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ness of the southern ladies, with warmer hearts, and minds improved by travelling, most of them having made the tour of Europe. Their countenance is diffused with a magic charm of irresistible sweetness, to which they join the utmost grace of gesture and harmony of voice. As to beaaty, the ladies of Boston are celebrated throughout the world. But that which deserves our greatest applause, is their unbounded benevolence and charity towards the distressed; "which things the angels desired to look into." All the females, of every class, have a Mexible softness in their manners peculiar to them. What may be called the lower class, for their opportunity, are ignorant, proud, and abrupt in their manners, particularly the men; nor do they mix at all with the I higher class, or have any intercourse with them, more than = with the inhabitants of a distant country. They do not know them in the streets, they are as absolutely separated as though an impassable gulph lay between them. These last, I cannot call them clowns, for a clown though awkward is bashful; but these are presuming, pert, and in some cases rude, nor have they a spark of that yielding charity which distinguishes their more refined neighbors. Their manners and their dialect perfectly correspond, though they can read and write, and many, in fact, all, I am told, go to the grammar schools; a chambermaid will read as correct as the most finished scholar, and yet their dialect is wretchedly defective. Here are a few of their phrases; had'nt ought, ought not, I be, I am, do what you'r mine'to, use your pleasure, on to it, on it, with a number of such. But guess, and what'say, are their favorites, and make a part of every sentencce. It is amusing enough to hear about a dozen of their what'says and guesses assembled together. What'say is a substitute for sir or madam, (which amongst them you seldom hear,) and answers to the how, of New-York; it is a habit they have contracted from asking a question to be repeated again, although they have heard it distinctly. They have the hickups here too. All the learning in the world will never break them of those vulgar hab its. Thousands of dollars are expended annually in Boston for no other purpose than to eradicate this igno
rance, and all in vain. But hear what they say of them selves: "The people of Boston be the first people in the world, no city like Boston; they be all fools in N. Y. they had'nt ought to be compared with the people of Boston." If this be the case in the very emporium of literary taste, all attempts to improve, the common people are really disheartening.
History. Boston was settled by Isaac Johnston, Esq. who married the lady Arabella, sister to the earl of Lincoln, from whom the present governor Lincoln is descended. But we must go back to the history of Eng. land, in order to have a satisfactory detail of the history of Boston; a city which on every account deserves the praise of mankind. When freedom was hunted out of the world it took up its abode in Boston, from which no power has been able to dislodge it. When Queen Eliz abeth returned to the government of England, all those who had taken refuge from persecution, returned also. But some of these being more strenuous than others, were, by their brethren, styled puritans; these last refused to conform to the ceremonies of the church established by Elizabeth, for which, they were rigidly punished. Puritanism, however, spread, and gained ground by persecution. These proceedings called up a question among those learned divines, respecting the estab lished church; " is she any longer a true church of Christ, and are her ministers true ministers.' The result was, that they withdrew themselves, and formed a state church, and elected their own pastors. These are the same with Congregationalists, who have preserved this mode of electing their ministers ever since. In this res pect they differed from the Presbyterians of Scotland, whose ministers are appointed by a presbytery. One Robert Brown, of an honorable family, and related to the lord treasurer, a fiery zealot, travelled through the country, held forth against bishops, ecclesiastics, courts, and ordaining ministers, and gathered a separate congre gation. These refused to join in worship either with the regular church or with the puritans, and were called Brownites. Most of the puritans were for keeping with in the pale of the regular church, though they disapprov
ed of its ceremonies, and wrote against Brownism. The government, however, imprisoned, fined, and put to death, all non-conformists, without distinction; amongst About these the Brownites were the greatest sufferers.
this time they amounted to 20,000. At length a number of religious people, upon the borders of Nottingham, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire, joined the Brownites. There were now so many of them, and lived at such a distance asunder, that they formed themselves into two distinct societies. The one with which is our concern, had for its pastor the famous John Robinson. The church still being harassed by government, removed to Holland one year after Robinson was elected. After remaining some time in Holland, which did not suit their religious principles, they turned their eyes towards America. With great difficulty they obtained a patent for settling in America, and part of them returning to London, the rest set sail, and entered the harbor of Cape Cod on the 10th of November, 1620: Robinson was not of the party, he returned to England. Before they landed they formed themselves into a civil body politic, under the crown of England, and to the amount of 101 landed at Plymouth, a name which they gave the place in honor of the city of that name in England.* These, however, nearly all died before another ship came over and added to the number. It was years before the plantation amounted to more than 300.
