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ed by them. The trustees are divided into six visiting committees, each to serve one month. Their duty is to visit the hospital and asylum once in every week, examine every patient and every room in the hospital and asylum, to see that it be kept in proper order. The

consulting physicians are called on in all difficult cases. is The cooking, washing, ironing and bathing departments,

are constructed upon a plan superior to any thing of the la sort I have seen in the United States.

The institution has not as yet been able to extend i relief to paupers ; each boarder pays at least three dolIr lars per week, every thing included.* My limited by means of information has not enabled me to say what : compensation (or whether any) is bestowed upon the

members of the institution, except the superintendents, who receive a yearly salary,

Perhaps there is not an instance upon record, which affords the same evidence of liberality and public spirit, < evinced by every class of citizens, in promoting this grand object. One thousand and forty-seven individuals

. subscribed-of these, three gentlemen in Boston subscribed five thousand dollars each! two hundred and forty-five gentlemen subscribed one hundred dollars each! and above that sum, one hundred dollars, which constitutes them members of the corporation for life. The “ Massachusetts humane society” subscribed five thousand dollars. They have received in legacies sixty thousand dollars. The state granted them the “old province house,” yielding a yearly income of $2000. These donations may give some idea of the wealth and benevolence of the citizens of Boston. This exceeds New-York. The buildings of the general hospital, and lands attached to it, cost $184,173 45 cts.

Annual avee rage expense of the hospital, $1,836 ; do. asylum, $1,

217 36 cts. This extends to the year 1822: I found no later report on record. Three capital surgical operations have been performed in the hospital, since its commencement; viz. one of lithotomy, one of popliteal aneurism, and one case of phymosis, all of which succeeded. * The hospital is compelled by law to support 30 state paupers annula ally.

The institution owns a valuable botanical garden. A. mong the members of ihe corporation, I find the honored names of John Adams, John Q. Adams, Levi Lincoln, Crowninshield, Strickland, Otis, Philips, Thorndike, Perkins, and Story. It is made the duty of the visiting committee to see the wards and rooms in every build. ing, to inquire into the conduct of the officers and attendants towards the boarders, to examine whether the galleries, apartments, beds, linen, &c. are in good order, whether the provisions are of a good and wholesome quality, and sufficient in quantity, whether the stoves, fires, &c. are in good order and safe, and whether heat and ventilation are properly attended 10. The attending physicians and surgeons, with the superintendant, must reside in the hospital. No operation is performed, but in the presence of many individuals. Not a medicine is

a prepared but by written prescription, which is placed on record; not a patient remains in the hospital who is not visited once a week by the visiting committee, and personally examined by them; no change in food or in disease, and no medical application, but what are noted in a book, and exhibited to the board of visiters and to the public. No one can be elected acting physician, surgeon, or superintendent, who is not above twenty-six years of age, shall have studied physic and surgery sev- . en years or more, and have been recommended by the consulting physicians as a proper person. A record of all their doings is carfully kept in a book. There were but 70 patients in the hospital when I called; I did not visit the insane.

Alms-House.--Boston has struck out a new path with respect to the poor. They have attached a large farm to the establishment, which is worked by the paupers, , and by means of this, and articles furnished for spiuning and making clothes, they are little or no charge to the city. Many indigent persons who are unable to purchase wood or other necessaries of life, go to the poorhouse, and ultimately prove an advantage to the establishment; these come and go when they choose : the homeless and all are taken in there. The paupers are mostly men and women advanced in years, who work a

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little every day; they work at their ease, no one offering to extort more from them than they are able and willing to perform. It is surprising to witness how neat their farm and gardens appear. "Massachusetts is famous for her skill in farming in general, but this farm excels; it has the appearance of magic. They plant a great quantity of potatoes, beans and peas, and every species of vegetables. It is a perfect show to see how accurate the farm is laid out, and the neat order in which it is kept, not a weed to be seen. This is the work of the men ; the women stay within doors, they wash, iron, mènd, and cook. The poor-house is a large stone building in South Boston, several stories, with a chapel in the upper story, where divine service is performed every Sunday. From 200 to 300 paupers are supported in this manner, annually, being little expense to the community. I never saw more happiness, ease and comfort, than exists in the poor-house of Boston. The amount of expenditures for objects belonging to this department, from May 1, 1824, to April 30, 1825, was $25,822 35.

