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Relations with Spain.
is still more extraordinary. Having noticed it in which I had received from the Government of sufficient detail in my leiter to Mr. Baker, I refer the United States, the proceedings of several you to that paper for the necessary information British officers in America, and upon the Amerirespecting it.
can coast, marked with characters incompatible, It may be fairly presumed that these acts were not only with those amicable relations which it not authorized by the British Government; that is the earnest desire of the American Governthey are imputable only to Indian agents, and ment to restore and to cultivate, but even with those under whom they act in this country. They the condition of peace which had been restored nevertheless deserve reprehension, which it is ex- between the two countries by the Treaty of pected ibat ibe British Government will not hesi. Ghent. iate to inflict.
It was with the bigbest satisfaction that I unNo. 2. a.
derstood your Lordship, in the name of the Brit
ish Government to disavow the proceedings of Extracts of a letter from Mr. Adams to the Secretary all those officers, of which it had beep my duty
of State, stating the substance of a conversation to complaio ; and that I received from you the with Earl Bathurst, dated.
assurance that orders had long since been given LONDON, Sept. 19, 1815.
for the restoration of the post of Michilimackinac I said that the American Government had been 10 the United States; that instructions had been peculiarly concerned at the proceedings of Colo- given to promote, by all suitable means, the res. nel Nicholls, because they appeared to be marked ioration of peace between the Indians and the with unequivocal and extraordinary marks of hos- United States; and, particularly, that Colonel tility. "Why,” said Lord Bathurst," to tell you Nicholls, in pretending to conclude a treaty, ofthe truth, Colonel Nicholls is, I believe, a man of fensive and defensive, with certain Indians beactivity and spirit, but a very wild fellow. He longing within the jurisdiction of the United did make and send over to me a treaty, offensive States, had not ooly acted without authority, but and defensive, with some Indians; and he is now incurred the disapprobation of His Majesty's come over here, and has brought over some of Government. those Indians. I sent for answer that he had no authority whatever to make a treaty, offensive
No. 13 a. and defeosive, with Indians, and that ibis Gov. Extract of a letter from Mr. Adams to the Secretary ernment would make no such treaty. I have of State, containing the substance of a conversation sent him word that I could not see him upon any with Lord Castlereagh, dated such project. The Indians are here in distress,
LONDON, Feb. 8, 1816. indeed; but we shall only furnish them with the means of returning home, and advise them to the United States, the Indians again appeared in
I next observed that, at the other extremity of make their terms with the United States as well the shape of disturbers of the peace between our as they can." Perceiving that I had particularly countries. I recapitulated your remonstrances to noticed his declaration that he had declined see- Mr. Baker, and mine, by your order, to Lord Ba. ing Colonel Nicholls, he said that he should per thurst, against the conduct of Colonel Nicholls; haps see him upon the general subject of his that officer's pretended treaties of alliance, offentransactions, but that he declined seeing him in sive and defensive, and commerce and navigaregard to his treaty with the ladians. In this conversation Lord Bathurst's manner, had seen fit to style the Creek pation; and the
tion, with certain runaway Indiaos, whom he like that of Lord Liverpool, in the conference very exceptionable manner in which he had noti, which I had about a month before with him, was
fied his transactions to the agent of the United altogether good humored and conciliatory. The States with the Creeks, with an intimation that conduct of all the officers and persons complained
we were to hear more about the treaties when of was explicitly disavowed; and. I understood; they should be ratified in England. I mentioned at first
, the observation of Lord Bathurst, that he that Lord Bathurst had, in the most candid and bad declined seeing Colonel Nicholls, as an inti explicit manner verbally disavowed to me these mation that it was intended to exhibit towards that officer unequivocal marks of displeasure that the pretended treaty of alliance, offensive and
proceedings of Colonel Nicholls; had told me But the subsequent explanation left me to con defensive, had been indeed transmitted by the clude that, alihougb the disapprobation of his Colonel for ratification ; but this Government proceedings was strongly expressed to me, the had refused to ratify it, and informed Colonel utmost extent of it that would be showo to him Nicholls that they would agree to. no such treaty; would be the refusal to ratify his treaty, offensive that the Colonel had even brought over some of and defensive, with the Indians.
