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the said condition shall be held as part of the geant-at-arms of the next preceding House of organic law of the State, and thereupon without Representatives; and in case of vacancies in further proceedings of Congress the admission both of the aforementioned offices, or the absence of said State shall be considered complete. or inability of both the Clerk and Sergeant-at[Passed over the President's veto, Feb. 9, 1667.] Arms to act, then the said duties shall be per

CHAP. XLII.-Smuggling. - Supplements an formed by the Doorkeeper of the next preceding act to prevent smuggling, and for other purposes, House of Representatives. [This act was preapproved July 1, 1866. Declares that said act sented to the President on Feb. 9, and not being shall be so construed as not to affect any right of returned within ten days, became a law on prosecution which may have accrued under acts l'eb. 19, 1867.] of Congress prior to said act, and all suits or CHAP. LVII.-Court of Claims. - Declares prosecutions as have been or shall be commenced the sense of an act of July 4, 1864, entitled "An under such prior acts for acts committed pre- Act to restrict the jurisdiction of the court of vious to July, 1866, shall be tried and disposed claims, and to provide for the payment of cerof, and judgment or decree executed, as if said tain demands for quartermasters' stores, and act had not been passed. Authorizes the Secre- subsistence supplies furnished to the army of the tary of the Treasury to make such regulations as United States." Provides that chapter 240 of the shall enable vessels engaged in the coasting acts of the XXXVIIIth Congress shall not be contrade between ports and places upon Lake Mich- strued to authorize the settlement of any claim for igan exclusively, and laden with American pro- supplies taken or damage done by the military auductions and free merchandise only, to unload thorities or troops of the United States, where such their cargoes without previously obtaining a per- claim originated during the war for the suppresmit to unload. Amends section 25 of said act by sion of the Southern Rebellion in a State, or part of inserting the word “March" in the place of a State,declared in insurrection by the proclamaJuly." (Feb. 18, 1867.]

tion of the President of the United States, dated Chap. XLIII.- Copyrights.-Amends the sev- July 1, 1862, or in a State which by an ordinance eral acts respecting copyrights. Provides that of secession attempted to withdraw from the Unitevery proprietor of a book, pamphlet, map, ed States Government. Nothing herein contained chart, musical composition, print, engraving, or shall repeal or modify the eliect of any act or photograph, for which a copyright shall bave joint resolution, extending the provisions of the been secured, who shall fail to deliver a printed said act of July 4, 1864, to the loyal citizens of copy of every such book, &c., within one month the State of Tennessee, or of the State of West after publication thereof shall, for every such Virginia, or any county therein. [This act was default, be subject to a penalty of $25, to be col- presented to the President on Feb. I, was not relected by the librarian of Congress in the United turned within ten days, and therefore became a States in any District or Circuit Court of the law on Feb. 19, 1867.] United States within the jurisdiction of which CHAP. LIX.-Congressional Printer.-Prothe delinquent may reside. Such matter may be vides for the election of a Congressional printer. transmitted free of postage if the words “copy- The Senate shall elect a practical printer to manright matter" be plainly written on the outside, age the Government Printing Ofice. He shall and postmasters shall give receipt for the same be deemed an officer of the Senate and designated if requested. [Feb. 18, 1867.]

Congressional Printer, and shall in all respects CHAP. XLV.-Allegheny Arsenal.-Author- be governed by the laws in force in relation to izes the purchase of certain lots of ground ad- the Superintendent of Public Printing, and the joining the Allegheny Arsenal, at Pittsburgh, Pa. execution of the printing and binding. Sec. 8. [Feb. 18, 1867.]

Abolishes the office of the Superintendent of CHAP. XLVI.-League Island. - Authorizes Public Printing and establishes the salary of the the Secretary of the Navy to accept League Congressional Printer at $4,000 a year. [Feb. Island, in the Delaware River, for naval pur- 22, 1867.] poses, and to dispense with and dispose of the Chap. LXI.-National Cemeteries.-An act site of the existing yard at Philadelphia. [Feb. to establish and to protect National Cemeteries. 18, 1867.]

