by the dictates of philofophy.

We are indeed told by an ancient author, that Socrates very much refembled Silenus in his face; which we find to have been very rightly observed from the ftatues and bufts of both, that are still extant; as well as on feveral antique feals and precious ftones, which are frequently enough to be met with in the cabinets of the curious. But however obfervations of this nature may fometimes hold, a wife man should be particularly cautious how he gives credit to a man's outward appearance. It is an irreparable injustice we are guilty of towards one another, when we are prejudiced by the looks and features of thofe whom we do not know. How often do we conceive hatred against a perfon of worth, or fancy a man to be proud or ill-natured by his aspect, whom, we think, we cannot efteem too much when we are acquainted with his real character? Dr. Moore, in his admirable system of Ethics, reckons this particular inclination to take a prejudice against a man for his looks, among the smaller vices in morality, and, if I remember, gives it the name of a Profopolepfia.



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T has been the purpose of feveral of my speculations to bring people to an unconcerned behaviour, with relation to their perfons, whether beautiful or defective. As the fecrets of the Ugly Club were expofed to the public, that men might fee there were fome noble spirits in the age, who are not at all difpleafed with themselves upon confiderations which they had no choice in; fo the difcourfe concerning Idols tended to leffen the

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Mr. Spectator.

London, June 7. 1711.

value people put upon themselves from perfonal UPON reading your late differtation con

advantages and gifts of nature. As to the latter fpecies of mankind, the Beauties, whether male or female, they are generally the moft untractable people of all others. You are fo exceffively perplexed with the particularities in their behaviour, that, to be at eafe, one would be apt to wish there were no fuch creatures. They expect fo great allowances, and give fo little to others, that they who have to do with them find in the main a man with a better perfon than ordinary, and a beautiful woman, might be very happily changed for fuch to whom nature has been lefs liberal. The handfome fellow is ufually fo much a gentleman, and the fine woman has fomething fo becoming, that there is no enduring either of them. It has therefore been generally my choice to mix with chearful ugly creatures, rather than gentlemen who are graceful enough to omit or do wliat they please; or beauties who have charms enough to do and fay what would be difobliging in any but themselves.

Diffidence and prefumption, upon account of our perfons, are equally faults; and both arife from the want of knowing, or rather endeavouring to know ourselves and for what we ought to be valued or neglected. But indeed, I did not imagine these little confiderations and coquetries could have the ill confequence as I find they have by the following letters of my correfpondents, where it feems beauty is thrown into the accompt, in matters of fale, to thofe who receive no favour from the charmers.

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FTER I have affured you am in every

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cerning Idols, I cannot but complain to. you that there are, in fix or seven places of this city, coffee-houses kept by persons of that fifterhood. These Idols fit and receive all day long the adoration of the youth within fuch and fuch districts: I know in particular, goods are not ' entered as they ought to be at the custom-house, nor law reports perused at the temple; by reafon of one beauty who detains the young mer'chants too long near 'Change, and another fair one who keeps the ftudents at her house when they should be at ftudy. It would be worth your while to fee how the idolaters alternately offer incenfe to their Idols, and what heartburnings arife in those who wait for their turn to receive kind afpects from those little thrones, which all the company, but thefe lovers, call the bars. I faw a gentleman turn as pale as ashes, because an Idol turned the fugar in a tea-dish for his rival, and carelefly called the boy to ferve ' him, with a "Sirrah! Why do you not give the "gentleman the box to please himself?" Certain it is, that a very hopeful young man was taken with leads in his pockets below bridge, where he intended to drown himself, because his Idol would wash the difh in which fhe had but 'juft drank tea, before the would let him use it.

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I am, Sir, a perfon paft being amorous, and do not give this information out of envy or jealoufy, but I am a real fufferer by it. Thefe lovers take any thing for tea and coffee; I faw one yesterday furfeit to make his court; and all his ' rivals, at the fame time, loud in the commendation of liquors that went against every body in the room that was not in love. While there young fellows refign their ftomachs with their

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Arefpect one of the handfomeft young girls hearts, and drink at the Idol in this manner, we

about town, I need be particular in nothing but the make of my face, which has the misfortune to be exactly oval. This I take to proceed from a temper that naturally inclines me both to speak and to hear.

