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pens, as it sometimes does, that some veteran chief shatters their flimsy, webs to pieces at a blow. Like a hive of bees that have been despoileddof their year's labor, they set to work again with redoubled industry. From the great deal that is said of Crawford, I should suspect that all was not right, but for no other reason. He may be worthy of the trust, but if he really be so, why make such a din about him; let his character speak for itself, when any thing is praised over much, it creates suspi



This part of Virginia, I mean all that lies on this side the Blue Ridge, presents another feature in that State, which it obtains to its eastern limits: it is distinguished from all that part west by the number of negroes and mulattoes, by the gross ignorance of the lower class of its citizens, by the sprightliness both of men and women; and above all, by the beautiful form of the latter. The females greatly exceed the West Virginia ladies in well turned persons and features, though they must yield to those in complexion. From the Blue Ridge to the Alleghany mountain, a distinct country obtains, differing morally and physically from the former. Next comes my Grayson republic, already described; to the left of it, in the same parallel, lies the great wealthy counties, of Montgomery, Wythe, Washington, &c. &c. to the right, lies Pendleton, Harrison, Bath, &c. &c. and beyond all, to the west, lie the counties bordering on the Ohio. All these divisions of Virginia differ more widely than so many States.

Virginia begins to awake from her lethargy, in respect to roads and canals. I saw a report from Isaac Briggs, Esq, of Maryland, directed to the Virginia Assembly. The report embraces a survey of the Potomac river from Cumberland to tide water. This sur Ivey was made at the united instance of Virginia and Maryland, with a view to ascertain the expense of an independent canal along the Potomac valley. Mr. B. makes the distance 182 miles, and estimates the cost at $8,544 average rate per mile, total $1575,074. I was not able to get a view of the sentiments of the Legislature on the report, or the opinion of the Board of public

works; to whom all business of this nature is referred, in the first instance. A large fund is appropriated by the State for internal Enprovements, under the direction of a Board of public works. The members of this Board are selected from different parts of the State, thereby giving to each part an equal weight in what relates to the advantage of the people at large. Education, likewise, begins to engage the attention of Virginia in a manner worthy that renowned State. The university which is soon to go into operation is located in Albemarle county, at Charlottesville, a small village in the healthiest part of Virginia: It has been built under the direction of the Hon. Thomas Jefferson, ex-president of the United States. The plan contemplates ten professors. The buildings consist of ten pavilions, one for each professor; five hotels for dieting the students, six for the proctor, with one hundred and four dormitories, sufficient to lodge two hundred and eight students. The whole is of uncommon beauty and elegance. The sums expended upon the building have consumed the revenue allotted for its support for seven years to come. There are three colleges in Virginia, besides several academies and schools.

My visit to Richmond was limited to three or four days only, and accordingly I left it for Washington, in the stage, with three other very respectable passengers. The party consisted of a Mr. Warrick, a merchant, and the young man who drew the $100,000 prize, Gillespie's lottery. He was going to Washington City to break up the corporation, which report says has made itself liable for the whole amount. It is well that this minion of fortune is neither a son of Mars nor Minerva. He is what we, in the west, would call a soft young man. It is quite amusing to see his languishing airs, and how he tries to look big. This man is young, about twenty-three, of very pleasing countenance. But the $100,000 will not mend all defects, when he gets it. Having disposed of the $100,000, little remains to be said of the rest.—The merchant was a jolly, talkative soul, all life and humor; he was going on to New-York to purchase goods; but the flower of the party was Mr. Warrick, a man of erudition

and elegant manners-had made the tour of Europe, where he had travelled three years; our time, therefore, passed off very pleasantly during the journey. A circumstance occurred during our ride, which proved that men of genius and general science, are, for the most part, deficient in the common affairs of life: we stopped to dine; when dinner was over I handed the man of the house twenty-five cents, and stepped into the stagecoach. The others soon followed, one of them observed he should like to know how I happened to come off in the affair of the dinner upon so much better terms than they, as each had to pay seventy-five cents. I told him that all licensed taverns in this State are compelled, by law, under pain of a heavy fine, to have the rates of fare nailed up in the public room or in some public place, so as to be seen by travellers the moment they enter the house. If the tavern-keeper fails to do this, it is optionary with the traveller to pay or not. Finding no rates, I determined not to be swindled; probably the owner suspected the truth, as he took the quarter without utterring a word. None of the party, though all Virginians, and had travelled a great deal, knew that such a law existed! For want of other matter I must amuse the reader with one or two anecdotes, of the same nature, which will pass off the time till we arrive at the boat, where I shall bid him good night and betake myself to rest in one of those delicious alcoves in the Mount Vernon.