The nett expense of the alms-house, is 1,873 90; av. erage number of persons in the alms-house, is 336 ; families relieved in wards, 635; pensioners, 158; persons to whom grants are made, 16.

Orphan Asylums.-There are in Boston two permanent orphan asylums, established by the legislature, though wholly supported by subscription. One of these is for the support and education of female orphans, supported by the ladies of Boston ; the other is for male orphans, and supported by the gentlemen. Being told no material difference distinguished these benevolent establishments, I only visited the female asylum. Here was another evidence of the public spirit and unbounded charity of the people of Boston, some ladies giving as high as $400. The ladies of several other towns in the state are subscribers. But here I must remark, what I have once before in these sketches, that there are too many children together. The building is by no means adequate to the number of children in this asylum. The slightest observation of the apartments is enough to convince any one of their truth. Besides, there are too ma


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ny in the school-room ; it will not, it cannot be healthy

2 where so many living beings are compelled to breathe the effluvia issuing from each other. Neither do I approve of keeping children so very young as those are, (some of them not more than four years of age,) so closely confined: what I mean is, that children of their age are too young to be kept at close study so great a portion of the day, as these children are. Something is wrong in the management of the establishment, I would suppose, from the appearance of the children, they do not look healthy and vigorous. The dear little creatures were all disposed (to the amount of an hundred I should think,) on seats adapted to their size, some knitting, some sewing, some reading and writing; I examined them all, at which they seemed highly delighted. After going through the building and hearing them recite, the lady matron or directress desired them to sing, when the whole troop joined in a hymn, which they sung in strains of the most enchanting sweetness.

State Prison—The state prison of Massachusetts is organized upon the same plan as those of New York and Philadelphia, with this difference, however, the convicts of the former are more lively and active, perform their work with more cheerfulness, and receive the full amount of their labor. The prison is in Charlestown, and like those mentioned, has a large yard for the prisoners to perform their labor. The outdoor laborers are chiefly stone-cutters, and never did men exceed them in application to business. The prison-yard is in one continual roar of hammers and chissels. Not a man lifted his head to look at me, as I walked through the sheds, while the dust or sand, raised by the instruments, almost blinded me. The mechanics work in shops, which make a part of the prison wall, some hundred feet in length. In these shops mechanics of every description are at work, even at jewelry, printing, and engraving: many of these convicts clear their expenses, and have money to take with them when they are discharged.

“ The state prison, or penitentiary, is built of stone, and stands on the westernmost point of the peninsula of Charlestown, called Lynde's point, a pleasant and

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healthful situation, commanding an extensive, rich and variegated prospect. It consists of a principal building, 66 feet long and 28 wide, containing five stories; and {wo wings, each 67 feet long by 44 wide ; making the

whole building 200 feet. The centre or principal buildising, is divided into apartments for the accommodation of

the officers and overseers. The two wings form the
prison, and are four stories high, containing 47 rooms and
cells in each wing. A long entry, 12 feet wide, runs
through each story, the whole length of the wing, and
the cells or rooms are situated on each side of this entry,

into it. The rooms of the two upper stories are 17 feet by 11, and are furnished with square winla dows, with double grates and a glazed sash. The cells

of the two lower stories are only 11 feet by 8, and have no windows; receiving air and a small light by means of crevices or openings through the wall, about 2 feet long and 4 inches wide. These cells in the ground story, are appropriated for the convicts during their sentence to solitary, and when confined as a punishment for disorderly behaviour. Half of the upper story of the

east wing is appropriated for a hospital, where the sick s are comfortably situated, tenderly nursed, and skilfully

attended. The other half of this story is the apartments for the females, who are always locked in, and not suffered to go into the work yard where the male convicts

The foundation of the prison is composed of rocks, averaging two tons weight, laid in mortar; on this foundation is laid a tier of hewn stone, 9 feet long, and 20 inches thick, forming the first floor. The outside walls are 4, and the partition walls 2 feet thick; all the joints in the wall are cramped with iron. The doors of the cells in the two lower stories are made of wrought iron, each weighing from 500 to 600 pounds. The entries have grated windows and sashes, at the outer ends of each wing, and at the inner ends, grated doors, through which the prisoners come out and descend to the yard. On the centre of the building is a cupola, in which the alarm bell is suspended.

Competent judges pronounce this to be one of the

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