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N° 413. TUESDAY, JUNE 24, 1712.

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CONTENTS Why the necessary cause of our being pleased with what is great, new,

or beautiful, unknown. Why the final cause more known and more useful. The final cause of our being pleased with what is great, The final cause of our being pleased with what is new. The final cause of our being pleased with what is beautiful in our own species. The final cause of our being pleased with what is beautiful in general.

-Causa latet, vis est notissima OviD, Met. ix. 207.
The cause is secret, but the effect is known.--ADDISON.


NHOUGH in yesterday's paper we considered how

every thing that is great, new, or beautiful, affect the imagination with pleasure, we must own that it is impossible for us to assign the necessary cause of this pleasure, because we know neither the nature of an idea, nor the substance of a human soul, which might help us to discover the conformity or disagreeableness of the one to the other; and therefore, for want of such a light, all that we can do in speculations of this kind, is to reflect on those operations of the soul that are most agreeable, and to range, under their proper heads, what is pleasing or displeasing to the mind, without being able to trace out the several necessary and efficient causes from whence the pleasure or displeasure arises.

Final causes lie more bare and open to our observation, as there are often a greater variety that belong to the same effect; and these, though they are not altogether so

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satisfactory, are generally more useful than the other, as they give us greater occasion of admiring the goodness and wisdom of the first Contriver.

One of the final causes of our delight in any thing that is great may be this. The Supreme Author of our being has so formed the soul of man, that nothing but Himself can be its last, adequate, and proper happiness. Because, therefore, a great part of our happiness must arise from the contemplation of his being, that he might give our souls a just relish for such a contemplation, he has made them naturally delight in the apprehension of what is great or unlimited. Our admiration, which is a very pleasing motion of the mind, immediately rises at the consideration of any object that takes up a great deal of room in the fancy, and, by consequence, will improve into the highest pitch of astonishment and devotion when we contemplate his nature, that is neither circumscribed by time nor place, nor to be comprehended by the largest capacity of a created being.

He has annexed a secret pleasure to the idea of any thing that is new or uncommon, that he might encourage us in the pursuit after knowledge, and engage us to search into the wonders of his creation ; for every new idea brings such a pleasure with it, as rewards any pains we have taken in its acquisition, and consequently serves as a motive to put us upon fresh discoveries.

He has made every thing that is beautiful in our own species pleasant, that all creatures might be tempted to multiply their kind, and fill the world with inhabitants; for it is very remarkable, that wherever nature is crossed in the production of a monster (the result of any unnatural mixture), the breed is incapable of propagating its likeness, and of founding a new order of creatures : so that, unless all animals were allured by the beauty of their own species, generation would be at an end, and the earth unpeopled.

In the last place, he has made every thing that is beautiful in all other objects pleasant, or rather has made so many objects appear beautiful, that he might render the whole creation more gay and delightful. He has given almost every thing about us the power of raising an agreeable idea in the imagination : so that it is impossible for

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us to behold, his works with coldness or indifference, and to survey. so many beauties without a secret satisfaction and complacency. Things would make but a poor appearance to the eye, if we saw them only in their proper figures and motions: and what reason can we assign for their exciting in us many of those ideas which are different from any thing that exists in the objects themselves (for such are light and colours), were it not to add supernu. merary ornaments to the universe, and make it more. agreeable to the imagination? We are every where entained with pleasing shows and apparitions: we discover imaginary glories in the heavens and in the earth, and see some of this visionary beauty poured out upon the whole creation : but what a rough unsightly sketch of nature should we be entertained with, did all her colouring disappear, and the several distinctions of light and shade vanish? In short, our souls are at present delightfully lost and bewildered in a pleasing delusion, and we walk about like the enchanted hero of a romance, who sees beautiful castles, woods, and meadows; and, at the same time, hears the warbling of birds, and the purling of streams; but

upon the finishing of some secret spell the fantastic scene breaks up, and the disconsolate knight finds him on a barren heath, or in a solitary desert. It is not improbable that something like this may be the state of the soul after its first separation, in respect of the images it will receive from matter; though indeed the ideas of colours are so pleasing and beautiful in the imagination, that it is possible the soul will not be deprived of them, but perhaps find them excited by some other occasional cause, as they are at present by the different impressions of the subtle matter on the sight.