Provides that the National Cemeteries for the CHAP. LVI.-Clerk of Tlouse of Representa- burial of deceased soldiers and sailors shall be tives.--Regulates the duties of the Clerk of the inclosed with a good stone or iron fence, and each House of Representatives in preparing for the or- grave marked with a headstone. At the princiganization of the House, and for other purposes. pal entrance of each a porter's lodge shall be Provides that before the first meeting of the erected, and a Superintendent appointed by the next Congress, and of every subsequent Con- Secretary of War from enlisted men of the army gress, the Clerk of the next preceding House of disabled in service, who shall have the pay and Representatives shall make a roll of the Repre- allowances of an ordnance sergeant, and shall sentatives elect, and place thereon the names of reside therein to guard the cemetery. The Secall persons claiming seats as Representatives retary of War shall detail an officer annually to elect from States which were represented in the inspect all of said cemeteries, and report their next preceding Congress, and of such persons condition. Sec. 3. Provides for the punishment only, and whose credentials show that they were of any person who shall do injury to any monuregularly elected in accordance with the laws of ment, &c., or trees, shrubs, &c. SEcs. 4. 5, and their States respectively, or the laws of the Unit- 6. Provide for the purchase of lands needed for ed States. In case of a vacancy in the office of the purposes of this act. Sec. 7. Appropriates Clerk of the House of Representatives, or of ab. $750,000 for carrying into effect the provisions of sence or inability to discharge his duties relative this act. [Feb. 22, 1867.] to the preparation of the roll or organization of CHAP. LXII.--Soldiers and Sailorg! Or. the House, said duties shall devolve on the Ser- | phan Home.--Amends an act entitled "An act to incorporate the National Soldiers' and Sailors' any one case) paid by any person drafted during Orphan Home," approved July 25, 1866. Pa- the late war who furnished a substitute or paid rents and guardians may withdraw children, and commutation money, wherever it shall appear minors over sixteen shall be discharged on their that under the decisions and rules of the War written request. [Feb. 22, 1867.]

Department governing at the time, the said perCHAP. LXXVIII. - Smuggling.--Amends the son was entitled to discharge from the obligation 21st section of an act entitled "An act further to to render personal service under the draft, for prevent smuggling and for other purposes, ap- which he paid money or furnished a substitute, proved July 18, 1866, by providing that said sec- and to refund in like manner, in all cases wheretion shall not apply to any case where the said in it shall appear that a person so having paid towing in whole or in part is within or upon for commutation money or furnished a substitute, eign waters, and that any foreign railroad com- was not legally liable to draft: Provided, That pany or corporation, whose road enters the this section shall apply only to claims received at United States by means of a ferry or tug boat, the War Department prior to its passage. (Feb. may own such boat, and it shall be subject to no 28, 1867. other or different restrictions or regulations in CHAP. CIII.---Port of Camden.--Annexes the such employment, than if owned by a citizen of port of Camden to the collection district of Philthe United States.” [Feb. 25, 1867.]

adelphia. An assistant collector shall reside at CHAP. LXXIX.-Judge Advocates in the Ar. Camden, and receive instructions from the colmy.--Amends the 12th section of chapter 299 of lector at Philadelphia. His salary shall be $1,500. the laws of the first session of the XXXIXth The assistant collector may enroll and license Congress, so as to place the judge advocates certain vessels engaged in the coasting trade and thereby authorized to be retained in service upon fisheries. [Feb. 28, 1867.] the same footing in respect to tenure of office CHAP. CXLIV.-Publio Works Appropriaand otherwise as other officers of the army of the tion.---Makes appropriations for the repair, presUnited States. [Feb. 25, 1867.]

