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time must be made up, nor does the time absent count in computation of time for retirement.

(c) When men on extra or special duty are transferred to another organization at the same post, the fact, with number, date, etc., of order, should be stated.

(d) Special care should be taken to note with detail and accuracy all former service, especially foreign service. This information should also be noted with equal care and detail on a soldier's discharge certificate, for it affects directly a soldier's retirement after thirty years' service.

(d) Erasures of entries on a descriptive list or descriptive and assignment card are prohibited. All changes made in original entries thereon will be duly authenticated by the signature of the officer making the changes. Under no circumstances will slips of paper be pasted or attached to a descriptive list or

descriptive and assignment card. (Cir. 12, 1910). A 5 Papers made out in duplicate, triplicate, etc., are marked in the lower left-hand corner, “In Duplicate," "In Triplicate," etc.

Ś In case an original paper has been lost and it becomes necessary to make another, the new one is marked “Duplicate." B 7 Whenever a signature is copied, (Sgd.) or (Sig.) is written before the same. C 8 When practicable, true copies of papers should be made by another officer than the one interested. A "true copy" may be made by anyone, but an "official copy" can be made only by the officer having authority to issue the order, or by an officer through whom the issuing authority may issue orders, e. g., chiefs of staff, adjutants general, aids and adjutants.

9 Interlineations should be initialed by the one who makes them.

10 Papers submitted for signature should always contain the rank, regiment, and official designation below the place where the officer is to sign.

A clerk or anyone else who typewrites anything, should always read the paper carefully before submitting it.

12 Always compare carefully before submitting them, all papers requiring comparison.

II

THE MUSTER AND THE PAY ROLLS.

A

Read carefully and intelligently and then comply with all the notes on the rolls.

Enter on the Muster Rolls, everything affecting in any way the status or record of every member of the company during the period covered.

(Note: However, only in case of sickness at date of muster, is the fact noted on the muster rolls).

Enter on the Pay Rolls, only such facts as affect the sol

diers' pay.

These rubber stamps can be used with advantage in the preparation of the Muster and the Pay Rolls: 1. Stop $ per S. C.

4. Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 2. Co. B, 24th Infty.

5. 30 MAY, 07

(Dater, for date of last payment, etc.) 3. Captain Smith.

6. Capt. 24th Infantry (Name of paymaster)

Commanding Co. B See "Rubber Stamps” in Index.

For instructions regarding the preparation of the Muster and the PAY ROLLS, see SUPPLEMENT, Chap. XVI.

B Telegraphing. See "Telegraphing," Army Regulations.

When numbers are used in reference to dates, designation of organizations, etc., they should be written in words and not expressed in figures.

Telegrams to The Adjutant of the Army should be addressed “Adjutant General, Washington, D. C.”

In the case of telegrams to the Adjutant General, the Chief Quartermaster or the Chief Commissary of a department, it is not necessary to add, “Department of—"

Such telegrams should be addressed thus, for instance: “Adjutant General, Governor's Island, New York.”

The last name of the officer sending a telegram, followed by his rank, or office designation, is generally sufficient. Thus:

“Smith, lieutenant," "Harris, adjutant," "Jones, Commanding" (in case of a post or other commander.)

CHAPTER XVII

DISCIPLINE

(See corresponding chapter in SUPPLEMENT for additional matter and changes, if any.)

Discipline may be defined as “The preservation of order, the prevention of all kinds of offenses and the faithful performance of every kind of duty without delay or interruption.”— Kautz's Customs of the Service.

Drill, routine, strict attention to details, proper rewards and the invariable.admonition or punishment of all derelictions of duty, are the best methods of attaining good discipline.

In maintaining discipline, it must be remembered the object of punishments should be two-fold: (a) To prevent the commission of offenses, and (b) to reform the offender. They should, therefore, in degree and character depend upon the nature of the offense. Punishment should not be debasing or illegal, and the penalty should be proportionate to the nature of the offense. If too great it tends to arouse sympathy, and foster friends for the offender, thus encouraging a repetition of the offense. A distinction, therefore, should be made between the deliberate disregard of orders and regulations, and offenses which are the result of ignorance or thoughtlessness. In the latter case the punishment should be for the purpose of instruction and should not go to the extent of inflicting unnecessary humiliation and discouragement upon the offender. In the administration of discipline the following principles should be observed :

1 Every one, officers and soldiers, should be required and made to perform their full duty. If the post commander, for instance, requires the company commanders to do their full duty, they will require their noncommissioned officers to do their full duty, and the noncommissioned officers will in turn require the men to do the

same.

2

Subordinates should be held strictly responsible for the proper government and administration of their respective commands, and all changes or corrections should be made through them.

3 Subordinates should have exclusive control of their respective commands and all orders, instructions and directions, affecting their commands, should be given through them.

4 If, in case of emergency, it be not practicable to make certain changes or corrections, or to give certain orders, instructions or directions, through the subordinates, they should be notified at once of what has been done.

5 After a subordinate has been placed in charge of a certain duty, all instructions pertaining thereto, should be given through him, and all meddling and interfering should be avoided. Interference by superiors relieves the subordinate of responsibility, and causes him to lose interest, become indifferent, and do no more than he is obliged to do.

6 The certainty of reward and appreciation for meritorious conduct, should equal the certainty of punishment for dereliction of duty.

7 It is the duty of an officer or noncommissioned officer who gives an order to see that it is obeyed; carrying out orders received by him does not end with their perfunctory transmission to subordinates—this is only a small part of his duty. He must personally see that the orders so transmitted are made effective.

8 The treatment of soldiers should be uniform and just, and under no circumstances should a man be humiliated unnecessarily or abused. Reproof and punishment must be administered with discretion and judgment, and without passion; for the officer who loses his temper and flies into a tantrum has failed to obtain his first triumph in discipline. He who can not control himself can not control others.

9 Punishment should invariably follow derelictions of duty: for the frequency of offenses depends, as a general rule, on the degree of certainty with which their commission is attended with punishment. When men know that their derelictions and neglects will be observed and reproved, they will be much more careful than they would be otherwise—that's human nature.

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Obedience—the cardinal principle of all discipline-may be defined as submission to the lawful orders of superiors. Men can not be punished for refusing to obey illegal orders. The question then arises, who is to judge of the legality of the order? It is evident that if all officers and soldiers are judge when an order is lawful and when not, the captious and mutinous would never be at a loss for a plea to justify their insubordination. It is therefore an established principle, that unless an order is so manifestly against law that the question does not admit of dispute, the order must first be obeyed by the inferior, and he must only subsequently seek such redress against his superior as the law allows. If the inferior disputes the legality before obedience, error of judgment is never admitted in mitigation of the offense.

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