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12.- Fear and Terror. Fear, violent and sudden, opens wide the eyes and mouth, shortens the nose, gives the countenance an air of wildness, covers it with deadly paleness, draws back the elbows parallel with the sides, lifts up the open hands, with the fingers spread, to the height of the breast, at some distance before it, so as to shield it from the dreadful object. One foot is drawn back behind the other, so that the body seems shrinking from the danger, and putting itself in a posture for flight. The heart beats violently, the breath is quick and short, and the whole body is thrown into a , general tremor. The voice is weak and trembling, the sentences are short, and the meaning confused and incoherent.
Example. Ah! mercy on my soul! What is that? My old friend's ghost? They say none but wicked folks walk. I wish I were at the bottom of a coal-pit. La! how pale, and long his face is grown since his death : he never was handsome; and death has improved him very much the wrong way.-- Pray, do not come near me! I wished you very well when you were alive; but I could never abide a dead man cheek by jowl with me. Ah, ah, mercy on us! No nearer, pray! If it be only to take leave of me that you are come back, I could have excused you the ceremony with all my heart.- Or if you-mercy on us! no nearer, pray or if you have wronged any body, as you always loved money a little, I give you the word of a frighted Christian, I will pray as long as you please, for the deliverance or repose of your departed soul. My good, worthy, noble friend, do, pray, disappear, as ever you would wish your old friend to come to his senses again.
13.- Sorrow. In moderate sorrow, the countenance is dejected, the eyes are cast downward, the arms hang loose, sometimes a little raised, suddenly to fall again; the hands open, the fingers spread, and the voice plaintive, frequently interrupted with sighs. But when this passion is in excess, it distorts the countenance, as if in agonies of pain ; it raises the voice to the loudest complainings, and sometimes even to cries and shrieks ; it wrings the hands, beats the head and breast, tears the hair, and throws itself on the ground: and, like other passions, in excess, seems to border on phrensy.
Nor windy suspiration of forc'd breath;
14.-Remorse. REMORSE, or a painful remembrance of criminal actions or pursuits, casts down the countenance, and clouds it with anxiety, hangs down the head, shakes it with regret, just raises the eyes as if to look up, and suddenly casts them down again with sighs; the right hand sometimes beats the breast, and the whole body writhes as if with self-aversion. The voice has a harshness as in hatred, and inclines to a low and reproachful tone.
Shakespeare's King John.
15.-Despair. DESPAIR, as in a condemned criminal, or one who has lost all hope of salvation, bends the eye-brows downwards, clouds the forehead, rolls the eyes frightfully, opens the mouth horizontally, bites the lips, widens the nostrils, and gnashes the teeth. The arms are sometimes bent at the elbows, the fists clenched hard, the veins and muscles swelled, the skin livid, the whole body strained and violently agitated; while groans of inward torture are more frequently uttered than words. If any words, they are few, and expressed with a súllen eager bitterness, the tone of the voice often loud and furious, and sometimes in the same note for a considerable time.
Car. If thou be'st Death, I'll give thee England's treasure,
K. Hen. Ah, what a sign it is of evil life,
War. Beaufort, it is thy sovereign speaks to thee.
Car. Bring me to my trial when you will.
K. Hen. O thou eternal Mover of the heavens,
War. See how the pangs of death do make him grin.
K. Hen. Peace to his soul, if God's good pleasure be!
Shakespeare's Henry VI. 2d Parts
16.-Surprise. SURPRISE, wonder, or amazement, opens the makes them appear very prominent. - It sometimes raises them to the skies, but more frequently fixes them on the object ; the mouth is open, and the hands are held up nearly in the attitude of fear; the voice is at first low, but so emphatical, that every word is pronounced slowly and with energy ; when, by the discovery of something excellent in the object of wonder, the emotion may be called admiration ; the eyes are raised, the hands lifted up, or clapped together, and the voice elated with expressions of rapture.
Why dost thou look so sadly on my son ?
Shakespeare's King John.
17.-Pride. PRIDE assumes a lofty look, bordering upon the aspect and attitude of anger. The eyes full kopen, but with the eye-brows considerably drawn down, the mouth pouting, mostly shut, and the lips contracted. The words are uttered with a slow, stiff, bombastic affectation of importance; the hands sometimes rest on the hips, with the elbows. brought forward in the position called a-kimbo; the legs at a distance from each other, the steps large and stately.
Shakespeare's King Johnı
18.-Boasting. In confidence and courage, the head is erect, the breast projected, the countenance clear and open, the accents are strong, round, and not too rapid ; the voice firm and even. Boasting exaggerates these appearances by loudness, blustering, and what is not unaptly called swaggering; the arms are placed a-kimbo, the foot stamped on the ground, the head drawn back with pride, the legs take large strides, and the voice swells into bombast.
Example. Captain Bobadil's Method of Defeating an Army. I will tell you, Sir, by way of private and under seal, I am a gentleman; and live here obscure, and to myself : but, were I known to his Majesty and the Lords, observe me, I would undertake upon this poor head and life, for the public benefit of the state, not only to spare the entire lives of his subjects in general, but to save the one half, nay three fourths of his yearly charge in holding war, and against what enemy soever. And how would I do it, think you ?- Why thus, Sir :- I would select nineteen more to myself, throughout the land: gentlemen they should be; of good spirit, strong and able constitution. I would choose them by an instinct that I have, And I would teach these nineteen the special rules; as, your Punto, your Reverso, your Stoccata, your Imbroccata your Passada, your Montonto; till they could all play very near, or altogether, as well as myself. This done, say the enemy were forty thousand strong. We twenty would come into the field, the tenth of March or thereabout; and we would challenge twenty of the enemy: they could not, in their honour, refuse us. Well- we would kill them : challenge twenty more kill them: twenty more kill them: twenty more-kill them too. And, thus, would we kill every man his ten a-day--ten aday—that's ten score: ten score-that's two hundred : two hundred a day-five days, a thousand: forty thousand-forty times five-five times forty-two hundred days, kill them all up by computation. And this I will venture my poor gentleman-like carcass to perform (provided there be no treason practised upon us), by fair and discreet manhood; that is, civilly-by the sword.
Every Man in his Humour.
19.-Perplexity. PERPLEXITY, irresolution, or anxiety, collects the body together as if for thoughtful consideration; the eye-brows are contracted, the head hanging on the breast, the eyes cast downwards, the mouth shut, the lips pursed together. Suddenly the whole body alters its aspect, as having discovered something, then falls into contemplation as before; the motions of the body are restless and unequal, sometimes moving quick, and sometimes slow; the pauses in speaking are long, the tone of the voice uneven, the sentences broken and unfinished.