ervation, and completion of certain public works CHAP. LXXXIll.-- Pussengers in Steam Ves- heretofore commenced under the authority of sels.-Amends an act entitled "An act further to law. [March 2, 1867.] provide for the safety of the lives of passengers CHAP. CXLV.-Puy of Army Officer8.-Enon board of vessels propelled in whole or in part acts that the pay of army officers below the rank by steam, to regulate the salaries of steamboat of major-general be increased one-third for two inspectors, and for other purposes," approved years, and that the increased pay of non-comJuly 25, 1866, enacts that all vessels navigating missioned officers and soldiers be continued for the bays, inlets, rivers, harbors, and other waters three years from tie close of the rebellion, as deof the United States, except vessels subject to clared by the President's proclamation of Aug. 20, the jurisdiction of a foreign power, and engaged 1866. The provision as to commutation of rations in foreign trade, and not owned in whole or in shall apply to enlisted men who died as prisonpart by a citizen of the United States, shall be ers of war, or after their release. The act of subject to the navigation laws of the United 1861, ch. 42, sec. 1, authorizing an assistant secStates; and all vessels propelled by steam, and retary of war is repealed. The word “white" navigating as aforesaid, shall also be subject to shall be stricken out of the acts relating to the all rules and regulations consistent therewith, militia. The general officers may receive an adestablished for the government of steam vessels ditional ration for every five years' service. in passing, as provided in the 29th section of an [March 2, 1867.] act relating to steam vessels, approved the 30th CHAP. CXLVI.-Deductions from Sentences August, 1852. Every sea-going steam vessel of Convicts.-Convicts under any law of the subject to the navigation laws of the United United States, confined in prison, conducting States, shall, when under way, except upon the themselves well, shall have a deduction of one high seas, be under the control and direction of month in each year made from the term of their pilots licensed by the inspectors of steam vessels; sentence. [March 2, 1867.] vessels of other countries and public vessels of CHAP. CXLIX.-Lighthouses.-Authorizes the the United States only excepted. (Feb. 25, 1867.) Secretary of the Treasury to contract for the

CHAP. C.-Military Academy.-Makes ap- building, at not over a certain cost, of lightpropriations for the support of the Military houses at Trowbridge Point, in Thunder Bay, Academy for the fiscal year ending June 30, Mich.; Mendota, on Lake Superior, Mich. ; 1868, and for other purposes. Sec. 4. Declares Santa Cruz, Cal.; Pigeon River, Minn. ; Bradthat no part of the moneys appropriated by this dock's Point, Ga.; Tybee Island Knoll, Ga.; or any other act shall be applied to the pay or Morris Island, s. C.; Deepwater Shoals, Va.; subsistence of any cadet from any State declared Saint Simon's, Ga. [March 2, 1867.] to be in rebellion against the Government of the CHAP. CL.-Montana Territory.—The legisUnited States, appointed after the first day of lative assemblies of Territories shall not grant January, 1807, until such State shall have been special charters, but may pass general incorporarestored to its original relations to the Union. tion acts for mining, manufacturing, and other [Feb. 28, 1867.]

industrial purposes. The legislative functions of CHAP. CII.- Drafted Men.-Makes provision the Territory of Montana are revived. All acts for the relief of certain drafted men, The Sec- passed at the two sessions of the so-called legisretary of War is authorized to refund to each lative assembly of the Territory of Montana, person drafted who paid commutation, and was held in 1866, are disapproved and declared null also required to enter the service or furnish a and void, except such acts as the legislative assubstitute, the sum of $300. SEC. 2. Authorizes sembly authorized in the present act to be electthe Secretary of War to refund from the commu- ed shall by special act in each case re-enact. tation money the amount (not exceeding $300 in [March 2, 1867.]

