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effect upon

• destroyer of all things, ought to be paid in his own • coin, and be destroyed and murdered without mercy,

by all the ways that can be invented. Another fa• vourite saying of theirs is, That business was designed • only for knaves, and study for blockheads : a third • fcenis to be a ludicrous one, but has a great • their lives; and is this, That the devil is at home. • Now for their manner of living: and here I have a • large field to expatiate in; but I shall reserve particu• lars for my intended discourse, and now only mention • one or two of their principal exercises. The elder pro• ficients employ themselves in inspecting mores hominum multorum, in getting acquainted with all the signs and o windows in the town. Some are arrived to fo great a

knowledge, that they can tell every time any butcher • kills a calf, every time an old woman's cat is in the • ftraw; and a thousand other matters as important. • One ancient philofopher contemplates two

or three • hours every day over a fun-dial; and is true to the



As the dial to the sun,
Although it be not thone upon.

• Our younger students are content to carry their specu.

lations as yet no farther than bowling-greens, billiardtables, and such like places. This may serve for a

sketch of my design; in which I hope I shall have your o encouragement.

• I am, Sir, Yours.'

I Must be so just as to observe, I have formerly seen of this feet at our other university; tho'not distinguished by the appellation which the learned historian, my correspondent, reports they bear at Cambridge: they were ever looked upon as a people that impaired themselves more by thờir firict applications to the rules of their



order than any other students whatever. Others seldom hurt themselves any further than to gain weak eres, and sometimes head-achs; but these philosophers are feized all over with a general inability, indolence, and weariness, and a certain impatience of the place they are in, with an heaviness in removing to another.

The Loungers are satisfied with being merely part of the number of mankind, without distinguishing tliemselves from amongst them. They may be faid rather to fuffer their time to pass than to spend it, without regard to the past or prospect of the future: all they know of life is only the present instant, and do not tafte even that. When one of this order happens to be a man of fortune, the expence of his time is transferred to his coach and horses, and his life is to be meafured by their motion, not his own enjoyments or sufferings: the chief entertainment one of these philosophers can poffibly propofe to himself is, to get a relish of dress. This, methinks, might diversify the person he is weary of, his own dear self to himself. I have known these two amusements make one of these philosophers make a tolerable figure in the world ; with variety of dresses in public assemblies in town, and quick motion of his horses out of it: now to Bath, now to Tunbridge, then to New-Market, then to London; he has, in process of time, brought it to pass, that his coach and his horses have been mentioned in all those places. When the Loungers leave an academic life, and, instead of this more elegant way of appearing in the polite world, retire to the feats of their ancestors, they usually join a pack of dogs, and employ their days in defending their poultry from foxes. I do not know any other method that any of this order has ever taken to make a noise in the world; but I shall inquire into such about this town as have arrived at the dignity of being Loungers by the force of natural parts, without having ever seen an univerfity: and send my correspondent, for the embellishment of his book, the names and history of those who pass their lives without any incidents at all; and how they


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shift coffee-houses and chocolate-houses from hour to hour, to get over the insupportable labour of doing nothing.



Intus & in jecore ægro
Nascuntur domini


Our pasions play the tyrants in our breasts. MOST

OST of the trades, professions, and ways of living

among mankind take their original either from the love of pleasure, or the fear of want. The former, when it becomes too violent, degenerates into Luxury, and the latter into Avarice. As these two principles of action draw different ways, Persius has given us a very humorous account of a young fellow who was rouled out of his bed in order to be sent upon a long voyage by Avarice, and afterwards over-persuaded and kept at home by Luxury. I fall set down at length the pleadings of these two imaginary persons, as they are in the original, with Mr. Dryden's translation of them.

Mane piger stertis: surge, inquit Avaritia ; eia
Surge. Negas. Intiat, furgo, inquit. Non queo. Surge.
Et quid agam? Rogiias? faperdas advehe ponto,
Caitoreum, fu pas, hebenum, thus, lubrica coa :
Tolle recens primus piper e fivente camelo.
Verte aliquid; jura. Sed Jupiter audiet. Eheu!
Baro, regustatuin digito terebrare salinum
Contentus perages, fi vivere cum Jove tendis.