his Indians here, who would be sent back, with No. 12 b.
advice to make their terms with the United
States as they could. These verbal assurances Extract of a note from Mr. Adams to Earl Bathurst, I had reported to my Government, and presumed dated
they had been received with much satisfaction. LONDON, Sept. 25, 1815.
Whether they had been repeated in a more formal Io the conference with your Lordship with manner, and in any written communication, I which I was honored on the 14ib instani, I rep- had not been informed. I had noticed the conresented to you, conformably to the instructions | duct of Colonel Nicholls in one of my notes to Relations with Spain.
Lord Bathurst, and to that part of the note had determination has not been departed from by His received no answer. As the complaint had also Majesty's Government. been made through Mr. Baker, a written answer How far the threat of Indian vengeance is bemight, perhaps, bave been returned through that coming to the humanity of British officers, or the channel. My motive for referring to the subject dignity of their Government, in a correspondence now was, that, by the President's Message 10 with the officers of a civilized nation, and in a Congress at the opening of the session, i per- time of peace, the undersigned leaves to His Ma. ceived that the conduct of the Indians in ihat jesty's Government to decide. Neither Colonel part of the United States still threatened hostil. Nicholls nor Colonel James was ashamed to use ities, and because there, as in the more northern it; and it would be treated by the undersigned as parts, the Indians would certainly be disposed it was by the officers of the United Siates to io tranquillity and peace with the United States, whom it was addressed, were it not his duty to unless they should have encouragement to rely remark that, in condescending to be the heralds upon the support of Great Britain. Lord Cas- of this menace, those officers sufficiently indi. tlereagh said, with a smile, that he had a good cated that they understood its being carried into many treaties to lay before Parliament, but none execution or not depended upon them; that they such as those I described were among them. viewed themselves as the regulators to restrain or
to license Indian barbarily at their discretion; No. 13 b.
that they (British military officers) called upon the Extract of a letter from Mr. Adams to Lord Castle. civil authority of the United States to satisfy the reagh, dated
revenge of Indian savages belonging within the LONDON, March 21, 1816. American jurisdiction, for acts committed upon It has been more than once a painful part of the American territory; threatening, as the alierthe duty of the undersigned to represent to His native, to let loose those savages to wreak their Majesty's Government the unfriendly disposi- own vengeance, in all its fury, upon American tions manifested by British military officers in women and children. America towards ihe United States since the Independently of the very serious character of peace between the two countries; and to point these transactions in themselves, the undersigned out specific and unequivocal facts, by which entreats the attention of the British Government those officers, far from exerting themselves to
lo the spirit by which they were dictated This carry into effect the avowed object of their own excessive earnestness of British authorities, miliGovernment, of securing to ihe Indians who tary and civil, to hold themselves forth as the had followed the British standard during the protectors, through right and through wrong, of war the blessings of the pacification, have labored Indians pot belonging to British territories, how. with an activity as restless, and a zeal as ardent, ever politic it may be deemed to imbitter enmias they could have done in the heat of war, to ties and to provoke hostilities between the Ininstigate Indians belonging within the territorial dians and the Americans, cannot but excite anijurisdiction of the United States to continued or mosities far more formidable between the British renewed hostility against them. When, in the and American nations. If persevered in, it must course of last Summer, the undersigned 'had the eventually prove most pernicious and falal to the honor of exposing to Earl Bathurst the transac- Indians themselves. The occasion will justify tions deeply marked with this character of Colo- the expression of the hope that orders and in. nel Nicholls, he was happy to receive from his structions will be issued to the local authorities Lordship, verbally, at once the confirmation of of the British colonies in North America, which the facts, and the disavowal of the measures. will leave no doubt on the minds of those inColonel Nicholls, after the conclusion of the vested with them that the real intention of Great peace between his Sovereign and the United Britain towards the United States is peace. States, not only used every effort in his power