'who come to do bufinefs, or talk politics, are 'utterly poifoned. They have alfo drams for those who are more enamoured than ordinary; and it is very common for such as are too low in conftitution to ogle the Idol upon the strength

With this account you may wonder how Iof tea, to flufter themselves with warmer li

can have the vanity to offer myfelf as a candidate, which I now do, to a fociety, where the Spectator and Hecatiffa have been admitted with fo much applaufe. I do not want to be put in mind how very defective I am in every thing that is ugly: I am too fenfible of my own unworthiness in this particular, and therefore I only propofe myfelf as a foil to the club.

You fee how honeft I have been to confefs all my imperfections, which is a great deal to come from a woman, and what I hope you will encourage with the favour of your intereft,

quors: thus all the pretenders advance, as fast as they can, to a fever or a diabetes. I must repeat to you, that I do not look with an evil eye upon the profit of the Idols, or the diverfions of the lovers; what I hope from this remonstrance, is only that we plain people may not be ferved < as if we were idolaters; but that from the 'time of publishing this in your paper, the Idols would mix ratfbane only for their admirers, and take more care of us who do not love them. I am,



• Sir, Yours,

'T. T.' No.

No 88, MONDAY, JUNE 11. Quid domini facient, audent cum talia fures ?

VIRG. Ecl. 3. v. 16.

time in that quality. They are either attending in places where they meet and run into club, or elfe, if they wait at taverns, they eat after their mafters, and referve their wages for other occafions. From hence it arifes, that they are but in and ufually affect an imitation of their manners: a lower degree what their mafters themselves are; and you have in liveries, beaux, fops, and cox1711.combs, in as high perfection as among people that keep equipages. It is a common humour among their people of quality, they

What will not masters do, when fervants thus prefume?


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Mr. Spectator,

May 30, Have no fmall value for your endeavours to may

obfervation, and yet highly conduces to their fervice. You have, I think, fucceeded very well on many subjects, and feem to have been converfant in very different fcenes of life. But in the confiderations of mankind, as a Spectator, you 'fhould not omit circumstances which relate to the inferior part of the world, any more than thofe which concern the greater. There is one thing in particular which I wonder you have not touched upon, and that is the general corruption of manners in the fervants of Great-Britain. I am a man that have travelled and feen many nations, but have for seven years laft paft ⚫ refided constantly in London, or within twenty miles of it: in this time I have contracted a numerous acquaintance among the best fort of people, and have hardly found one of them happy in their fervants. This is matter of great aftonishment to foreigners, and all fuch as have vifited foreign countries: especially fince we cannot but obferve, that there is no part of the ' world where fervants have those privileges and advantages as in England: they have no where elfe fuch plentiful diet, large wages, or indulgent liberty: there is no place wherein they labour lefs, and yet where they are fo little refpectful, more wafteful, more negligent, or where they fo frequently change their mafters, To this I attribute, in a great meafure, the fre6 quent robberies and loffes which we fuffer on the high road and in our own houses. That indeed which gives me the prefent thought of this kind, is, that a careless groom of mine has fpoiled me the prettiest pad in the world with only riding him ten miles; and I affure you, if I were to make a regifter of all the horfes I have ⚫ known thus abufed by negligence of fervants, the number would mount a regiment. I wish you would give us your obfervations, that we may know how to treat these rogues, or that we mafters may enter into meafures to reform them. ‹ Pray give us a speculation in general about fer vants, and you make me

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• Philo-Britannicus P. S. Pray do not omit the mention of grooms in particular,'

This honeft gentleman, who is fo defirous that I should write a fatire upon grooms, has a great deal of reafon for his refentment; and I know no evil which touches all mankind fo much as this of the misbehaviour of fervants.

The complaint of this letter runs wholly upon men-fervants; and I can attribute the licentiouf nefs which has at prefent prevailed among them, to nothing but what an hundred before me have afcribed it to, the custom of giving board-wages. This one inftance of falfe economy is fufficient to debauch the whole nation of fervants, and makes them as it were but for fome part of their

their revels, that is, when they are out of their mafters fight, to affume in a humorous way the names and titles of those whofe liveries they wear. By which means, characters and distinctions be come fo familiar to them, that it is to this, among other caufes, one may impute a certain infolence among our fervants, that they take no notice of any gentleman though they know him ever fo well, except he is an acquaintance of their masters.

