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which afford so great an entertainment to the mind of the
beholder. The one may be as polite and delicate as the
other, but can never shew herself so august and magni-
ficent in the design. There is something more bold and
masterly in the rough careless strokes of nature, than in
the nice touches and embellishments of art. The beauties
the most stately garden or palace lie in a narrow com-
pass; the imagination immediately runs them over, and
requires something else to gratify her, but in the wide
fields of nature, the sight wanders up and down without
confinement, and is fed with an infinite variety of images,
without any certain stint or number. For this reason we
always find the poet in love with the country life, where
nature appears in the greatest perfection, and furnishes
out all those scenes that are most apt to delight the ima-
Scriptorum chorus omnis amat nemus, et fugit urbes.

HOR. 2 Ep. ii. 77.
-To grottos and to groves we run,
To ease and silence, every Muse's son. -Pope.
Hic secura quies, et nescia fallere vita,
Speluncæ, vivique lacus ; hic frigida Tempe,
Dives opum variarum : hic latis otia fundis,
Mugitusque boum, mollesque sub arbore somni.

Virg. Georg. ii. 467.
Here easy quiet, a secure retreat,
A harmless life that knows not how to cheat,
With home-bred plenty the rich owner bless,
And rural pleasures crown his happiness.
Unvex'd with quarrels, undisturb'd with noise,
The country king his peaceful realm enjoys :
Cool grots and living lakes, the flow'ry pride
Of meads, and streams that through the valley glide ;
And shady groves that easy sleep invite,
And, after toilsome days, a sweet repose at night.--DRYDEN.
But though there are several of those wild scenes, that
are more delightful than any artificial shows, yet we find
the works of nature still more pleasant, the more they re-
semble those of art: for in this case our pleasure rises
from a double principle; from the agreeableness of the
objects to the eye, and from their similitude to other ob-
jects. We are pleased as well with comparing their
beauties, as with surveying them, and can represent them
to our minds, either as copies or originals. Hence it is

that we take delight in a prospect which is well laid out, < and diversified with fields and meadows, woods and rivers ; in those accidental landscapes of trees, clouds, and cities, that are sometimes found in the veins of marble; in the curious fret-work of rocks and grottos; and, in a word, in any thing that hath such a variety or regularity as may seem the effect of design in what we call the works of chance.

If the products of nature rise in value according as they more or less resemble those of art, we may be sure that artificial works receive a greater advantage from their resemblance of such as are natural; because here the similitude is not only pleasant, but the pattern more perfect. The prettiest landscape I ever saw, was one drawn on the walls of a dark room, which stood opposite on one side to a navigable river, and on the other to a park. The experiment is very common in optics. Here you might discover the waves and fluctuations of the water in strong and proper colours, with the picture of a ship entering at one end, and sailing by degrees through the whole piece. On another there appeared the green shadows of trees, waving to and fro with the wind, and herds of deer

among them in miniature, leaping about upon the wall. I must confess the novelty of such a sight may be one occasion of its pleasantness to the imagination; but, certainly its chief reason is its nearest resemblance to nature, as it does not only, like other pictures, give the colour and figure, but the motion of the things it represents.

We have before observed, that there is generally in nature something more grand and august than what we meet with in the curiosities of art. When, therefore, we see this imitated in any measure, it gives us a nobler and more exalted kind of pleasure than what we receive from the nicer and more accurate productions of art. On this account our English gardens are not so entertaining to the fancy as those in France and Italy, where we see a large extent of ground covered over with an agreeable mixture of garden and forest, which represent every where an artificial rudeness, much more charming than that neatness and elegancy which we meet with in those of our own country. It might indeed be of ill consequence to the public, as well as unprofitable to private persons, to alienate

so much ground from pasturage and the plough, in many parts of a country that is so well peopled, and cultivated to a far greater advantage. But why may not a whole estate be thrown into a kind of garden by frequent plantations, that may turn as much to the profit as the pleasure of the owner? A marsh overgrown with willows, or a mountain shaded with oaks, are not only more beautiful, but more beneficial, than when they lie bare and unadorned. Fields of corn make a pleasant prospect; and if the walks were a little taken care of that lie between them, if the natural embroidery of the meadows were helped and improved by some small additions of art, and the several rows of edges set off by trees and flowers that the soil was capable off receiving, a man might make a pretty landscape of his own possessions.

