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in the following year, 1604, altered this designation to King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, and ordered such henceforth to be struck on his coins.

The same year he declared that, as the English gold coins were not in relative value to the silver, equal to the proportions attached to them out of the country, which had been the cause of the exportations of such gold, a new coinage should be issued, wherein the twenty-shilling gold piece, called a sovereign, was designated "unit."

1611. The exportation of gold was carried on to such an extent, that in this year the "unit" was raised from twenty shillings to twenty-two shillings in value, and other gold coins in proportion. The old sovereign or rose-royal to be current at thirty; three shillings instead of thirty shillings, and the remainder of the coins struck of angel (or fine) gold in proportion; the unit &c. being struck of crown gold.

In 1619 the weights were altered so as to bring the coins to their former denomination, viz., thirty shillings, twenty shillings &c. pieces; we thus get the unit again at twenty shillings. This piece of the new weight was remarkable for being the first English coin to bear the King's profile laureated, whence they were termed in slang, "laurels."

The ambition for centuries of the English Kings, the cause (whether secret or open) of nearly all the bloodshed between the northern and southern monarchies of the island-the unceasing desire of Edward I, who had annexed Wales-the union of England and Scotland under one crown, was recorded by James I on most of his coins. On the unit we read " Faciam eos in gentem unam." On the double crown (half sovereign) "Henricus rosas, regna Jacobus," alluding to the roses being united by Henry VII and the thrones by James I. The thistle crown bore "Tueatur unita Deus." On the four larger silver coins, " Quæ Deus conjuxit nemo "separet."

We now come to the unhappy monarch Charles I-filled with false notions, with absurd ideas, in his youth, about that now exploded idea of divine right, which cost him first his crown and then his head.

Within three months of his accession he granted letters patent to the Dowager Duchess of Richmond and Sir Francis Crane to issue copper farthing tokens of the same type and style as those of the late King-to weigh about six grains each.

1640. The struggle had commenced between Charles and his Parliament, and to supply his wants the first thing he did was to seize the metal in the mint: he afterwards gave securities for the repayment of the same. He had recourse also to other measures for raising money, and at length resorted to the common practice of debasing the coinage; but this his advisers could not suffer-though they stood faithful to their Sovereign in his troubles, they could not approve of such a means to help him out of his difficulties. Charles knew his men must be clad and fed, and to clothe and feed them he must have money.

A bill was brought into Parliament-the Scotch objected to the currency being tampered with, and were met by the reply, "it is the King's prerogative." Various proposals were made, and the King set the example of melting down his own plate. The dispute between his Majesty and his Parliament had by this time come to a rupture, and now we find ourselves with that most interesting series of currency, the "siege-pieces," a series which alone would supply sufficient material for a paper. The set shows the progress of Charles, marking, by the impressions they bear, the different towns he stopped at during his war with his Parliament. They were formed of pieces of plate, supplied by his adherents, rudely cut and stamped with the value as II. vI. (for 2s. 6d.) and either the name of the town in full or a sketch of its castle, while some bear the weight instead of the value,

(Plate II, fig. 2.) The coined money, again, got clipped or hoarded up "for better times;" to such an extent, indeed, had the clipping gone, that a crown piece looked more like a half-crown, notwithstanding that the mill and screw had been worked under the direction of Briott, a Frenchman, to ensure a better security against this evil practice.

While Charles was issuing these "bits of metal, stamped "with the value," the Parliament was not standing still. Though the King had secretly ordered the staff of the mint to follow him so soon as they had gathered a quantity of plate together, which was rapidly being brought in by his friends to be worked into that which was most needed, his opponents got information of this, and issued a counter order to the effect that no one was to leave the Tower without an order from the House.

It does not appear that the Parliament issued any coins during the King's lifetime, except those bearing his Majesty's effigy; but after his death those known as the Commonwealth coins were struck. This currency stands alone in style. It is the first money bearing the legends in English, and instead of the Royal arms we find the cross of St. George and the harp of Ireland on shields in the centre. (Plate II, fig. 3.) This change or rather innovation on the usual Latin inscription and heraldic symbols of royalty was only effected by a change in the Master of the Mint;-Sir Robert Harley, who had held that post under Charles, declined to execute dies of such barbarity as bearing English legends-so he made way for one not quite so fastidious, in the person of Dr. Aaron Guerdain.

We now find the coinage fairly under the power of the Commonwealth, and one of their first acts after the execution of Charles, was to discuss the mintage. Besides the heraldic emblems being altered, as just alluded to, the English legends were substituted for the Latin, and were, on one side, The Commonwealth of England, and on the other, God with us:

and Thomas Simon (or Symon), that master of the art of engraving, "was appointed to be sole chief engraver to the "mints and seals."

1649 and 1651. Copper was again projected as a proper metal to issue in small coins for the poorer classes, but does not seem to have been used.

When the excitement consequent upon the wars and tumults just over, had subsided, Cromwell turned his attention to the currency. He had in the mint one of the greatest engravers, if not the greatest, of the period; but there was a contemporary in France, named Pierre Blondeau, who had worked up the currency of that country, by his skill as engraver, aided by the mill and screw, with his own latest improvements added, to a state of perfection. He was invited over; but unfortunately, as with all improvements-the workman of any particular branch objects to any innovation upon his "jog-trot" pace and style of work-the men at the mint stoutly resisted any alteration, and though Blondeau made pattern pieces to shew an improvement, with inscriptions on the edge for the first time, the resistance was too great, so his designs were never issued, and he went back to France.

1653. Oliver Cromwell was declared Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland; and in 1656 he ventured to issue coins bearing his effigy and legend, (part I, plate I, fig. 3), the designs of which were by Thomas Simon, and are the first of section

III. THE SIMONIAN (1656 to the present time).

This issue is worthy of examination.

I. While Cromwell ventured, thereby, to issue a coinage with his own profile &c. on, Simon had ventured to use the means adopted by Blondeau,* the mill and screw, to obtain a

An order in Council declared" That the stamp and superscription on one "side of the money to be coined according to M. Blondeau's new invention, be "according to the form now brought in, instead of that form agreed on.”

correct round and a legend on the edge, though this means was rejected by the workmen when Blondeau himself wished to work it: it may therefore fairly be inferred that they were indignant at a foreigner being brought over to do what they could themselves perform, if they only had the same machine-for in Simon they had the talent for engraving.

II. A crowned profile-bust, clad in the dress of the period, had always been the type adopted for the coins; but here was one who refused the crown, a President of a Republic, a man by whose energy the country had been led successfully through a long strife. Simon availed himself of these points and produced a classic profile-bust, draped and laureated in bold relief, which introduced the style that has been used ever since, for we only find the crowned profile on the early coins of Charles II, when he refused to employ Simon, on account of his working for Cromwell, and wished to have his issue as unlike the Protector's as possible. This and the Gothic crown and florin of the present reign are the only crowned types since issued.

III. This is the date from which starts the changing of the profile from left to right and right to left. Cromwell had his to the left. Charles II's first issue, though different in type, was not looking another way: but in his second issue, laureated and draped, he faces the right, "to turn his back upon the "traitor." James II looked to the left; William and Mary to the right; Anne to the left and so on.

The coins from this date begin to be more of the size in present circulation, and the shillings, instead of having, as previously, a "tinny" sound, have the solid ring.

The Protector died 3rd September, 1658, and his son Richard was declared his successor; but he was not of the same character as his father and resigned soon after. No coins were struck during his brief protectorate, though copper farthings were again projected.

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