Jam pueris pellem succinctus & ænophorum aptas
Ocyus ad navem : nil obftat quin trabe vaita
Ægæum rapias, nifi folers luxuria ante
Seduclum moneat; quo deinde insane, ruis? Quo?
Quid tibi vis ? calido sub pectore mascula bilis
Intumuit, quam non extinxerit urna cicutæ.
Tun' mare transilias ? Tibi tortâ cannabe fulto
Cæna fit in tranftro? Veientanumque rubellum


Exhalet vapidâ læsum pice feililis, obba ?

Quid peris? Ut nummi, quos hic quincunce modesto
Nutricias, peragant avidos tudare deunces?
Indulge genio; carpamus dolcia ; noftrum est,
Quod vivis, cinis, & manes, & fabula fies.
Vive memor leti. Fugit hora ; hoc quod loquor, inde est.
En quid agis ? Duilici in diverfum fcinderis haino;
Hunccine, an hunc fequcris :


Whether alone, or in thy harlot's lap,
When thou wouldīt take a lazy morning's nap;
Up, up, says Avarice ; thou snor'it again,
Stretch it thy limbs, and yawn'it, but all in vain.
The rugged tyrant no denial takes ;
Ai his cominand th’unwilling fluggard wakes.
What must I do? he cries; what lays his lord;
Why rife, make ready, and go ttraight aboard ;
With fish from Euxine feas thy veílel freight;
Flax, caftor, Coan wines, the precious weight
Of pepper, and Sabean incenie, take
With thy own hands, from the cir'd camel's back,
And with post-haite thy running markets inake,
Be sure to turn the penny; lye and swear,
'Tis wholesome fin; but Jove, thou say'st, will heari
Swear, fool, or starve, for the dilemma's even ;
A tradesman thou, and hope to go to heav'n!

Kefcly'd for sea, the slaves thy baggage pack,
Each saddled with his burden on his back;
Nothing retards thy voyage now, but he,
That foft, voluptuous prince, call's Luxury ;
And he may ask this civil question ; friend,
What dost thou make a fhipboard ? To what end?
Art thou of Bethlem's noble college free?
Stark, staring mad, that thou would'It teinpt the sea ?
Cubb'd in a cabbin, on a mattress laid,
On a brown George, with loured swabbers, fed;
Dead wine, that itinks of the Borachio, Tup
From a foul jack, or greasy maple cup!
Say, woulaft thou bear all this, to raise thy store,
From fix i' th’ hundred to fix hundred more?
Indulge, and to thy genius freely give :
For not to live at eale, is not to live :
U 3



Death falks behind thee, and each flying hour
Does some loose remnant of thy life devour.
Live, while thou liv'it ; for death will make us all
A vame, a nothing bu: an old wife's tale.
Speak; wilt thou Avarice or Pleasure choose
To be thy lord ? Take one, and one refuse.

When a government Aourishes in conquests, and is fecure from foreign attacks, it naturally falls into all the pleasures of luxury; and as these pleasures are very expensive, they put those who are addicted to them upon raising fresh supplies of money, by all the methods of rapaciousness and corruption ; so that avarice and luxury very often become one complicated principle of ačtion in those whose hearts are wholly set upon eale, magnificence, and pleasure. The most elegant and correct of all the Latin historians observes, that in his time, when the most formidable states of the world were fubdued by the Romans, the Republic funk into those two vices of a quite different nature, luxury and avarice : and accordingly describes Catiline as one who coveted the wealth of other men, at the same time that he squandered away

his own. This observation on the commonwealth, when it was in its height of power and riches, holds good of all governments that are settled in a state of eale and prosperity. At such times men naturally endeavour to outlhine one another in pomp and splendor, and having no fears to alarm them from abroad, indulge themselves in the enjoyment of all the pleasures they can get in their poffeffion; which naturally produces avarice, and an immoderate pursuit after wealth and riches.

As I was humouring mytelf in the speculation of these two great principles of action, I could not forbear throw, ing my thoughts into a little kind of allegory or fable; with which I shall here present iny reader.

There were two very powerful tyrants engaged in a perpetual war against each other : the name of the first was Luxury; and of the fecond, Avarice. The aim of each of them was no less than universal monarchy over the hearts of mankind. Luxury had many generals


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