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was still on deck in company with the C. All this was nothing to me, and probably shall not think of it in the course of a few minutes. What pleasant opportunities to sleep on board these steam-boats, the murmuring of the water, the rocking of the boat, and the sound of the wheels, which keep regular time to the motion of the boat, the neatness of the chambers and beds, all invite to sweet repose.

Washington City.-As I before observed, the conveyance from Richmond to Washington, by way of Fredericksburg, is partly by land and partly by water. The steam-boat which takes you in at Potomac Creek, at 8 o'clock, P. M. lands at Washington about day-light-by which means we lost the pleasure of an approaching view of the city, which the river commands. When the steam-boat lands her passengers on the shore of the Potomac, they are a mile, at least, from the inhabited part of the city, with the exception of a few scattered dwel lings. To remedy this inconvenience, the proprietors of the line have provided a large vehicle, something like a stage coach; it is called a carry-all, and would carry twenty persons. This vehicle soon brought us in view of the "mighty city," which is nothing more than distinct groups of houses, scattered over a vast surface, and has more the appearance of so many villages, than a city.

It was not long before the towering dome of the capitol met my eye: its massy columns and walls of glittering white. The next object that strikes the eye of a stranger, is the President's house, on the left, while the capitol is on the right, as you advance in an eastern direction. Another object of admiration is the bridge over the Potomac. The capitol, however, which may aptly be called the eighth wonder of the world, eclipses the whole. This stupenduous fabric, when seen at a distance, is remarkable for its magnitude, its vast dome rising out of the centre, and its exquisite whiteness.The President's house, like the capitol, rivals the snow in whitness. It is easily distinguished from the surrounding edifices, inasmuch as they are of brick. Their

red walls and black, elevated roofs, form a striking contrast to the former, which is not only much larger, but perfectly white, and flat on the top. From the point just mentioned, it has the appearance of a quadrangular; it displays its gorgeous columns at all points, looking down upon the neighboring buildings in silent and stately grandeur. The War Office, Navy Office, the Treasury department, the Department of State, the General Post Office, and the City Hall are all enormous edifices. These edifices, the elevated site of the city; its undulating surface, partially covered with very handsome buildings; the majestic Potomac, with its ponderous bridge, and gliding sails; the eastern branch with its lordly ships; swelling hills which surround the city; the spacious squares and streets, and avenues adorned with rows of flourishing trees, and all this visible at once; it is not in the power of imagination to conceive a scene so replete with every species of beauty.

History. The following is from Watterton's history of the District of Columbia :—' "The District of Columbia was originally inhabited by a tribe of Indians called the Manahoaes, who, according to Smith, were at constant war with the Pohatans, of Virginia. Their history is but imperfectly known. The war, the small pox, and the introduction of spiritous liquors thinned the population rapidly. In 1669 a census was taken, and it was found that in sixty-two, one third of their numbers were wanting. They are said to have migrated westwardly, and to have become blended with the Tuskaroras.* This District was ceded by Virginia and Maryland 1791, and became the permanent seat of the general government in 1800.

At the time of its cession, the principal proprietors on the eastern side of the Potomac, were D. Carrol, N. Young, and D. Burns, who cultivated corn, tobacco,


* Warden, in his description of the District of Columbia, says the origin of Washington, like that of several ancient cities, is already wrapped in fable. The story is that a few families in it had lived there in rural solitude, for nearly a century, of which one was established on the borders of the Columbia Creek, from whom it received the name of Tiber, and the place of residence was called Rome. History may hereafter record the belief that this simple farmer, endowed with prophetic powers, foretold the destinies of the Columbian Territory.

and wheat, where the city of Washington now stands." It is hardly necessary to mention what every one has heard, viz. that the District of Columbia is ten miles square, and includes within its limits, Georgetown and Alexandria, and is under the immediate government of Congress. The city of Washington is situated on the Potomac, on the Maryland side, at the confluence of the eastern branch with this river. The eastern branch was formerly known by the name of Annacasta ;—it stands in lat. 38° 55' N., and in long. 76° 33′ from Greenwich. Washington is distant from Philadelphia, Baltimore, Richmond, Annapolis, Monticello,

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It is three miles in length from north to south, viz. from Greenleaf's point south, to Rock creek north, which separates it from Georgetown. Its breadth is about two miles. The city is laid out into regular squares-all the streets crossing each other at right angles, north and south, east and west. At present (1824) it may be said to be built out the whole length-the buildings extending up to Rock creek, although it might contain tripple the number of houses. Besides the streets already mentioned, there are several avenues which lead to the different public offices. These avenues are very wide, and run in arbitrary directions.