My obfcurity and taciturnity leave me at li berty, without fcandal, to dine, if I think fit, at a common ordinary, in the meanest as well as the most fumptuous houfe of entertainment. Falling in the other day at a victualling-house near the House of Peers, I heard the maid come down and tell the landlady at the bar, that my lord bishop fwore he would throw her out at window, if the did not bring up more mild beer, and that my lord duke would have a double mug of purl. My fure prize was increafed, in hearing loud and ruftic voices fpeak and answer to each other upon the public affairs, by the names of the most illuftrious of our nobility; until of a fudden one came running in, and cried the house was rifing, Down came all the company together, and away! The alehoufe was immediately filled with clamour, and scoring one mug to the marquis of fuch a place, oil and vinegar to fuch an earl, three quarts to my new lord for wetting his title, and fo forth. It is a thing too notorious to mention the crowds of fervants, and their infolence near the courts of justice, and the stairs towards the fupreme affembly, where there is an univerfal mockery of all or der, fuch riotous clamour and licentious confufion, that one would think the whole nation lived in jeft, and there were no fuch thing as rule and diftinction among us.

The next place of refort, wherein the fervile world are let loofe, is at the entrance of HydePark, while the gentry are at the ring. Hither people bring their lacquies out of ftate, and here it is that all they fay at their tables, and act in their houses, is communicated to the whole town. There are men of wit in all conditions of life! and mixing with these people at their diversions, I have heard coquettes and prudes as well rallied, and infolence and pride expofed, allowing for their want of education, with as much humour, and good fenfe, as in the politeft companies. It is a general obfervation, that all dependants run in fome measure into the manners and behaviour of thofe whom they ferve: you fhall frequently. meet with lovers and men of intrigue among the lacquies, as well as atWhite's or in the fide-boxes. I remember fome years ago an instance of this kind. A footman to a captain of the guards used frequently, when his mafter was out of the way, to carry on amours and make affignations in his mafter's clothes. The fellow had a very good perfon, and there are many women that think no further than the outfide of a gentleman; befides which, he was almost as learned man as the coQ


lonel himself; I fay, thus qualified, the fellow could fcrawl billet-doux fo well, and furnish a converfation on the common topics, that he had, as they call it, a great deal of good bufinefs on his hands. It happened one day, that coming down a tavern-ftairs in his mafter's fine guard-coat, with a well-dressed woman masked, he met the colonel coming up with other company; but with a-ready affurance he quitted his lady, came up to him, and faid, “Sir, I know you have too much "refpect for yourself to cane me in this honoura ble habit: but you fee there is a lady in the cafe, and I hope on that fcore alfo you will put off your anger until I have told you all another "time. After a little paufe the colonel cleared up his countenance, and with an air of familiarity whispered his man apart, "Sirrah, bring the lady with you to afk pardon for you;" then aloud, "Look to it, Will, I will never forgive you elfe." The fellow went back to his mistress, and telling her with a loud voice and an oath, that was the honefteft fellow in the world, conveyed her to an hackney-coach.

But the many irregularities committed by fervants in the places above-mentioned, as well as in the theatres, of which masters are generally the occafions, are too various not to need being refumed on another occafion. R

Ns 89. TUESDAY, JUNE 12.

-Petite bine, juvenefque fenefque, Finem animo certum, miferifque viatica canis. Cras boc fiet. Idem cras fiet. Quid? quafi mag


Nempe diem donas ? fed cùm lux altera venit,
Fam cras befternam confumpfimus; ecce aliud cras
Egerit bos annos, & femper paulum erit ultrà.
Nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone fub uno,
Vertentem fefe fruftra fečtabere cantbum.
PERS. Sat. 5. v, 64.
Perf. From thee both old and young, with
profit, learn

