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Cichorium Intybus, Linn.-Corn field by the Tram-road near Preston.

Campanula latifolia, Linn.-Plentiful in a wood at Dinckley Hall; abundant in the woods about Whalley-Miss Becker.

patula, Linn-Miss Becker found a single specimen of what I believe to be this plant, by the side of a brook in Simonstone, in the summer of 1864. Hottonia palustris, Linn.-Weeton Moss, and ditches in several places about Croston, very plentiful. Primula farinosa, Linn.—Mearley Clough, Pendle HillMiss Becker.


Lithospermum arvense, Linn.-Corn field between Knot End and Pilling, plentiful.

Symphytum officinale, Linn.-Not unfrequent in ditches about Pilling, where it is really wild. The Penwortham and Preston localities named in Part I are doubtful ones.

Veronica peregrina,

-Miss Becker informs me that a solitary specimen of this plant made its appearance in her father's garden, at Altham, a few years ago. She also says "that it has now spread over the place, and "taken such complete possession of the ground, that it comes up persistently in ever increasing numbers, year after year, till it has established the character of a "troublesome weed." In a note received by Miss Becker from Professor Babington, he says that this plant is not a native, but as it is now establishing itself in many places, he describes it in the fifth edition of his Manual. Mentha piperita, Sm.-Canal bank near Enfield, PortfieldMiss Becker.


Scutellaria galericulata, Linn.-Ditches about Pilling, occasionally; vitriol works at Altham-Miss Becker. Galeobdolon luteum, Huds.-Plentiful in many of the woods

on the banks of the Ribble, between Preston and Ribchester.

Oxyria reniformis, Campd.-On the rocks forming the west side of Clitheroe Castle hill, plentiful; but probably introduced.

Myrica gale, Linn.-Weeton Moss, plentiful.
Butomus umbellatus, Linn.-Canal, Altham-Miss Becker.
Sagittaria sagittifolia, Linn.-Canal, Enfield-Miss Becker.
Elodea Canadensis, Rich.-In several places in the canal
north of Preston, abundant, especially near Nateby Hall.
Epipactis latifolia, Sw.-Wood at Dinckley; woods near
Samlesbury Mill; Altham Clough, and occasionally in
hedges in the neighbourhood-Miss Becker.

palustris, Sw.-Marshy place in Pleasington-Mr. George Ward.

Convallaria multiflora, Linn.-Altham-Miss Becker. Maianthemum bifolium, D. C.—In May, 1863, I had a long but unsuccessful search through Dinckley Wood for this plant. (See Part III.)

Colchicum autumnale, Linn. -Meadow at Portfield, abundant. Carex stellulata, Gooden.-Pendle Hill.

extensa, Gooden.-Banks of the Wyre, between Skippool and the Shard Ferry.

dioica, Linn.-Pendle Hill-Miss Becker.

Chära.-One or more of this family may be found in abundance in ditches between Knot End and Pilling. Botrychium lunaria, Sw.-A solitary specimen of this plant was found between Barley and Sabden, a few years since, by Miss Becker.

Osmunda regalis, Linn.-Weeton Moss.

Polypodium phegopteris, Linn.-Hoghton Wild Bottoms; Dinckley Hall Wood; Churn Clough, Pendle-Miss Becker.

Dryopteris, Linn.-Hoghton Wild Bottoms.

Allosorus crispus, Bernh.-Hameldon Scar, above HuncoatMiss Becker.

Asplenium Filix-fœmina var: Rhæticum. Linn.-Hedge banks at Rufford, occasionally.

Trichomanes, Linn.-Wall near Portfield-Miss


Ruta muraria, Linn.-Wall near Portfield-Miss


Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh.-In a lane a little to the southwest of the Nick of Pendle; in Altham-Miss Becker.

NOTE.-Miss Becker remarks that she has not seen Saxifraga tridactylites, Geranium lucidum, Asplenium Trichomanes and Rura-muraria, within many miles of their above-mentioned Portfield habitat. For this reason, although the plants are abundant in other parts of the district, the last-named station is considered worthy of mention.



PART I. 1066-1504.

By F. J. Jeffery Esq., F.G.H.S.

(READ 4TH MAY, 1865.)


THAT bartering was the means used among the ancients in the primitive state to obtain from one man what another required without force of arms, there is no doubt; but the first invention or use of coined money is unknown. Some suggest that Tubal Cain invented coins, because he was "an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron; "* but this is not very probable, for we read, 2000 years after, that Abraham gave Ephron "four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant," for the cave of Machpelah, this money being not by tale (or pieces of metal bearing a recognised value throughout the country), but by weight, for "Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver which "he had named." If I were to enter into all the arguments as to the origin of coined money, I should fill more space than this paper is intended to do: suffice it to say-some declare Janus or Saturn to have invented it; some (Greeks) Hermodice wife of King Midas; some (Jews) say Abraham,

* Gen. iv, 22.

and, in proof, produce a coin with an old man and woman, "Abraham and Sarah," on one side, and a young man and woman, "Isaac and Rebecca," on the other; others (Latins) say Numa Pompilius, from whose name they say the word numus was derived; but Pliny tells us, 1. 18, cap. 3,* King Servius first impressed the figures of sheep and oxen on the money (copper) whence pecunia, money, itself is derived from pecus (cattle): still the Greek colonists,

"O'er Asia's coast,"

are believed to have the honour of first coining money about 800 B.C.

As Rome and Greece grew powerful and wealthy, so the arts improved from rude figures impressed on pieces of metal, to bold and trustworthy portraits of the Emperors well and, if I may use the term, beautifully executed; but with the fall of Rome, falls her "all," her arts, sciences, everything, and by the time William the Conqueror put his foot on Albion's soil, coining, like all her sister arts, had scarcely passed its lowest ebb: from a fine profile of a Cæsar on a piece of metal of substantial thickness, coining had degenerated to a thin piece of silver with a something on one side styled a portrait, but just such a one as is given in the painting of "Neglected Genius." It is my intention, in a short outline, to trace the progress of the art from this low ebb to its second flood, and shew how and under what circumstances it has gradually improved and again reached to a point of perfection; following the poverty and wealth of this island during the past eight hundred years, as illustrated by her coinage.

There are three distinct sections into which the English coinage can be divided: they are

"Servius rex, ovium boumque effigie primus aes signavit Pecunia ipsa a pecore appellabatur."

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