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ly'replied that they never lived better, nor had a wiska ungratified. I saw an exception in the cruelty of an Irish woman toward some of the children. The managers are highly censurable for placing these Irish women over the children-I would as soon put them under the care of a tiger. I am the more surprised at this, as these savages are sometimes brought before the police for their cruelty to their own children. My feelings have been torn to pieces since my visit to the Atlantic states, by the cries of children under the lash of these Irish hyenas. But to return : This establishment might be improved, by removing the children to a separate asylum. There are too many children in one house, even were there no grown persons. I do not know whether any one has made the remark which I have, viz. that a great number of living beings, whether of the human species or the brute creation, will not be healthy for any length of time, when crowded together.
Work House. The work-house stands in rear of the alms-house, and is used for the employment of the poor. It is built of brick, 200 feet by 25; it contains a hospital for males, and one for females.
Penitentiary.—The penitentiary, likewise, stands in the rear of the alms-house; it is a stone building, 150 feet long, and 50 in width. In this prison, all convicts are contined, whose sentence to be imprisoned falls under the degree which subjects to confinement in the state prison, and those only can be confined in the penitentiary whose offences have been committed within the city or county of New York. The average number of convicts in the penitentiary, is 250; these are kept at work. The whole of those buildings are enclosed, together with six acres of ground, with a wall of 7 feet high ; on the outside is a school for the poor children, called a free school: also a garden, where those of the paupers who are able, cultivate culinary plants. A physician, surgeon, and apothecary reside in the alms. house, and attend to the sick of the whole establishment; for which they receive a salary; it has, also, visiting physician, and surgeon, whose attention is honorary; they receive no compensation.
Bridewell and the Jail.-Bridewell and the jail are in the park, near the city hall; and two black, dismal looking edifices they are ; one stands at one end of the hall, and the other at the other end : they are both built of stone, and painted black. Bridewell is a small building ; in it are confined all those who are committed for trial, also those under sentence of death ; likewise the higher class of convicts : besides these, are a number of poor, constantly in bridewell, who are picked up daily by the watch and constables in the streets, and put in here until they can be sent to the alms-house ; I saw about 15 of these, whom the keeper told me were brought in that morning! It ap, ears to be the pride of New York, to have no poor seen in the streets. It contains a hospital, which is regularly attended by a physician, who also altends the jail. Although the sessions are held monthly, they cannot empty bridewell : 170 prisoners are arraigned on an average, and often 200 tried. I found about 200 in this abode of wretchedness, white and black, male and female, about one half of whom were females. The males presented nothing in their appearance different from their equals in the streets ; indeed, I was struck with the innocence and modesty of their looks and behaviour: pointing to one of them, I asked the keeper" if it were possible that one of his interesting appearance, could be guilty of a crime ?” his reply was, that he was charged with forgery. But the tender sex, I am sorry for them; in all matters where they and misfortune are concerned, nothing affects our nature so forcibly. To see a friendless female in a gloomy prison, locked in with massy iron doors and grated windows, the mind that can think, and the heart that can feel, must be shocked at the sight, however just it may be, and however necessary for the good of society. But never did I, till now, feel that degree of compassion for the sex, which the sight of those females called up. Here was a lamentable proof of depravity, of which I thought human nature incapable! There were about forty females in bridewell, for crimes, no doubt, and in the whole of them there is not more prudence, virtue, or modesty, than one ought to possess. They were the
most abandoned, vicious, impudent; they were audacity itself, without one particle of aught besides. Alas ! once more for human nature-alas! for frail woman. Lost to the blush of shame, no compunction, not one trace of contrition ventures to oppose that double headed monster, vice. They laughed, they romped, they gigled, and saluted me with the familiarity of an old acquaintance ! asked“ if I came to keep them company ?" I would have suffered the guillotine first. And is this woman? I asked, mentally; can lovely, generous, heav. en-inspiring woman, become such a callous, I was going to say brute ; but I will not insult the brute creation by the comparison. And this is the effect of great cities! But what a poor piece of the creation is woman! man, when he comes finally to take leave of virtue, he pauses, he hesitates, he proceeds by degrees; but woman makes one plunge, and is gone forever. Here is an instance before me ; some of these females are quite young, not more than fourteen or fifteen years of age. But what most astonishes me is, that vice should be able so completely to erase the loves and the graces from the fe- : male countenance, and change them into perfect demons, while the same vices have not the same effect on man. Here are men who are said to be guilty of the blackest crimes, even murder, and yet they have some traces of
The Jail.—None but debtors are confined in the jail, but it was at this time vacant!