I have here supposed that my reader is acquainted with that great modern discovery, which is at present universally acknowledged by all the inquirers into natural philosophy: namely, that light and colours, as apprehended by the imagination, are only ideas in the mind, and not qualities that have any existence in matter.

As this is a truth which has been proved incontestably by many modern philosophers, and is indeed one of the finest speculations in that science, if the English reader would see

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the notion explained at large, he may find it in the eighth chapter of the second book of Mr. Locke's Essay on Human Understanding.

The following letter of Steele to Addison is reprinted here

from the original edition of the Spectator in folio.

June 24, 1712.
I would not divert the course of your discourses, when
you seem bent upon obliging the world with a train of
thinking, which, rightly attended to, may render the life
of every one that reads it more easy and happy for the
future. The pleasures of the imagination are what be-
wilder life, when reason and judgment do not interpose;
it is therefore a worthy action in you to look carefully into
the powers of fancy, that other men, from the knowledge
of them, may improve their joys, and allay their griefs, by
a just use of that faculty. I say, Sir, I would not inter-
rupt you in the progress of this discourse ; but if you will
do me the favour of inserting this letter in your next
paper, you will do some service to the public, though not
in so noble a way of obliging, as that of improving their
minds. Allow me, Sir, to acquaint you with a design (of
which I am partly author), though it tends to no greater
a good than that of getting money. I should not hope
for the favour of a philosopher in this matter, if it were
not attempted under the restrictions which you sages put
upon private acquisitions. The first purpose which every
good man is to propose to himself, is the service of his
prince and country: after that is done, he cannot add to
himself, but he must also be beneficial to them. This
scheme of gain is not only consistent with that end, but
has its very being in subordination to it; for no man can
be a gainer here but at the same time he himself, or some
other; must succeed in their dealings with the govern-
ment. It is called “The Multiplication Table,' and is so
far calculated for the immediate service of her majesty,
that the same person who is fortunate in the lottery of the
state may receive yet farther advantage in this table. And
I am sure nothing can be more pleasing to her gracious
temper than to find out additional methods of increasing
their good fortune who adventure any thing in her service,
or laying occasions for others to become capable of serving

their country who are at present in too low circumstances to exert themselves. The manner of executing the design is by giving out receipts for half guineas received, which shall entitle the fortunate bearer to certain sums in the table, as is set forth at large in the proposals printed the 23d instant. There is another circumstance in this design which gives me hopes of your favour to it, and that is what Tully advises, to wit, that the benefit is made as diffusive as possible. Every one that has half a guinea is put into the possibility, from that small sum, to raise himself an easy fortune: when these little parcels of wealth are, as it were, thus thrown back into the redonation of Providence, we are to expect that some who live under hardships or obscurity may be produced to the world in the figure they deserve by this means. I doubt not but this last argument will have force with you; and I cannot add another to it, but what your severity will, I fear, very little regard, which is, that I am, “ Sir, your greatest admirer,


N° 414. WEDNESDAY, JUNE 25, 1712.



CONTENTS. The works of nature more pleasant to the imagination than those of

art. The works of nature still more pleasant, the more they resemble those of art. The works of art more pleasant, the more they resemble those of nature. Our English plantations and gardens considered in the foregoing light.

Alterius sic
Altera poscit opem res, et conjurat amicè.

Hor. Ars Poet. v. 410.
But mutually they need each other's help.-RoscoMMON.
F we consider the works of nature and art as they are

qualified to entertain the imagination, we shall find the last very defective, in comparison of the former; for though they may sometimes appear as beautiful or strange, they can have nothing in them of that vastness and immensity,

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