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Travelling in company with some gentlemen in the west, it so happened when we called for dinner, that, not feeling over well, one of the party requested the landlady to make him a cup of tea; she was one of your very important ladies, and called to Jinny to tell Peggy to go to the spring and tell Betsey to come home and put on the tea-kettle: the gentleman, provoked at this round about way of doing business, "Madain," said he, "if you will tell me where the kettle is, I will put it on myself." She took the hint, and got up, as I suspect, to put on the kettle herself, but just as she stepped out of the door she was met by her husband and communicated to him the substance, and the manner she had been

addressed, &c.; she spoke in a low voice, which, nevertheless, I overheard that she rather exceeded the truth. The tea was made, dinner, &c. over, and our bills presented he charged us four shillings for dinner and oats more than the rate of the county. The knight of the tea-kettle exclaimed, "Where is your rates, sir!"? He was a magistrate, and happened to know the law: "Oh," said he of the tavern, in a style of the greatest importance, mixed with contempt, the law says that you shall have the rates nailed to the ceiling, but there is no ceiling here to nail them to." " The intent and meaning of the law, sir," said the other, "is, that you shall have the rates, and without them you have no right to charge; that you shall not only have them, but it is your duty to have them in the most public part of your house, so that a traveller, the moment he enters, may see what he has to pay, and be regulated accordingly. Put up your money gentlemen, said he, you have no right to pay him a cent, I shall report you, sir, for this;" addressing the landlord, and departed. The strangers laughed at the incident; and after exchanging a look between each other, one of them threw the amount of what we had, on the table, leaving monsieur, the landlord, not quite so easy in his mind. This happened in West Virginia.

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But this was a rare instance; it is seldom that travellers are imposed upon in any part of the west, indeed; the fare is extremely low, every where in the western country. But we pay for this in the east, at least in old Virginia, particularly those who travel in stages. In coming on last winter, I was initiated into the secret by degrees; they began to broach the subject to me, at Newmarket, Limestone Valley, Va. thro' an old man by the name of Gray, (for the benefit of other travellers.) Being fatigued when I arrived, I went to bed without supper. Next morning we were called as usual, about 3 o'clock, to set out. The old man was up, I called for my bill. What was my astonishment to find it fifty cents. "Where are your rates sir?" said I. "They were in the next room," he said. I picked up the candle, telling him to show them. "Oh dn it," said he, "what a fuss you make; d'ye think I am a going to

get up before day, and keep fires for stage passengers without making them pay." I walked on, nevertheless, to see the rates, but looked for them in vain; the fact was that he had none in the house, which he fairly acknowledged, and in this way are strangers fleeced in this country, which is, indeed, their own fault. The reason they assign for this exorbitant exaction, is the very reason why they should make their charges low, which is that of our being stage passengers; of course they get the more custom. The stage mostly stops at some post-town, where there are more taverns than one. It is altogether a matter of courtesy in the traveller, to give any one tavern the preference. There were two young ladies of our party, that same night, they declared to me, that they had paid fifty cents for lodging heretofore at that same inn. They were entirely ignorant of the restrictions to which a tavern-keeper is subject, until they heard the altercation between the old man and myself. I threw him a quarter and (I repent it yet) departed. When I arrived at Woodstock, where we stopped to breakfast, which is the seat of justice, I inquired of the inn-keeper what the rate was for lodging; he replied twelve and a half cents! This old v


therefore, run the risk of losing his license and his soul, (if he had any) for lying and fraud. Thus do these highway robbers, for they are no better, fleece the traveller. I never saw one of this description thrive in any country; they are always a poor, needy set: God in his wisdom has put his fiat against them, they never will nor ever ought to arrive to any thing. And here is the steam-boat. I promised the reader good night, intending to go to rest. Accordingly I took possession of a good bed, and would soon have resigned myself to Morpheus, but for a strange adventure on board. Several ladies were passengers, some of these came with us from F. some we met at the river. One of those who seemed to rank with the better sort, observed that "the room below was too warm; she must go upon deck for air," and in the course of the night, my companion came to bed, having kept me awake during the time. How was I surprised, to hear that the lady before named

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