No. 14. to urge to war against the United States tribes of Indians with whom they were then at peace,
Gencral Jackson to the Governor of Pensacola. and who were far remote from any British
HEADQ'RS Division OF THE South, possession whatever, but actually concluded a
Washington, M. T., April 23, 1816. pretended treaty of alliance, offensive and defen. Sir: I am charged by my Government to make sive, between some of them and Great Britain known to you that a negro fort, erected during against the United States of this treaty, Earl our late war with Great Britain, at or near the Bathurst, in a conference with the undersigned, junction of the Chatahoochee and Flint rivers, expressed himself in terms of unqualified disap. has been strengthened since that period, and is probation; adding that it had not been ratified now occupied by upwards of two hundred and or approved, and that no such treaty would be fifty negroes, many of whom have been eaticed made or agreed to by Great Britain. In the pur- away from ihe service of their masters, citizens suit of his projects, Colonel Nicholls brought of the United States; all of whom are well over some of these Indians to England; but as clothed and disciplined. Secret practices to inLord Bathurst, in the most explicit manner, as- veigle negroes from the citizens of Georgia, as sured the undersigned that no use of them hostile well as from the Cherokee and Creek nations of to the United Siates would be made by Great Indians, are still continued by this banditti and Britain, the undersigned is persuaded that that I the hostile Creeks.
Relations with Spain. This is a state of things which cannot fail to it, by disturbing the peace of the nation, but ) produce much injury to the neighboring settle likewise to the good understanding which hapo ments, and excite irritations which eventually pily exists between our respective Governments; may endanger the peace of the nation, and inter- you enter into an investigation to show what the rupt that good understanding which so happily Spanish authorities ought to do to put an end to exists between our Governments...!
an evil of so serious a nature, in the mode preThe principles of good faith, which always scribed by those principles of good faith which insure good neighborhood between nations, re- are the foundation of friendly neighborhood quire the immediate and prompt interference of among nations; you distinctly state what this ihe Spanish authority to destroy or remove from Government ought immediately to do, in failour frontier this banditti, put an end to an evil ure of which your Government will be obliged of so serious a nature, and return to our citizens to do it, to insure the safety of the inhabitants of and friendly Indians in habiting our territory those the United States; and you conclude by renegroes now in said fort, and which have been questing me to state, in my answer to your let. stolen and enticed from them. I cannot permitter, whether the said fort has been constructed myself to indulge a belief that the Governor of by the Spanish Government, and whether the Pensacola, or the military commander at that negroes who compose its garrison are deemed place, will hesitate a moment in giving orders subjects of His Catholic Majesty, and, if the fort for this banditti to be dispersed, and the pro- was not built by Spanish authority, to state by perty of the citizens of the United States forth. what authority, and by whose order, it was with restored to them and our friendly Indians ; built. particularly when I reflect that the conduct of In answer to your excellency, I will state, with ihis banditii is such as will not be tolerated by the veracity which comports with the character our Government, and, if not put down by Span- of an honorable officer, in which class I rank ish authority, will compel us, in self-defence, to myself that, having arrived at this place nearly destroy them. This communication is intrusted at the close of the month of March preceding, to Captain Amelung, of the first regiment of the and being informed of what your excellency has United States iofaptry, who is charged to bring communicated to me, (with this difference, that back such answer as you may be pleased to make che fort, instead of being where you place it, is to this letter. In your answer you will be pleased to be found on the eastern bank of the Appala. to state whether that fort has been built by the chicola, at about fifteen miles from its mouth or Government of Spain, and whether those ne entrance into the sea,) I lost no time in propos. groes who garrison it are considered as the sub- ing to my Captain General the measures which jects of His Catholic Majesty, and, if not by appeared to 'me proper, as well for securing His Catholic Majesty, by whom, and under the inhabitants of the country under my command whose orders, it has been erected.