CRAP. CLIII. Government of the Rebol constitution shall be ratified by a majority of the States.-An Act to provide efficient government persons voting on the question of ratification for the insurrectionary States.

who are qualified as electors for delegates, and Whereas, No legal State governments or ade- when such constitution shall have been submitted quate protection for life or property now exist in to Congress for examination and approval, and the Rebel States of Virginia, North Carolina, Congress shall have approved the same, and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, when said State by a vote of its Legislature Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Arkansas; and elected under said constitution shall have adoptwhereas, it is necessary that peace and good ed the amendment to the Constitution of the order should be enforced in said States until loy- United States proposed by the XXX Xth Conal and republican State governments ean be le gress, and known as Article 14, and when said gally established; therefore

article shall have become part of the Constitution Be it enacted, &c., That said Rebel States of the United States, said State shall be declared shall be divided into military districts and made entitled to representation in Congress, and Senasubject to the military authority of the United tors and Representatives shall be admitted there States, as hereinafter mentioned; and for that from on their taking the oath prescribed by law, purpose Virginia shall constitute the First Dis- and then and thereafter the preceding sections of trict, North Carolina and South Carolina the Sec- this act

shall be inoperative in said State. Pro ond District, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida the vided, That no person excluded from the privi. Third District, Mississippi and Arkansas the lege of holding office by said proposed amendFourth District, and Louisiana and Texas the ment to the Constitution of the United States Hifth District.

shall be eligible to election as a member of the Sec. 2. That it shall be the duty of the Presi- convention to frame a constitution for any of dent to assign to the command of each of said said Rebel States, nor shall any such person vote districts an officer of the army not below the for members of such convention. rank of Brigadier-General, and to detail a suf- SEC. 6. Until the people of the said Rebel States ficient military force to enable such officer to shall by law be admitted to representation to the perform his duties and enforce bis authority Congress of the United States, all civil governwithin the district to which he is assigned. ments that may exist therein shall be deemed pro

SEC. 8. That it shall be the duty of each officer visional only, and shall be in all respects subject assigned as aforesaid to protect all persons in to the paramount authority of the United States, at their rights of person and property, to suppress any time to abolish, modify, control, and superInsurrection, disorder, and violence, and to pun- sede the same, and in all elections to any office ish or cause to be punished all disturbers of the under such provisional governments all persons public peace and criminals; and to this end he shall be entitled to vote under the provisions of may allow local civil tribunals to take jurisdic- the fifth section of this act.

And no person tion of and try offenders, or, when in his judg- shall be eligible to any office under such proment it may be necessary for the trial of offend- visional governments who would be disqualified ers, he shall have power to organize military from holding office under the provisions of the committees or tribunals for that purpose; and all third article of said Constitutional Amendment. interference under color of State authority with [This bill was passed over the President's veto, the exercise of military authority under this act on March 2, 1867.) shall be null and void.

CHAP. CLIV.---Tenure of Civil Ofices. SEC. 4. That all persons put under military ar- Regulates the tenure of certain civil offices. rest by virtue of this act shall be tried without Sec. 1. Persons holding or appointed to any civil unnecessary delay, and no cruel or unusual pun- office by and with the advice and consent of the ishment shall be inflicted, and no sentence of Senate, shall be entitled to hold such office until any military commission or tribunal hereby au- a successor shall have been in like manner apthorized affecting the life or liberty of any per pointed and duly qualified. The Secretaries of son shall be executed until it is approved by the State, of the Treasury, of War, of the Navy, officer in command of tre district; and the laws and of the Interior, the Postmaster-General, and and regulations for the government of the army the Attorney-General, shall hold their offices shall not be affected by this act, except in so far respectively for and during the term of the as they may conflict with its provisions. Pro- President by whom they may have been aprided, That no sentence of death under this act pointed and for one month thereafter, subject shall be carried into execution without the ap- to removal by and with the advice and consent proval of the President.

