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culiar characteristics ; they lay no claims to taste or refinement; their attention to business, which pours in upon them like a flood, leaves them no time to cultivate the graces. They have, however, a sort of untaught nobility in their countenance, and all their movements. They are mild, courteous, and henevolent ; and above all people they have the least pride. That curse of the human family, if it exists at all in New York, is found amongst the lower order of her citizens; it is banished the houses of the great and the opulent : their manners are truly republican; no eclat, hauteur, or repelling stiffness ; much of which exists in Philadelphia, and the boasted hospitality of the more southern towns. These are hospitable, it is true, but the poor man is made to feel the difference between him and his hospitable entertainer. Not so, New York, as respects that sort of homage exacted from a fellow man; all are upon a level.
Owing no doubt, to the unparalleled increase of commerce, too little attention, indeed, too little time, has been left for improvement in literature. Yet this great people, fertile in resources, i decisive in action, liberal and unanimous, can do much in a short time; doubtless a people so renowned for devotion to the public good, will not neglect a matter of so much importance. I perceive there is a great want of grammar schools amongst them. But although New-York is censured for her neg. lect of education, yet she is not destitute of genius. She can boast of her Clintons, her Livingstons, her Murrays,* her Irvings, her Hamiltons, her Pauldings, her Mitchills, her Hosacks, her Coopers, her Sedgwicks, and a long string of poets.
The ladies of New-York, like the gentlemen, are affable, modest, and domestic; the better sort are easy in their manners, plain in their equippage and dress, and are seldom seen in the streets. Upon inquiry whether those ladies who are daily on parade, in Broadway, were of the first distinction, I was told they were not, and that the first ladies, from motives of delicacy, were never seen in the streets on foot, that they always took a carriage
* Lindley Murray was born on Long Island; so also was Dr. S. L. Mitchell
be the distance ever so small. Every one, however, can not afford a carriage, and though I never inquired into the cause of this concourse of females in Broadway, it is natural to suppose, from the population, that exercise or indispensable business forces them abroad. I must suppose this, for I never saw more industry, or more general application to business of every description, than in this city. Turn which way you will, mechanics, carvers, carpenters, bricklayers, ship-carpenters, cartmen, all is one continual bustle, from morning till ten o'clock at night. I have known young ladies, (those who have no dependence but their industry,) since I have been in the city, sit up till twelve o'clock at night, to complete a suit of clothes, the proceeds of which was to purchase a fine cap, or a plume of feathers, to deck herself for church. Hundreds of those females thus maintain themselves in a style of splendor ; no ladies in the city dress finer, a ten dollar hat, a thirty dollar shawl, with silk and lace, is common amongst the poorer class of females. This keeps them employed; industry promotes virtue, and virtue promotes happiness. No wonder New-York outstrips all her rivals! Her Clinton at her head, her Hudson and canals at her back, the Atlantic before her, ered with the wealth of nations, her citizens industrious, generous and enterprising, her whole system elevated and grand, she must succeed. Whilst others are debating the question of right and wrong, New-York is acting. Meantime, her hospitality holds out a hearty welcome alike to the oppressed, * and to the opulent. This is not only the effect of good policy, but good feeling and good nature.
History.—The various efforts of Europe to discover a north-west passage to India, led to the discovery of the place where New York city now stands. Henry Hudson, an experienced seaman, and an Englishman by birth, having made two unsuccessful attempts at this discovery, quit the service of England, and went over to Holland, where he was well received by the Dutch East-India Company, who took him into their service. Nothing is known of the birth, education, or early history of Hudson.
* In no city in the world, does the distressed stranger meet with that relief and kindness which he does in New York.
He set sail from Amsterdam, on the 25th of March, 1609, in the Half-moon, which was navigated by twenty Dutchmen; his object still being that of finding a passage to India. After coasting backwards and forwards, in different directions, he came to anchor in a fine har. bor, in latitude 40 deg. 30 min.--the present SandyHook, on the 4th of September. On the 6th, he sent a boat to survey what appeared to be the mouth of a river. This is the strait between Long-Island and Staten Island. Here was fine depth of water; within was a large opening, and a narrow river on the west; the channel between Bergen-neck and Staten-Island.* As the boat was returning, it was attacked by some of the Natives, in two canoes. One man (John Coleman) was killed : he was buried on a point of land, which has since been called Coleman's point. On the 11th they sailed through the narrows, and found a good harbor, secure from winds.