When Mr. Robinson and his church separated from England, they were rigid Brownites. But after removing to Holland, and conversing with men of learning, and being a gentleman of a liberal mind and good disposition, he became more moderate, as did his people; so that the Brownites would not unite with them in worship. Mr. Robinson wrote against Brownism, and was the means of ruining the sect. He is the father of the Congregationalist form of worship, which is at this day used in New-England: Brownism is discarded. Meantime, Mr. John Carver, the first governor of Plymouth, dying,
They landed the 11th, and the last of the month (November) the wife of Wm. White was delivered of a son, the first child born in NewEngland. They called it Peregrine.
Mr. Bradford was elected in his stead. In 1621, Goy ernor Bradford sent a shallop, with ten men and three Indians, to make discoveries in the bay afterwards called Massachusetts bay. These men landed under a cliff supposed to be Copp's Hill, in Boston; had an interview with the chief, and formed a friendly intercourse with the natives. In 1629, King Charles incorporated the governor of Massachusetts bay, in New-England, which comprised all the land lying between three miles north of the Merrimack, and three miles south of Charles river. Thus was laid the foundation of Boston. The patent right was purchased by Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas Dudley, John Winthrop, and others; Winthrop was made governor, and Dudley deputy-governor. They embarked the following spring, in fourteen vessels, accompanied by several gentlemen of wealth and eminence, to the amount of fifteen hundred; amongst whom was Isaac Johnston, and arrived in Massachusetts bay. Before they landed, they held a court on board the ship Arabella,* (named so in honor of Johnston's wife,) the principal object of which was to provide for the support of their ministers; after which, they landed where Charlestown now stands, and repaired to a large spreading tree, under which Messrs. Phillips and Wilson preached their first sermon; the people sheltering their heads with booths and tents. Shortly after this, they spread themselves over the territory of Johnston, and others settled Boston, (called by the natives Shawmut.) Sir Richard Saltonstall settled Watertown, which is in sight of Boston, between Cambridge and Roxbury; Quincy settled Quincy; Ludlow Dorchester; Pynchon, who has already been mentioned, settled Roxbury. Winthrop, as governor of the colony, settled finally in Boston. I saw his chair, which is still preserved in the museum. I was upon the hill where the tree stood, under which those intrepid people heard their first sermon, though no vestige of the tree remains! I was on the famous Bunker Hill, where they risked their lives in defence of that liberty for which they forsook their native land! I was on the spot where the brave Gen. Warren
*Hence their legislatures still retain the name of courts, an
fell!! I saw the remains of the old monument, erected on the spot where he breathed his last. It was a rude structure of brick, which some unknown person has almost demolished, as disgraceful to the country. In a few days hence the corner stone of a monument more worthy the occasion, is to be laid!-I am now standing on the remains of the entrenchment thrown up by the Americans on the evening before the battle; it is scarcely perceivable, being overgrown with grass, 'and nearly level with the ground. I see the point by which the British approached up the hill, down which they were twice drove by the American fire. The British approached the third time; their ships and field pieces double their fire; the powder of the Americans fail; they receive the British on their bayonets; resistance is made to the last, even with the buts of their guns, which for want of powder they were unable to load-This was "liberty or death," truly! During the dreadful conflict, Charlestown was fired by a bomb from Copp's hill by the British; but the fearless sons of liberty, regardless of the devouring flames, continue the contest to the last. The British carried the redoubt with the loss of one thousand and 7 fifty-four, out of three thousand; amongst whom was Major Pitcairn and Col. Abercrombie: the Americans lost one hundred and thirty-nine. Since I have strolled over the bridge which separates Charlestown from Boston, I will be excused for dropping a remark upon this town. Nothing can be handsomer than Charlestown, on every account: the buildings are splendid, the streets are large and regular, its site elevated and commanding; it rises up from the water's edge to Bunker's hill, part of which is built on, and overlooks Boston, Cambridge, and Massachusetts bay. For health, wealth and beauty, it surpasses any town of its size in the Union. The state prison and lunatic hospital, which I have just visited, are mentioned in their proper place: besides these, Charlestown has 6 churches, an alms-house, 26,598 inhabitants.
Navy-Yard.-The United States navy-yard is likewise located at Charlestown. A few marines are stationed here; the most trifling, abandoned-looking men, from their appearance, to be found. I applied to the