of the Senate. Sec. 2. When civil officers, exSec. 5. When the people of any one of said cepting judges of the United States courts, shall, Rebel States shall have formed a constitution during a recess of the Senate, be shown, by eviand government in conformity with the Consti- dence satisfactory to the President, to be guilty

of th United States in all respects, framed of misconduct in office, or crime, or for any by a convention of delegates elected by the male reason shall become incapable or legally discitizens of said State 21 years old and upward, qualified to perform its duties, in such case, the of whatever race, color, or previous condition, President may suspend such officer and designate who have been resident in said State for one some suitable person to perform temporarily the year previous to the day of such election, ex- duties of such" office until the next meeting of cept such as may be disfranchised for participa- the Senate, and until the case shall be acted tion in the Rebellion or for felony at common upon by the Senate. Such persons shall take law, and when such constitution shall provide the oaths and give the bonds required by law. that the elective franchise shall be enjoyed by In such case it shall be the duty of the Presiall such persons as have the qualifications

herein dent, within 20 days after the meeting of the stated for electors of delegates, and when such ! Senate, to report to the Senate such suspension, with the evidence and reasons for his action in , ury, or paid or received from or retained out of the case, and the name of the person so desig- any public moneys or funds of the United States, nated to perform the duties of such office. If the to or by or for the benefit of any person ap Senate concurs, the President may remove the pointed to or authorized to act in or holding or officer and appoint a successor. If the Senate does exercising the duties or functions of any office not concur, the suspended officer resumes his contrary to the provisions of this act; nor shall office, and receives again the official salary and any claim, account, or other instrument providemoluments. The President, in case he shall ing for or relating to such payment, receipt, or become satisfied that the suspension by him of a retention, be presented, passed, allowed, apcivil officer was made on insufficient grounds, proved, certified, or paid by any officer of the shall be adthorized, at any time before reporting United States, or by any person exercising the the suspension to the Senate, to revoke the sus- functions or performing the duties of any office pension and reinstate the officer in the perfor- or place of trust under the United States, for or mance of the duties of his office. Sec. 8. The in respect to such office, or the exercising or President shall have power to fill all vacancies performing the functions or duties thereof; and which may happen during the recess of the persons who shall violate any of the provisions Senate, by reason of death or resignation, by of this section shall be deemed guilty of a high granting commissions which shall expire at the misdemeanor, and, upon trial and conviction end of their next session. And if no appoint- thereof, shall be punished therefor by a fine not ment, by and with the advice and consent of the exceeding $10,000, or by imprisonment not ex. Senate, shall be made to such office so vacant or ceeding 10 years, or both. (The bill was passed temporarily filled during the next session of the over the President's veto on March 2, 1867.] Senate, the office shall remain in abeyance, CHAP. CLV.--Proclamations of the Presiwithout any salary, fees, or emoluments attached dent Declared Palid.-Declares valid and conthereto, until it shall be filled by appointment clusive all acts, proclamations, and orders of thereto, by and with the advice and consent of the President of the United States, or acts done the Senate; and during such time all the powers by his authority or approval after the 4th March, and duties belonging the office shall be exer- 1861, an before the 1st July, 1866, respecting cised by such other officer as may by law exer- martial law, military trials by courts-martial or cise such powers and duties in case of a vacancy military commissions, or the arrest, imprisonin such office. Sec. 4. No term of office, the dura- ment and trial of persons charged with particition of which is limited by law, shall be extended pation in the late rebellion against the United by this act. Sec. 5. Persons accepting or exercis- States, or as aiders or abettors thereof, or as ing office contrary to this act, are declared to be guilty of any disloyal practice in aid thereof, or guilty of a high misdemeanor, and, upon trial of any violation of the laws or usages of war, or and conviction thereof, shall be punished by a of affording aid and comfort to rebels against the fine not exceeding $10,000, or by imprisonment authority of the United States, and all proceed. not exceeding 5 years, or both. Sec. 6. Every ings and acts done or had by courts-martial or removal, appointment, or employment, made, military commissions, or arrests and imprisonhad, or exercised, contrary to the provisions of ments made in the premises by any person by this act, and the making, signing, sealing, coun- the authority of the orders or proclamations of tersigning, or issuing of any commission or let the President. [March 2, 1867.] ter of authority for or in respect to any such CHAP. CLVI. - Allotment of Judges of the appointment or employment, are declared to be Supreme Court.-The chief justice and associate high misdemeanors, and, upon trial and con- justices of the Supreme Court of the United viction thereof, persons guilty thereof shall be States shall be allotted among the circuits by punished by a fine not exceeding $10,000, or by order of the court. New allotments, if necessary, imprisonment not exceeding 5 years, or both: shall be made by the court; or, if they become Provided, That the President shall have power necessary at any other time than during the to make out and deliver, after the adjournment term, by the chief justice. A marsbal of the of the Senate, commissions for all officers whose Supreme Court of the United States may be appointment shall have been advised and con- appointed by the court with a salary of $8,000 per sented to by the Senate. Sec. 7. It shall be annum. The marshal, with the approval of the the duty of the Secretary of the Senate, at the chief justice, may appoint assistant marshals close of each session, to deliver to the Secretary and messengers. [March 2, 1867.). of the Treasury, and to each of his assistants, CHAP. CLVIII.- Department of Education. and to each of the auditors, and to each of the Establishes at the city of Washington a decomptrollers in the treasury, and to the treasurer, partment of education, for the purpose of coland to the register of the treasury, a full and lecting such statistics and facts as shall show complete list, duly certified, of all the persons the condition and progress of education in the who shall have been nominated to and rejected several States and Territories, and of diffusing by the Senate during such session, and i like such information respecting the organization list of all the offices to which nominations shall and management of schools and school systems, have been made and not confirmed and filled at and methods of teaching, as shall aid the people such session. Sec. 8. The President shall notify of the United States in the establishment and the Secretary of the Treasury when he has made maintenance of eliicient school systems, and an appointment to office without the consent of otherwise promote the cause of education the Senate; and it shall be the duty of the Secre- throughout the country. At the head of the tary of the Treasury thereupon to coramunicate department shall be a commissioner of educasuch notice to all the proper accounting and dis- tion, appointed by the President, with the conbursing officers of his department. Sec. 9. No sent of the Senate. He shall receive a salary of money shall be paid or received from the treas- | $4,000, and shall have authority to appoint a