Writers who have given us an account of China, tell us the inhabitants of that country laugh at the plantations of our Europeans, which are laid out by the rule and line ; because, they say, any person may place trees in equal rows and uniform figures. They choose rather to shew a genius in works of this nature, and therefore always conceal the art by which they direct themselves. They have a word, it seems, in their language, by which they express the particular beauty of a plantation that thus strikes the imagination at first sight, without discovering what it is that has so agreeable an effect. Our British gardeners, on the contrary, instead of humouring nature, love to deviate from it as much as possible. Our trees rise in cones, globes, and pyramids. We see the marks of the scissars upon every plant and bush. I do not know whether I am singular in my opinion, but for my own part, I would rather look upon a tree in all its luxuriancy and diffusion of boughs and branches, than when it is thus cut and trimmed into a mathematical figure; and cannot but fancy that an orchard in flower looks infinitely more delightful than all the little labyrinths of the most finished parterre. But, as our great modellers of gardens have their magazines of plants to dispose of, it is very natural for them to tear up all the beautiful plantations of fruit-trees, and contrive a plan that may most turn to their own profit, in taking off their evergreens, and the like moveable plants, with which their shops are plentifully stocked.


N° 415. THURSDAY, JUNE 26, 1712.



CONTENTS. Of architecture, as it affects the imagination. Greatness in architec

ture relates either to the bulk or to the manner. Greatness of bulk
in the ancient oriental buildings. The ancient accounts of these
buildings confirmed, 1. From the advantages for raising such works,
in the first ages of the world, and in eastern climates; 2. From
several of them which are still extant. Instances how greatness of
manner affects the imagination. A French author's observations
on this subject. Why concave and convex figures give a greatness of
manner to works of architecture. Every thing that pleases the ima-
gination in architecture, is either great, beautiful, or new.
Adde tot egregias urbes, operumque laborem.

Virg. Georg. ii. 155.
Witness our cities of illustrious name,
Their costly labour,and stupendous frame.-DRYDEN.
AVING already shewn how the fancy is affected by

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general both the works of nature and of art, how they mutually assist and complete each other in forming such scenes and prospects as are most apt to delight the mind of the beholder, I shall in this paper throw together some reflections on that particular art, which has more immediate tendency, than any other, to produce those primary pleasures of the imagination which have hitherto been the subject of this discourse. The art I mean is that of architecture, which I shall consider only with regard to the light in which the foregoing speculations have placed it, without entering into those rules and maxims which the great masters of architecture have laid down, and explained at large in numberless treatises upon that subject.

Greatness in the works of architecture may be consis dered as relating to the bulk and body of structure, or to the manner in which it is built. As for the first, we find the ancients, especially among the eastern nations of the world, infinitely superior to the moderns.

Not to mention the tower of Babel, of which an old author says, there were the foundations to be seen in his time, which looked like a spacious mountain ; what could be

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more noble than the walls of Babylon, its hanging gardens, and its temple to Jupiter Belus, that rose a mile high by eight several stories, each story a furlong in height, and on the top of which was the Babylonian observatory? I might here, likewise, take notice of the huge rock that was cut into the figure of Semiramis, with the smaller rocks that lay by it in the shape of tributary kings; the prodigious basin, or artificial lake, which took in the whole Euphrates, till such time as a new canal was formed for its reception, with the several trenches through which that river was conveyed. I know there are persons who look upon some of these wonders of art as fabulous; but I cannot find any grounds for such a suspicion ; unless it be that we have no such works among us at present. There were, indeed, many greater advantages for building in those times, and in that part of the world, than have been met with ever since. The earth was extremely fruitful; men lived generally on pasturage, which requires a much smaller number of hands than agriculture. There were few trades to employ the busy part of mankind, and fewer arts and sciences to give work to men of speculative tempers; and, what is more than all the rest, the prince was absolute; so that, when he went to war, he put himself at the head of the whole people; as we find Semiramis leading her three millions to the field, and yet overpowered by the number of her enemies. It is no wonder, therefore, when she was at peace, and turned her thoughts on building, that she could accomplish such great works, with such a prodi. gious multitude of labourers : besides that in her climate there was small interruption of frosts and winters, which make the northern workmen lie half a year idle. I might mention, too, among the benefits of the climate, what his

of the earth, that it sweated out a bitumen, or natural kind of mortar, which is doubtless the same with that mentioned in the holy writ, as contributing to the structure of Babel : “ Slime they used instead of mortar.”

In Egypt we still see their pyramids, which answer to the descriptions that have been made of them; and I question not but a traveller might find out some remains of the labyrinth that covered a whole province, and had a hundred temples disposed among its several quarters and divisions.

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