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son, H. Cary, I gently reproached him for not introducing me to his father; he stepped into an adjoining room, and the elder Mr. C. coon made his appearance ; is your
business with me,' said he rather abruptly; "only to say that I have seen Mr. Cary," I replied. He immediately scanned my motives, blushed, and said, "come this way, I have something for you ;” and leading me into the same room from which he came out, made me a present of his last works; but his engagements calling him away, I to my great disappointment, exchanged but a few words with him before he departed. Mr. C. is about the middle height, and robust make. He appeared upwards of fifty years of age, black hair and eyes
, his face round and full; his countenance grave, but manly, dignified and striking, marked with lines of deep thinking, but the keenest eye, and the blackest I remember to have seen; his looks are so penetrating as to discompose the beholder. · Upon seeing him, I thought of his Olive Branch, which was so eagerly read, and so highly esteemed, even to adoration in the western states ; a work which no American ought to be without; I have known it to sell as high as five dollars per copy. The works he gave me were Hamilton, and some addresses to the people, which need no comment. Admirable man! what majesty of genius! what powers of mind! and how laudably devoted !
History. The place where Philadelphia now stands, in 1681 was a forest, inhabited by wild men and savage beasts. In 1678, a ship from Stockholm, commanded by Shields, was the first that sailed so high up the Delaware. She approached so near where the city now stands that she run her bowsprit among the trees that lined the bank. The ship was laden with passengers, destined for Burlington, still a small village, to which they gave that name. They remarked the advantageous site as they sailed along, little thinking, (the historian says,) and still less foreseeing the contrast between the city afterwards built on it, and their still humble village to which they : were bound. The place where Philadelphia now stands was called by the name of “ Coaquannock.” This was an Indian town, which stood near the place now called
the Bake-house. William Penn, whom the greatest men
of Europe have ranked with the Solons and the Numas - of Greece and Rome, was born in 1644. His father was
Sir William Penn, of Penn, Vice Admiral in the time of
Cromwell, and afterwards knighted by king Charles II. d: William, the son, joining the sect called Quakers, incur
red not only the displeasure of his father, who turned him out of doors, but of the government, who imprisoned him in the Tower.
These persecutions, principally levelled at the Qua9 kers, led Penn to seek a place in the new world, where
they might worship God, in peace ; and, obtaining a grant from king Charles, he with a number of his followers set sail for America, where he landed in 1699; and, purchasing the soil of the natives, laid out the city upon its present plan. Previous to Penn's arrival, some of his party having preceded him, built themselves bark huts; others lived in caves on the banks of the Delaware, which they dug theniselves. In one of those rude caves was born the first native Philadelphian, John Key, who reached the age of eighty-five. He was born in a cave afterwards known by the name of "penny pot,” on the bank near Race street. This man, when eighty years of age, walked from Kennet to Philadelphia, a distance of thirty miles, in a day! Another man, Edward Drinker, born in a cave, lived till independence was declared. The first house erected in Philadelphia was a low wooden house, east side of Front street. It stood in what was called Bud's row, a little north of the inlet, now oc 'cupied by Dock street. This inlet flowed as far to the north as Chesnut and Third street. The owner kept it as a tavern for many years; it was called the Blue Anchor. The first brick house built in Philadelphia, was standing recently; it stood north side of Chesnut street, opposite Carpenter's Court. In Letitia Court, east of South Second street, still survives the town-house of
William Penn, built a few years after his arrival. The he
last of the original trees, a walnut, stood in front of the state-house, Chesnut street.
I have been on the spot where the first citizen was TH
born; I surveyed the place where lived mine host of the
Blue Anchor-now a street; but chiefly, I sought with eagerness the ancient dwelling of the venerable Penn. Letitia Court, which is nothing but a narrow alley, leading out of Market street near the Delaware, soon brought me to the venerable pile. It is a low two story brick house, and though of so long standing, it has not that ancient appearance we would expect. It is built of brick, and enclosed with an entire new wall of the same material. It is laid off into small rooms and occupied as a tavern.' I sat in that used by Penn as a chamber, with feelings which may easily be imagined. Upon mentioning to some one, my motives for visiting the house, a voice exclaimed, “ what, are you writing a book ?" I turned round, and regarding the man (for it was a man's who spoke,) with silence; "pardon me," he cried, "my name is Darby, author of the Emigrant's Guide." This was an unexpected pleasure ; 1 had seen the Emigrant's Guide, but had never seen the author till then. Darby is a small man, about forty years of age"; sensible, and possessed of much general information ; he was the only gentleman in Philadelphia who invited me to his house. His countenance bespoke him a man of feeling and generosity ; and I am sorry that it was not in my power to accept the invitation, as from him) should probably have obtained that information, which, from my peculiar circumstances, I found rather difficult. I found, however, a very obliging friend in Mr. Lea, of the firm of Carey & Lea. He is a son-in-law of M. Carey, and a most consummate gentleman. To him and Mr. Brad. ford I am much indebted ; particularly to the former. But, to return ; William Penn, after laying off the city of Philadelphia, drew up a code of laws for the government of the colony. The foundation of these laws was " that every one who believed in one Almighty God, should not be compelled to worship contrary to his own opinion; granted free toleration to all sects ; equal right and justice to all men."