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chief clerk with a salary of $2,000, one clerk the officers of the army and navy, and of the with a salary of $1,800, and one clerk with a Freedmen's Bureau, to prohibit and prevent salary of $1,600. The commissioner shall make whipping or maiming of the person, as a punishan annual report to Congress, and his first report ment for any crime, misdemeanor or offence, by shall present a statement of the land grants by any pretended civil or military authority in any Congress to promote education, their manage Etate lately in rebellion until the civil government, the amount of funds arising therefrom, ment of such State shall have been restored, and and the annual proceeds of the same. [March shall have been recognized by the Congress of 2, 1867.]

the United States. SEC. 6. All militia forces now CHAP. CLIX.-Rights of Volunteers.-In organized or in service in either of the States of computing the service of any army officer, the Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Geortime of all actual service shall be taken into gia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, account. This provision shall apply to all and Texas, shall be forthwith disbanded, and appointments under the act 1866, ch. 299. All the further organization, arming, or calling into rules as to pay, rank, duties, &c., shall apply service of the said militia forces, or any part alike to officers and soldiers of the regular army thereof, is prohibited under any circumstances and of the volunteer service. State militia whatever, until the same shall be authorized by shall not be affected by this act. Emoluments Congress. [The President, in a message of March of ceromissioned officers of army shall not be 2, protested against Sec. 2 of this act, which, he increased by act 1864, ch. 145. The first section says, “in certain cages virtually deprives the of act 1865, ch. 79, shall not be retroactive. President of his constitutional functions as Com. [March 2, 1867.)