The city is distinguished by whimsical names by the citizens, such as the Navy yard, Greenleaf's Point, (or the Fort,) Capitol Hill, Pennsylvania Avenue, F. Street, the Twenty Buildings, the Ten Buildings, the Seven Buildings, the Six Buildings, Howardstown, Frogtown, and the Wharf. Besides these, the capitol, the president's house, and the different bulky public offices, form each a town within themselves. The greatest number of houses in all those groups, is on the Pennsylvania Avenue, between the capitol and the president's house. The Six Buildings are very near Georgetown, then we have the Seven Buildings, between the Six Buildings and the President's house. Proceeding on

in the same direction, (south,) we have the President's house, the War Office, the Navy Office, Treasury Department, and Department of State, on the right, while F Street, the Post-Office, the City Hall, the Poor-house, and the Prison, are on the left. Proceeding on in the same direction, viz. down the Pennsylvania Avenue, with the Potomac about a mile on our right, we come to the Capitol. Leaving the Capitol, same direction, we come to the Ten Buildings; further on, the Twenty Buildings, and finally Greenleaf's Point, which is on the point of land formed by the Potomac and the eastern branch. The Navy yard, which is a considerable town, and the Marine Barracks, are on the eastern branch, a mile distant from the point, and the same from the capitol. Capitol Hill lies east of the capitol, and comprises no inconsiderable part of the city: Howardstown is nothing more than a continuation of Capitol Hill, eastwardly in the direction of Bladensburg. Frogtown lies on the Potomac, where the steam-boats stop, below the bridge. Pennsylvania Avenue alone, is denominated "the city," by those living in the other parts just mentioned; when they would visit that part of the city, they say "we are going to the city."


The Capitol. I am almost deterred from attempting to give even a sketch of the exterior of this vast edifice. It stands on an elevation of eighty feet above the tidewater of the Potomac, and covers nearly two acres of ground. It stands north and south, presenting an east and west front. The ascent to it is on the west, nearly a perpendicular, and parallel to its whole length; whilst the ground on the east front is perfectly horizontal. On the east principally lies the capitol square, enclosed with iron railing. The following are the outlines taken by Mr. Bulfinch, the present architect. Dimensions of the capitol of the United States.

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Height of wings to top of balustrade
Height of centre dome

Representatives? Hall, greatest length,
Representatives' Hall, greatest height
Senate Chamber, greatest length
Senate Chamber, greatest height

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Great central rotunda, 96 feet in diameter and 96

feet high.

The basement story

The entablement

The parapet



6 1-2

The centre of the building from the east to the west portico is in depth


The east front will (for it is not yet finished,) present a colonade of one hundred and sixty feet, consisting of twenty-five Corinthian columns, twenty-five feet in height. The ceiling is vaulted, and the whole edifice is of solid masonry, of hewn free stone, of the Corinthian order. Both the inside and out is painted white, and reflects a lustre dazzling to the eyes. All the steps, stairs and floors are stone, with the exception only of the Senate chamber and Congress hall. No wood is found in any part of the building but the doors, sash, and railing, which last is mahogany. The covering is of copper; the domes are also of copper. The great centre dome in shape resembles an inverted wash-bowl; only magnify a wash-bowl to the size of ninety-six feet in diameter, and you will have correct idea of its figure. What would be the rim of the top, is of solid stone. The rim of the bottom which is a balustrade is of wood; this encircles the sky-lights; the great body of the dome is copper, with steps leading from the bottom to the top, from which you have one of the grandest views in nature. The two wings are likewise ornamented with domes and sky-lights; they are low compared to that of the centre. The sky-lights of these last are finished in a style of inimitable taste and beauty; their snowy graces charm and attract the eye of every beholder.

It is not in the power of language, to express anything to equal the interior of those domes, for richness

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