Museum. - The collection in the museum of NewYork, is nearly similar to that of Philadelphia, so far as it goes; in some things it exceeds it, in others falls short of it. The birds I think are better preserved, and in a neater condition. They have a huge white Greenland bear; but I saw no portraits. I am told it belongs to a Mr. S whom I had not the honour to see ; but with deference to him, he is as far behind Mr. P. in his catalogue, as he is in his title to patronage. I called one day and paid my entrance, but not being sufficiently at leisure then, I returned next day to examine the collection at my leisure; when the fellow whom he employs to keep it, demanded another quarter ; I paid it, hower.
er, without endeavouring to convince him that the visit would perhaps, be as much for his interest as mine. It is kept in the “ New-York Institution," a large building of brick, 260 feet by 44, three stories; it stands in the rear of the city hall, in the park, facing Chamber-street. Besides the museum, it contains halls for the literary and philosophical society, historical society, the academy of fine arts, the lyceum of natural history, the asylum for the deaf and dumb, and a dispensary. The literary and philosophical society consists of gentlemen of the first learning and talents, under a president, 3 vice presidents, 12 counsellors, 2 recording secretaries, 2 corresponding secretaries, a treasurer, and curator: the funds are limited to $5,000 per annum. They are divided into four classes, viz.-1st. Belles-lettres, civil history, antiquities, moral and political science-2d. Medicine, chemistry, natural philosophy, and natural history-3d. Mathematics, astronomy, navigation, and geography—4th. Husbandry, manufactures, and the useful arts. They meet monthly, when all communications are referred to the counsellors. Gentlemen of all countries are admitted as members. The bistorical society is divided into two branches, the civil branch, and the natural branch. It consists of a society of literary gentlemen, under a president, secretary, committee, and special committee. The object of the first, is to collect books, MSS., medals, maps, prints, paintings, pamphlets, gazettes, busts, coins, and every thing calculated to illustrate the civil history of the United States. The natural branch devote their talents to the study and investigation of zoology, geology, botany, mineralogy, and vegetable physi. ology ; procuring specimens and illustrations on these subjects, from every part of the world, the whole constituting a complete school of nature. It is richly endowed by the state, and the collection already acquired, amounts to $40,000.
The Academy of Fine Arts was founded by chancellor Livingston. It contains a great number of rare specimens in printing, statues, busts, bass-reliefs, and books, which last consists of views, designs, and drawings, chieily relating to antique subjects, amongst which, are
24 superb volumes, presented to the academy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The academicians and associates must be artists by profession; the former must be 24 years of age;
and within one year after his election every academician must deposit a specimen of his talents in the academy, to become its property, otherwise be forfeits his election. Associates must be 21 years of age.
The Lyceum of Natural History is a society formed for the express purpose of cultivating natural history, their researches extending to the whole terraqueous globe; they have already made considerable advances in this laudable undertaking, having travelling committees out, who are men of enterprise and talents, in pursuit of the various productions of nature.
The Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb. This institution resembles that of Philadelphia, the pupils mostly being instructed gratuitously as well as fed and clothed. They learn in the same way, but their number is small compared with that of Philadelphia, the funds not being sufficient to extend the design to any magnitude ; the funds are limited by charter to $5,000 per annum. ported partly by the state and partly by private contribution ; several of the pupils exhibited before me with surprising facility ; their teacher making known to them my name, business, and place of residence, they, in an instant of time, wrote it in a fair hand, upon their slates, and even pointed out the state on the map. Mr. Loofborrow, the principal, is a gentleman of education, and seems to possess an amiable disposition, of mild and conciliating manners, combining every requisite for his arduous employment. He is assisted by Miss Stansbury, a lady from Philadelphia, who appears to possess all the sweetness and meek-eyed charity of her native city. Two of the deaf and dumb mutes are likewise assistants. The pupils are fond of their teachers, even to adoration. Mr. L. favored me with a number of their specimens in composition, of which, I have only room for the following: * When I was a little boy in ignorance, the world and all things that are created, were unknown to me. I observed the numerous beautiful stars, and thought they were placed in the heaven by a great man to adorn it,
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