mander-in-Chief of the Army," and against Sec. CHAP. CLXII.-Iorcard University.Incor- 6,"which denies to ten States of the Union their porates the Howard University in the District of constitutional right to protect themselves, in any Columbia. Its net annual income shall not emergency, by their own militia." But not exceed $50,000 over and above and exclusive of withstanding his protest against these two secthe receipts for the education and support of tions he signed the act, lest, "by withholding his the students of the University. (March 2, 1867.] signature, the necessary appropriation be defeat

CHAP. OLXIV - National Theological In- ed.” [March 2, 1867.] stitute. — Amends an act of May 10th, 1866. CHAP. CLXXIV. - Nary. The Admiral shall Changes the name of the National Theological be the ranking officer of Navy. Section 6 proinstitute "

to that of the National Theological vides that disabled persons, who have served as Institute and University. The corporation may enlisted persons in the navy or marine corps for bold real estate to the amount of $250,000, and twenty years, shall receive from the naval penshall have the right to confer degrees, and all sion fund half of their rating when discharged. other rights of universities. (March 2, 1867.] Disabled persons so serving for not less than

CHAP. CLXIX.-Internal Rovenué. ---An'act ten years, may apply for aid from the surplus to amend existing laws relating to internal reve- income of the naval pension fund. [March 2, nue, and for other purposes. All acts relative 1867.] to the internal revenue laws now required to be CHAP. CLXXV.-Brerets in the Arm?!.-Bredone in May and June, shall be done hereafter | vet rank may be conferred on officers in the army in March and April. The tax on cotton shall, for gallant conduct in the volunteer service, after Sept. 1, 1867, be 24 cents per pound prior to their appointment in the army. [March [March 2, 1867.]

2, 1867.] CHAP. CLXX. - Army Appropriations-Irre CHAP. CLXXVI.-- Bankruptcy Act.-An Act morability of the General of the Army.- to establish a uniform System of Bankruptcy Src. 1. Makes appropriations for the support of throughout the United States. The district the army for the year ending June 30, 1868. Sec. courts of the United States are constituted courts 2. The head-quarters of the General of the army of bankruptcy under this act, in all matters un. shall be at Washington, and all orders and in- der, or growing out of which, they have original Etructions relating to military operations issued jurisdiction. They are always open for business by the President or Secretary of War shall be is- under this act, and the powers of the judge in sued through the General of the army, and, in vacation, and when sitting in chambers, are the case of his inability, through the next in rank. same as when sitting in court and in term time. The General of the army shall not be removed, They may be held in any part of the district. suspended, or relieved from command, or as- The circuit courts have also a general supervissigned to duty elsewhere than at said head-ion of all cases under this act, and may be ar quarters, except at his own request, without the pealed to from the district courts, with which previous approval of the Senate; and any orders they have also concurrent jurisdiction in all cases or instructions relating to military operations is wherein the assignce in bankruptcy is a party; sued contrary to the requirements of this section but no claim can be maintained by or against an shall be null and void; and any oslicer who shali assignee touching the bankrupt's property after issue orders or instructions contrary to the pro- the lapse of two years. One or more registers visions of tłis section shall be deemed guilty of shall be appointed in each congressional district, a misdemeanor in office; and any officer of the whose duty it is to act in the place of the judge arıny who shall transmit, convey, or obey any in all merely administrative and uncontested orders or instructions so issued contrary to the cases. Bankruptcy may be either voluntary or provisions of this section, knowing that such or- involuntary. The debtor may assume voluntary ders were so issued, shall be liable to imprison- bankruptcy if his debts exceed three hundred ment for not less than 2 nor more than 20 years, dollars, by filing a petition, setting forth his upon conviction thereof in any court of compe debts, an inventory of all his possessions, and tent jurisdiction. Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of l a declaration of willingness to give them up

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