from the damages, losses, and injuries which ANDREW JACKSON, they have suffered, and still suffer, from this es. Major Gen. Com'g Div. of the South. tablishment, as to prevent the American citizens To the GOVERNOR of Pensacola,
and the friendly Indians of the neighborhood Or Military Com. of that place. from continuing to experience them. I have A true copy :
hitherto received no answer, and consequently ISAAC L. BAKER, Aid-de-camp. your excellency (who knows how limited are
ihe powers of a subordinate officer) cannot be No. 15.
surprised that I should make known to you that,
although my mode of thinking, exactly corres. Governor Zuniga to General Jackson.
ponds with yours as to dislodging the negroes Pensacola, March 26, 1816.
from the furt, the occupyiog it with Spanish Most EXCELLENT SIR : On the 24th of the troops, or destroying it, and delivering the nepresent month, Captain Amelung, of the 1st groes who may be collected to their lawful own. United States regiment, put into my hands your ers, I shall not be able to act until I receive the excellency's letter, dated at Washington, Missis- orders of my Captain General, and the assistsippi Territory, on the 23d of April last
, in ance necessary to enable me io undertake the which, after apprizing me that your Govern enterprise with a moral certainty of accomplishment had given it in charge to you to inform me ing the end. I am persuaded that the determinathat the fort of the negroes, erected during the lion of the said chief cannot be long delayed;' late war with Great Britain, near the junction of and, should it authorize me to act, your excel. the Chatahoochee and Fliot rivers, had been re- lency may rest assured and persuaded that I will inforced, and was now occupied by more than not lose an instant in adopting, on my part, the two hundred and fifty negroes, many of whom most efficacious measures for cutting up by the were seduced from the service of their masters, root an evil which is felt to the full extent stated (who are citizens of the United States) and in your letter by the inhabitants of this province, that all of them are well armed, provisioned, who are the subjects of my Sovereign, and whose and disciplined, you make many wise reflections prosperity and iranquillity it is my duty to prewith respect to the serious injuries which may serve and protect. result from tolerating such an establishment, not With this explanation, your before-named letonly to those in the immediate neighborhood ofter may be considered as fully answered, as it
Relations with Spain.
gives me pleasure to understand that, thinking as
No. 16. your excellency thinks with respect to the neces
Report of Captain Amelung to General Jackson. sity of destroying the negroes, the fort at Appalachicola occupied by then was not constructed
New ORLEANS, June 4, 1816. by orders of the Spanish Government; and that Sir: In obedience to your order, received on the negroes, although in part belonging to inhab- the 6th of May last, I proceeded the next day itants of this province, and as rational beings, for Pensacola ; but owing to adverse winds, may be the subjects of the King, my master, are (having 10 wait twelve days at the bay of St. deemed by me insurgents or rebels against the Louis,)
I only arrived at that place on the 24th authority, not only of His Catholic Majesty, but May. I was received and treated with great also of the proprietors from whose service they attention by the Governor and his officers, and, have withdrawn themselves; some seduced by after receiving his answer to your letter, I left the English Colonel Nicholls, Major Woodbine, there on the 27th, and arrived here on the 2d and their agents, and others from their inclina- instant. tion to run off. But as your excellency mani- I have the honor to transmit herewith the anfests a particular desire that, in case the fort was swer of the Governor, which, I think, embraces not erected by Spanish authority, I should state all the points touched upon in your letter; and by what authority and by whose orders it was also take the liberty to subjoin a translation erected, I have no difficulty in satisfying your thereof, as it might happen that no person is curiosity, by informing you that I have under- near you understanding the Spanish language. stood, ever since my arrival at this place, that the I am firmly of opinion that the Governor asserts said fort, and another near the confluence of the the truth in his communication; and am conChatahoochee and Flint rivers (which it appears vinced that the inhabitants of Pensacola hare no longer exists) were built by the order of the suffered, and do now suffer, more than our citibefore-named Colonel