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tion has been paid in ornamenting it with shrubbery and trees. The Spanish bayonet, at this moment in full blossom, presents a peculiar and interesting plant to the eye not familiar with it. The plant itself grows as tall as a man, slim, and with bayonet leaves. The blossom is one large collection of adjusted bells, like immense snow-drops or lilies of the valley, so arranged, that they form together an immense white blossom, as large as a common sized sugar-loaf, and somewhat resembling it, in its conical shape, as it is supported by the stem of the plant, which rises out of its centre, and bears the blossom aloft above the foliage of the plant, like the musical instrument sometimes seen in a full band, elevated above the rest, adjusted with bells, and known by the name of the Turkish Cymbal.

The house of the Commandant of the yard, now occupied by Captain Latimer, is embowered by well grown trees, and surrounded by a multitude of flowering shrubs and plants. Either way, the house of the Commodore is flanked by five handsome dwelling-houses, surrounded by a double range of piazzas, particularly appropriate for this latitude, and highly ornamental in their architectural arrangement. These houses are occupied by the different officers stationed at this place.

The Chapel is a prettily arranged upper room, in one of two octagonal buildings, which are ornamental to the yard, but as intercepting the view from the dwelling-houses, not most wisely located.

Notwithstanding there is much that is pleasant in the arrangements of the Pensacola Navy Yard, it is still an outof-the-way place; and to me, there seems a deep desolateness hanging about it, as if it were more of a foreign than a home station ; as if one were here cut off from all communication with the world beside. And it is a good deal so. If the families here are fortunate enough to number a collection of persons

both in peace

of interest among themselves, their circle may be considerable, and sufficient for the time being to afford them society. But at best, it is one of the out-of-the-world locations. And yet it is a most important station in view of the national interests which it embraces as a station for our navy, and in war, and especially in this Mexican war.

Here, too, I heard the “ Messenger Bird” sung by two young ladies, with voices that were sweet and pathetic in the execution of this little song, which, for its sentiment, may justly be deemed a sacred ballad :

“ Tell us, in heaven, do they love us yet,

And do they not, in heaven, forget ?"

Having said farewell to those whom I had briefly met, and now as briefly, and almost hurriedly, have parted with, I came off to the ship, in the sundown boat; the sun's own glorious self, to-night, putting on all his gorgeousness, in which in this climate he sometimes robes himself for his sunset display. I often bless him for his glorious exhibition in coloring; and always, however gorgeous, he yet so mel. lows his drapery of illuminated clouds as to preserve a beautiful harmony, that makes the heart soft in its musings, and better for its contemplations at such an hour, while behold. ing nature's most glorious object as seen from this earth. How often do my thoughts go back to the scenes I have witnessed, at the sunset hour in the eastern world, as I have marked hundreds of the reverential Parsees sitting, after their Persian manner, on the green grass of the promenade at Bombay, and gazing on the glorious orb of day, as he bathed himself at eve in the western ocean, and they adoring him as their glorious god. If nature has any object inanimate, to call forth the devotion of the heart in its adoration and veneration, it is surely the sun—that splendid orb-as he goes down to his western bed, in his robes of all glory

and magnificence, but solemnly—almost as solemnly as the judgment day-yet throwing back his beautiful light, in softening, and encouraging, and even winning loveliness, that melts the bosom to pathos and tears

The Cumberland, accompanied by the Potomac, put to sea on Thursday, the 11th of June; the Cumberland for Vera Cruz, the Potomac to stand on and off, and wait a few days longer for despatches and letters. The Adams had already gone to the Isla de Verde, and thither we follow. God speed us, with favorable breezes, continued health, and thankful hearts.

SECTION VII.

THE ORIGIN AND REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULTIES BETWEEN

THE REPUBLIC OF MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES.

The Cumberland, having filled up with provisions and water sufficient for a four months' cruise, is now again at sea. As the Flag Ship of the Gulf Squadron, it is a matter of some importance, that her station should be at the nearest point of communication with the Mexican government, in case any overtures should be made by that government to the United States, for adjusting the unfortunate difficulties that now exist between the two nations. These difficulties, as has been seen by a preceding section, have reached a climax; and open war is now waging between the two republics. At the same time, the Flag Ship should be at a point where orders may be readily issued to the different ships composing the squadron, as the emergency, from time to time, may require. Off the harbor of Vera Cruz, the principal seaport town and the nearest accessible point to the city of Mexico, will, of course, be the principal rendezvous of the fleet. And at that point as a consequence, the BROAD PENNANT of the Cumberland will be seen to float. While, therefore, our fine frigate is making her passage through the Gulf, to find again her olden anchorage, though a little further out to sea than before off the castle of San Juan de Ullua, and under Green Island, it will not be inappropriate to the title and the general subject of this work, to state the origin, and

to review the difficulties between the United States and Mexico, which have led to the present state of open war between the two republics.

The Mexican spoliations and the annexation of Texas to the United States, are evidently the remote causes of the war that is now waging between the two republics. The spoliations mostly occurred between the years 1831 and 1837. A treaty of commerce and navigation had been formed between the two countries as early as 1831; and American citizens, relying upon protection, in accordance with the stipulations of this treaty, had engaged in commerce with Mexico, and many had settled within its limits in the prosecution of their businesss. But, in numerous instances, these residents were deprived of their personal liberty, and plundered of their property by the Mexican authorities; and on several occasions the flag of the United States was openly insulted. Without reference, particularly, to specific cases by further allusion, the following statement will show the extent of the deprivations, which were committed by Mexico.

The amount of demands on Mexico for spoliations, which were finally adjudicated under the convention, entered into by the two governments, dated April 11, 1839, is $2,026,189 26. (Auc. Washington Union.) The claims referred to the umpire, upon a disagreement between the American and Mexican commissioners, but which were not finally decided by the umpire, are $928,627 88. The amount of claims submitted to the board too late to be considered, according to the estimate of the claimants themselves, is $3,336,837 65. Seventeen claims, filed in the Department at Washington, since the adjournment of the board, and according to the estimate of the claimants themselves, amount to the additional sum of $1,147,989 55. These amounts, together, make a total of $7,489,594 34. Besides this amount,

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