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In one of them no lefs a man than a brother of the coif tells me, that he began his fuit vicefimo nono Caroli fecundi, before he had been a twelvemonth at the Temple; that he profecuted it for many years after he was called to the bar; that at prefent he is a ferjeant at law; and notwithstanding he hoped that matters would have been long. fince brought to an iffue, the fair one ftill demurs. I am fo well pleafed with this gentleman's phrase, that I fhall diftinguish this fect of women by the title of Demurrers. I find by another letter from one that calls himself Thyrfis, that his mistress has been demurring above thefe feven years. But among all my plaintiffs of this nature, I most pity the unfortunate Philander, a man of a conftant paffion and plentiful fortune, who fets forth that the timorous and irrefolute Sylvia, has demurred until she is past child-bearing. Strephon appears by his letter to be a very choleric lover, and irrevocably fmitten with one that demurs out of felf-intereft. He tells me with great paffion that the has bubbled him out of his youth; that fhe drilled him on to five and fifty, and that he verily believes the will drop him in his old age if the can find her account in another. I fhall conclude this narrative with a letter from honest Sam. Hopewell, a very pleasant fellow, who it feems has at laft married a Demurrer: I muft only premise, that Sam, who is a very good bottlecompanion, has been the diverfion of his friends, upon account of his paffion, ever fince the year one thousand fix hundred and eighty-one.

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• Dear Sir,

OU know very well my paffion for Mrs. Martha, what a dance led me fhe took me out at the age of two and twenty, and dodged with me above thirty years. I have loved her until fhe is grown as grey as a cat, and am with much ado become the master of her. perfon, fuch as it is at prefent. She is however in my eye a very charming old woman, We -often lament that we did not marry fooner, but The has nobody to blame for it but herfelf: you know very well that the would never think of me while fhe had a tooth in her head. I have put the date of my paffion, anno amoris trigefimo primo, inftead of a pofy, on my weddingring. I expect you fhould fend me a congratubor-latory letter, or, if you pleafe, an Epithalamium, 6 upon this occafion. Mrs. Martha's and yours eternally, Sam. Hopewell.'

The bounds of good and evil to discern,
Carn. Unhappy he, who does this work ad-

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Corn, Yes, fure; for yesterday was once to


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In order to banish an evil out of the world, that does not only produce great uneafiness to private perfons, but has also a very bad influence on the public, I fhall endeavour to fhew the folly of De earnestly recommend to the thoughts of my fair murrage from two or three reflections, which I


First of all, I would have them seriously think on the fhortness of their time. Life is not long enough for a coquette to play all her tricks in.

A are is my timorous woman drops grave before

poffible, to range them under feveral heads, and address myfall to them at different times. The first branch of them, to whofe fervice I fhall dedi date this paper, are those that have to do with wo men of dilatory tempers, who are for fpinning out the time of courtship to an immoderate length, without being able either to close with their lovers, or to difmifs them. I have many letters by me filled with complaints against this fort of women.

he has done deliberating. Were the age of man the fame that it was before the flood, a lady might facrifice half a century to a fcruple, and be two or three ages in demurring. Had the nine hundred years good, the might hold out to the converfion of the Jews before the thought fit to be prevailed upon. But, alas! fhe ought to play her part in hafte, when the confiders that she is suddenly to quit the stage, and make room for others.

In the fecond place, I would defire my female readers to confider, that as the term of life is fhort, that of beauty is much shorter. The finest fkin wrinkles in a few years, and lofes the ftrength of its colourings fo foon, that we have fcarce time to admire it. I; might embellish this subject with roses and rainbows, and several other ingenious conceits, which I may possibly referve for another opportunity.

There is a third confideration which I would likewife recommend to a Demurrer, and that is, the great danger of her falling in love when the is

"That would be woo'd, and not unfought be
"6 won,

"Not obvious, not obtrufive, but retir'd
"The more defirable; or, to fay all,
"Nature herself, though pure of finful thought,
"Wrought in her fo, that feeing me the turn'd.
"I follow'd her: She what was honour knew,
"And with obfequious majesty approv'd
"My pleaded reafon. To the nuptial bower
"I led her blushing like the morn

Magnus fine viribus ignis

about threescore, if the cannot fatisfy her doubts, N° 90. WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13.
and fcruples before that time. There is a kind
of latter fpring, that fometimes gets into the blood
of an old woman and turns her into a very odd fort
of an animal. I would therefore have the De-
murrer confider what a ftrange figure the will
make, if the chances to get over all difficuities,

and comes to a final refolution, in that unfeafon

able part of her life.