This may be considered (says the historian,) as the foundation stone upon which the sublime edifice of free toleration has since been built throughout these United States. Philadelphia is situated in 39 deg. 55 min. north, upon the west bank of the
Delaware, which is here nearly a mile in width ; it is < 126 miles from the Atlantic, and six miles above the - confluence of the Schuylkill, which gives room for nearly
a square. The northern and southern liberties are noth1 ing but a continuation of the city, though both are out of
the corporation. These lengthen it to a mile longer El than it is wide. The site is a perfect level, excepting a
slight elevation at the southern end; this, and the streets,
which are wide and straight, to mathematical nicety, w and the numerous squares, adorned with handsome trees, 1 gives to Philadelphia that beauty, so much admired by
travellers. Besides the streets, it has numerous courts
and allies, (a court is like an alley, but is only open at -! one end,) which cross about the middle of each square ; I the latter run from street to street. These are wide enough for a cart or waggon to pass, and have neat side
walks. The streets are swept every day, and the paveI melits washed ; nothing can be neater. The city was called the town of Philadelphia till 1701, when it was incorporated and took the name of a city. It was the seat of government till 1801; the public mint is still in Philadelphia. It contained 108,000 inhabitants the last census. It may be called a manufacturing rather than a
commercial city; and although it is said to exceed evei ry part of the United States in the beauty, quantity and
excellence of its manufactures, yet it is a great way bebind Baltimore in architecture. The new Bank, plan
ned by Latrobe, is, however, a fine edifice of marble, - in imitation of the temple of Minerva. I was quite pro
voked with them for pulling down the dwelling-house of .
Dr. Franklin, which they have done, and erected a public Library upon the spot where it stood. This Library was founded by the Doctor himself, and a few of his friends ; the oldest in Philadelphia. A full length statue of the Doctor, in an old fashioned dress, is placed over the door of the Library, on the out side, and seemis to invite the traveller to walk in.
Amongst the ornaments of the city, may be reckoned the celebrated “ Pratt's Gardens, but I did not visit them; albeit I must not forget the two bridges over the Schuylkill, the noblest structures of architecture belong
ing to the city ; when viewed in a distant line with the river they are truly magnificent. The churches are veky plain, being mostly without steeples.
From Alexandria to this place, rye coffee is drank by a great portion of the inhabitants, also black tea. Rye is regularly toasted, ground, sold in the markets, and mixed with coffee at the best boarding houses! (except in Washington.) Many of the citizens drink it in its present state ; this they do for their health, being told by the physicians that it is better for the lungs. Black tea I never heard of, till asking the waiter for a cup of tea, between Baltimore and Philadelphia, he asked me whether I chose black tea or green, whilst I was at a loss what answer to make. This, however, is fair, because you have the option to drink it or not; but you are completely taken in by the coffee. Black tea is very fashionable in Philadelphia, being also recommended as more healthy than greon, which I believe to be true, it is certainly not so injurious to the nerves; but I never could be reconciled to the rye coffee : yet they live well in Philadelphia, and boarding is cheap, though they excel us in none of their cities in any thing but beef and fish; their lamb, veal and fowls are not equal to those sold in the Lexington market, of Ky. by a great deal, or in that of Cincinnati, or Chilicothe; indeed, their best beef comes from Greenbriar, west of the "Alleghany, and from the South Branch, west of the Blue ridge.
The lady of the house, in many instances,) instead of taking the head of the table, sits at the side, about midway, (supposing the table to be long and narrow,) with her tea equipage before her, and, without the aid of her servants, with great facility helps every one at the table.
Journey to New-York.--After spending two weeks to a day in Philadelphia, I entered my name on the way. bill, paid my passage over night, and set off for NewYork in the steam-boat next morning, sailing up the Delaware in a north-east direction. Day was dawning as we put off from the shore ; I remained on deck to eatch a parting view of the city, and the fast receding objects. I never left a place with less regret; not that