Nicholls. I will not as- zens, from the existence of ihe fort and its garsure you that he did it under authority from his rison. Government; but I can say that he proceeded to I also take the liberty of communicating such place artillery, munitions, and provisions in it, intelligence as I have been ble to collect from by the arrangement of Vice Admiral Malcolm; good authority, and which might perhaps be of and that when Colonel Nicholls and the troops of some use. his detachment, after the conclusion of the expe- The fort in question is situated at Bonavista, dition against Louisiana, withdrew from that on the eastern branch of the Appalachicola river, point, he left orders with the negroes, totally con- 15 miles above its mouth, and 120 miles east of irary to the incontestable right of sovereigory Pensacola. The river discharges itself ioto St. which the King, my master, exercises from the George's Sound, and vessels drawing not more line of the thirty-first degree of north latitude to than ten feet water may come in between St. the South. My predecessors in this Governmeni George's and St. Vincent's islands; the bar, have given an account of all these actions to the however, is dangerous, and requires skilful pilots. authorities on whom they depended, that the sat- The fort was constructed by Nicholls and isfaction which the violation required might be Woodbine, and the British occasionally resorted demanded by those on whom this duly devolves. thither; but, on their final evacuation of this I think I have answered your excellency's letter country, left it in the possession of a garrison satisfactorily, and in terms which cannot leave a composed of negroes and Indians, with four doubt of the sincerity of my intentions in favor pieces of heavy ordnance, and 10,000 pounds of of the common cause of the American and Span. powder, &c. About twenty Choctaws, a numish inbabitants; and that my present inaction ber of Seminoles, and a great number of runadoes not proceed from a wapi of inclination. I way negroes are supposed to have been there likewise Aatter myself that, until my Captain some time ago, but a great part of these brigands General decides, no steps will be taken by the have abandoned the fort on account of scarcity Government of ihe United States, or by your of provisions, and have gone to Savannah (alias excellency, which may be prejudicial to the sov. St. Joseph's) river, in East Florida, whither they ereignty of the King, my, master, or the district will
, no doubt, all retire, in case of an attack by of Appalachicola, which is a dependency of this land, as they have a schooner and several large Government. And, finally, I conclude by assur. boats to make good their retreat by sea, if not ing your excellency that it will afford me par- interrupted. ticular satisfaction io have opportunities of evinc- From this spot they can easily annoy our sefing my desire, not only to contribute, so far as lements on Fliot river, and the whole Georgia depends on me, to the cementing of the good use frontier, and are in a country where they can derstanding which subsists between our respecte procure subsistence with facility. ive Goveroments, but also to prove to your excel- Pensacola itself is, I can assure you, entirely lency the high opinion I entertain of your virtues defenceless. The garrison consists of from 80 to and military talents. God preserve your excel. 100 effective men, exclusive of a battalion of collency many years.
ored troops, say about 150 men, of whom the inMAURICIO DE ZUNIGA. habitants themselves stand in constant dread. His Exc'y Andrew Jackson.
They have about 150 serviceable muskets, about Major General, c. 500 musket cartridges, and not enough gunpow. Relations with Spain. der to fire a salute; one gun was mounting at Lieutenant Colonel Clinch, dated near the mouth Barancas on the day I left there. To this is to of Summochichoba, the 26th instant, enclosing a be added the dissatisfaction of the inbabitants, communication from the Little Prince, a copy of and even of a number of the officers of Govern- whicla I enclose herewith. ment, and the desire of a majority to see a change This chief is on a tour down the river to visit effecied. I must not forget to present to you, on the Seminole chiefs near the Appalachicola. the part of the Governor, the ibanks of the in- The ostensible object of the visit was to adopt habitants of Pensacola for the exemplary and bu- measures to take the negro fort; apd as Colonel mane conduct of the army under your command Hawkins had confidence in the promises of the at Pensacola, and I verily believe their proses. Indians to effect this object, I sanctioned a requi. sions to be sincere.