I would not however be understood, by any thing I have here faid, to difcourage that natural modesty in the sex, which renders a retreat from the first approaches of a lover both fashionable and graceful: all that I intend, is, to advise them, when they are prompted by reason and inclina tion, to demur only out of form, and fo far as decency requires. A virtuous woman should reject the first offer of marriage, as a good man does that of a bishopric; but I would advise neither the one nor the other to perfift in refufing what they fecretly approve. I would in this particular propofe the example of Eve to all her daughters, as Milton has reprefented her in the following paffage, which I cannot forbear tranfcribing intire, though only the twelve last lines are to my prefent purpose,

"The tib he form'd and fashion'd with his

*Under his forming hands a creature grew,
Manlike, but diff'rent fex; fo lovely fair,
That what seem'd fair in all the world, feem'd


* Mean, or in her fumm'd up, in her contain❜d,
"And in her looks; which from that time in-

"Sweetners into my heart, unfelt before;
And into all things from her air infpir'd
"The fpirit of love and amorous delight.
"She disappear'd, and left me dark: I wak'd
*To find her, or for ever to deplore
"Her lofs, and other pleafures all abjure;

When out of hope, behold her, not far off.
Such as I faw her in my dream, adorn'd
"With what all earth or heaven could bestow
To make her amiable, On fhe came,
"Led by her heav'nly Maker, tho' unfeen,
"And guided by his voice, nor uninform'd
"Of nuptial fanctity and marriage rites:
"Grace was in all her steps, heav'n in her eye,
"In every gefture dignity and love.
"I overjoy'd, could not forbear aloud.
"This turn hath made amends; thou haft ful-
" fill'd

Thy words, Creator bounteous and benign! Giver of all things fair! but faireft this "Of all thy gifts, nor envieft. I now fee

Bone of my bone, flesh of my flesh, myself "She heard me thus, and tho' divinely brought, "Yet innocence and virgin modefty, "Her virtue, and the confcience of her worth,

Incassùm furit


Virg. Georg. 3. V. 99% In vain he burns, like hasty stubble fires.


THERE rectual to extinguish inordinate de

is not, in my opinion, a confideration

fires in the foul of man, than the notions of Plato and his followers upon that fubject. They tell us, that every paffion which has been contracted by the foul during her refidence in the body, remains with her in a separate state; and that the foul in the body, or out of the body, differs no more than the man does from himself when he is in his houfe, or in open air. When therefore the obfcene paffions in particular have once taken root, and spread themselves in the foul, they cleave to her infeparably, and remain in her for ever, after the body is caft off and thrown afide. As an argument to confirm this their doctrine they obferve, that a lewd youth who goes on in a continued courfe of voluptuoufnefs, advances by degrees into a libidinous old man; and that the paffion furvives in the mind when it is altogether dead in the body; nay, that the defire grows more violent, and, like all other habits, gathers ftrength by age, at the fame time that it has no power of executing its own purpofes. If, fay they, the foul is the mott fubject to thefe paffions at a time when it has the leaft inftigations from the body, we may well fuppofe she will still retain them when the is intirely divefted ofit. The very fubstance of the soul is festered with them, the gangrene is gone too far to be ever cured; the inflam mation will rage to all eternity.

In this therefore, fay the Platonifts, confifts the punishment of a voluptucus man after death; he is tormented with defires which it is impoffible for him to gratify, folicited by a paffion that has neither objects nor organs adapted to it; he lives in a state of invincible defire and impotence, and always burns in the purfuit of what he always defpairs to poffefs. It is for this reafon, fays Pla. to, that the fouls of the dead appear frequently in comiteries, and hover about the places where their bodies are buried, as ftill hankering after their old brutal pleasures, and defiring again to enter the body that gave them an opportunity of fulfilling them.

Some of our moft eminent divines have made ufe of this Platonic notion, fo far as it regards the fubfiftence of our paffions after death, with great beauty and ftrength of reafon. Plato indeed carries the thought very far, when he grafts upon it his opinion of ghofis appearing in places of burial. Though I must confefs, if one did believe that the departed fouls of men and women wandered up and down thefe lower regions, and entertained themselves with the fight of their

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