The next day they turned against a north-west wind, into the mouth of a river, which now bears the name of Hudson, and came to anchor two leagues within it.Here they spent two days: during these two days, says the author, we were visited by the Indians, who brought us Indian corn, beans, and other vegetables. They then sailed up the river as high as where Albany now stands.
Hudson then returned to Holland, and making a favorable report of the country, the Dutch sent over a company in 1610, for the purpose of trading with the natives. in 1614, the States General having granted a patent to sundry merchants, for an exclusive trade on the Hudson river, they built a fort to protect the company from the natives on the west side of the river, where Albany now stands. The command of this fort was given to Henry Cristiæns, who was the first permanent settler, not only of Albany, but of the state of New York. The fort was called Fort Orange. They also built a church. About the same time, a trading-house was established on the south-west point of Manhattan-island, where New York city now stands, and called New-Amsterdam: the whole colony was called New-Netherlands--the aborigines were called Manhattoes.
Amongst the first settlers of this colony, were the Tenbroeks, Beekmans, Van Rensselaers, Carterrets, Livingstons, Delancys; all of whose descendants distinguished themselves in the revolution, either as patriots or loyalists. Those gentlemen bore the marks of respectability about them, such as family plate, family portraits, &c. The first man, however, who settled the spot where the city now stands, was. Van Twiller. The colony built a fort where the battery now is, whence it took its name. About this time the Hudson river was settled with numerous and powerful Indians, consisting of wandering families, but the Dutch purchased the land of them for a trifle, (so says the historian,) being unable to cope with them in the field. The renowned Five Nations lived on the Mohawk; they were an ingenious people, and cultivated maize and beans.
In a few years the tranquility of the colony was disQurbed by the English of Massachusetts Bay, who laid claim to the colony, and finally the disputes between them and the Dutch assumed a serious appearance. The new and old England combining, the New-Netherlands were invaded by an armed force, and threatened with an attack if they did not immediately surrender. The Dutch therefore capitulated, and upon very favourable terms; every thing was to remain as it was, only they acknowledging the British sovereignty. Fort Amsterdam (where the battery now is) and Fort Orange were deliv
up to the British; the first took the name of “ NewYork," after the Duke of York, and the latter that of " Albany," another of his titles.* This change of masters took place in 1664, old style. Albany, before this, was called “ Oranienburgh," (rather a hard name.) At this time, New-York consisted of several small streets, which had been laid out in 1656, and was not inconsiderable for the number of houses. To this day the Dutch hate the British, and are the truest whigs I have met with yet, the Tennesseeans not excepted.
Richard Nichols, a man of great prudence and moderation, now took the government upon himself, under the
style of "Deputy-governor, under his royal highness the Duke of York, of all his territories in America." The first object of Gov. Nichols's attention, was the gradual introduction of the English language; and in 1665, on the 12th day of June, he incorporated the inhabitants of New-York under the care of a mayor, five aldermen, and a sheriff. Till this time, the city of New York was governed by scout, burgo-masters and chepens.
When Smith wrote his history of New York, the city (he says) contained about 2,500 buildings, was a mile in length, and half a mile in breadth. How many inhabitants the city contained at that period, Smith does not say; but the population of the whole colony, consisting of ten counties, (including the city,) only amounted to 100,000. These were assessed at £10,000,000, and taxed at £45,000. The city of New York alone at this time greatly exceeds this number. The small state of Connecticut, at the time just referred to, contained 183, inhabitants. This great increase of New York, is to be ascribed not only to its natural advantages, which exceed all calculation, but to the character of its citizens.
Literary Men.--It is well known that New-York has produced her share of literary men; my business, bowever, is simply to notice those who are at present esteemed men of letters. Of these perhaps Washington Irving is the first-next, Paulding, Cooper, Dr. Mitchill
, and Dr. Hosack; of these, Paulding has ever been my favourite. Very little time, therefore, was lost, after my arrival in the city, before I paid my respects to this cele. brated man. If I admired him as a writer, I was charmed with his appearance and manners, which perfectly correspond with the idea we are led to form of him from his writings. Mr. P. is in height about five feet ten inches, his figure is light, and he moves with ease and grace, being spare, but well formed. His complexion is dark, his hair the deepest black, his eyes what is usually termed black, of the middling shade, and uncommonly brilliant. His face is oval, his features delicate, but reg. ular, and what may be called handsome; his raven locks fall over his neck and forehead in ringlets of ineffable tbeauty. His countenance comprises all that can be cons