sition for supplying them with three hundred The Governor also, on my mentioning in con- bushels of corn, to serve as rations. That I have versation that I was persuaded you would will little faith in their promises, I will not deny ; ingly assist in destroying the fort, said, if the ob- but it seemed to me proper to encourage them in ject was of sufficient importance to require the the prosecution of a measure which I felt perpresence of General Jackson, he would be proud suaded would, if successful, be attended with io be commanded by you; and that, if the Cap- great benefit to our southera frontier inhabitants, tain General of Cuba could not furnish him with as well as the Indians themselves. the necessary means, he might perhaps apply to I have the honor to be, &c. you for assistance.
EDMUND P. GAINES. Having nothing further to add, I remain, very Hon. Wm. H. CRAWFORD, respectfully, your obedient servant,
Secretary of War.
No. 18 b.
Talk from the Little Prince, Tustenuggee Hopoy, to
forces in the No. 17.
Indian nation. General Jackson to the Secretary of War.
SIR: Jackson and Hawkins spoke to us, and
told us we were their children. At the TusHEADQ'RS, DIVISION OF THE SOUTH,
keegee meeting you told us you would have the Nashville, Inne 15, 1816.
land as far down as the Summochichoba ; but SIR: I have this moment received the answer we chiefs did not agree to it. You did not tell of the commanding officer and Governor of Pen- us then you would build forts along the river sacola to mine of the 23d of April, which I hasten bank down to the fork; but we heard, since, you to forward for your information, as well as the issued orders to that effect. We do not think it copy of the report of Captain Amelung, of the friendly for one friend to take anything from Isi infantry, who was the bearer of my letter. I another forcibly. The Commander and Hawsend you the original, retaining a copy in English kins did not tell us anything about building of forwarded to me by Captain Awelung.
these forts. Did you know these things, and The answer bears the marks of candor and keep them hidden from me? We cold our friend breathes the spirit of friendship; and as those Hawkins we would hold a meeting at this place marauders on our frontier are acknowledged offi- on our way down. We were [told) at the fort cially as rebels against the Government of Spain, at Summochichoba, built by the commanding there can be no fear of disturbing the good un officer, that he had' orders to build three forts. derstanding that exists between us and Spain, by Our friend Hawkios told us to go down to the destroying the negro fort, and restoring to the fort of the blacks, and take them out of it, and owners the negroes that may be captured. give them to their masters; which we are at
The 4th and 7th infantry will be sufficient to ihis present, when we have heard of Jackson's destroy it. A few troops from the 1st infantry, orders about building these forts. We hear of with a small naval force, will prevent their es- your meeting at Tuskeegee. We hope you will cape, and capture those vessels named by Captain detain the forces at the places they are at at Amelung in his report. I shall await your order present, and wait on the Indians, as I am sure on this subject, which shall be prompily obeyed they will be able to settle everything; but all apd executed.
the chiefs are not yet met. You know that we I am, respectfully, &c.
are slow in our movements. I spoke to the comANDREW JACKSON, manding officer at Summochichoba. He will Major Gen., com'g Div. of the South. read this, and write it off on a clean sheet, and Hon. WM. H. CRAWFORD,
send it on to the Commander-in-chief and ColoSecretary of War.
nel Hawkins. I beg you will send me back an No. 18 a.
answer, and a sheet of paper, and a little ink, in
order to enable me to write you again, if it General Gaines to the Secretary of War. should be necessary. I remain your friend, CAMP NEAR FORT JACKSON,
ROB. R. RUFFIN, Sir: I have just now received a letter from
Lieut. Artillery, Aid-de-camp.