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1644.

1641.

A gene

理 1643.

1646.

great allowance is to be made in Har- The hostility of the Indians, which vey's case for the violence of political had been only partially suppressed, excitement, since it does not appear was ready to break out on any favorthat he attempted any unlawful inter- able occasion. Opechancanough, the ference with the rights and privileges ancient enemy of the colonists, was of the colonists.

now advanced in years, and still The administration of Wyatt was meditating upon revenge.

A peaceful, and quite acceptable to the favorable opportunity having presented

people. In 1641, however, Sir itself, arising out of the dissensions oc

William Berkeley was appointed casioned by the civil war in England, governor, and the year following ar- and its general effect upon the colrived in Virginia. He was a man of ony, a sudden and furious assault was high and honorable character and prin- made under Opechancanough's direction, ciples

, and proved himself well adapted which resulted in the slaughter of some to the station to which he had been five hundred of the colonists. A elevated. Shortly after the commence- ral war against the Indians ensued, and

ment of the civil war in Eng. the aged chief was taken prisoner, and

land, the laws of Virginia un- died soon after of wounds inflicted by derwent a second revision. Most of a brutal soldier. His successor the former laws were continued, but was willing to make peace, and with some modifications and additions, all the lands between James and York among which were the requiring all in Rivers were ceded to the Virginians. the colony to use the liturgy of the Thus did it happen, to use the words Church of England, non-conformists to of Mr. Bancroft, that “the colony of depart out of Virginia, the monthly Virginia acquired the management of courts to be changed into county courts, all its concerns; war was levied and and held six times a year, certain taxes peace concluded, and territory acquired, necessary to public advantage, to be in conformity to the acts of the reprelevied, etc., etc.

sentatives of the people. Possessed of The Parliamentary Commissioners security and quiet, abundance of land, for Plantations endeavored to obtain a free market for their staple, and from the Virginians an acknowledg- practically all the rights of an indement of their authority, offering them pendent State, having England for its the choice of their own governor ; but guardian against foreign oppression, Governor Berkeley, who was a firm rather than its ruler, the colonists enroyalist, persuaded the majority of joyed all the prosperity which a virgin the Council to adhere to the king ; so soil, equal laws, and

soil, equal laws, and general uniformity that Virginia, retaining its attachment of condition and industry could be- . to loyalty, and in a measure left to it- stow. Their numbers increased; the self, had an opportunity of legislating cottages were filled with children, as for the general good, independent of the ports were with ships and emiEuropean control.

grants. At Christmas, 1648, there

CH. VIII.]

LOYALTY OF VIRGINIA.

1917

1655.

1649.

1658.

were trading in Virginia ten ships from joined Ayscue, and together, in 1652, London, two from Bristol, twelve Hol- they reached the Chesapeake. The landers, and seven from New England. colony yielded without resistance, their The number of the colonists was al rights and privileges being secured to ready twenty thousand; and they who them. Berkeley's commission was dehad sustained no griefs, were not tempt- clared void, and Richard Bennet, one ed to engage in the feuds by which the of the Parliamentary Commissioners, mother country was divided. They was elected governor. Cromwell did were attached to the cause of Charles, not interfere with the appointments of not because they loved monarchy, but governors in Virginia, so that on the because they cherished the liberties of retirement of Bennet, Edward which he had left them in the undis- Diggs, in 1655, and Samuel

turbed possession; and after his Matthews, in 1658, were successively

execution, though there were chosen to fill the office of chief magisnot wanting some who, from ignorance, trate. Matthews having fallen as the royalists affirmed, favored re- into a dispute with the House publicanism, the government recognized of Burgesses, claiming powers which his son without dispute.

were denied, endeavored to have the The faithfulness of the Virginians did question submitted to the Protector ; not escape the attention of the royal but the Virginians, jealous of their exile; from his retreat in Breda, liberties, determined not to permit this,

he transmitted to Berkeley a and to assert their independent powers.

new commission; he still con- A declaration of popular sovereignty trolled the distribution of affairs, and was made, the former election declared amidst his defeats in Scotland, still re- void, and then, to show their regard membered with favor the faithful cava- for Matthews, he himself was reëlected liers in the western world. Charles to the very office from which he had the Second, a fugitive from England, just been removed. The governor subwas still the sovereign of England. mitted, and thus the spirit of popular 'Virginia was whole for monarchy, and liberty established its claims. the last country belonging to England, Matthews died in 1660, just at the that submitted to obedience of the time when Richard Cromwell's resig- . Commonwealth.""*

nation had left England free to The Parliament, however, determined desire the return of the Stuart to enforce its claims to authority over dynasty. The burgesses convened, dethe colonies. Sir George Ayscue was

clared afresh their inherent powers of sent with a fleet to compel the sovereignty, and elected Sir William

obedience of Barbadoes. A Berkeley governor, while waiting the separate expedition, to reduce Virginia, settlement of affairs in England. Thus

steadily intent upon securing the liberty

which they enjoyed, the Virginians es* Bancroft's "History of the United States," vol. i.,

tablished the supremacy of the popu

1650.

1660.

1652.

p. 209.

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Poculiarity in the origin of Maryland - George Calvert, Lord Baltimore - His character - The charter - Its

advantages - Boundary of the colony - Opposition of Clayborne Leonard Calvert in command of the expedition First settlers — St. Mary's -- Suspiciousness of Massachusetts – Clayborne's further efforts to do injury

Lord Baltimore's expenditure on the colony - First colonial assembly - Its acts Dispute about initiative in legislation Second and third assemblies — The first statutes enacted - Lord Baltimore's policy -- Act of toleration Its limits --- Insurrection of Ingle and Clayborne --- Temporizing policy of the proprietary-Maryland claimed by different parties - Contest ensuing ---Stone and his lot - Fendal's troubles and the result. Philip Calvert governor - Population and growth of Maryland in 1660.

The settlement of Maryland was in the Roman Catholic Church, a church several respects different from that of whose principles, as is well known, are Virginia or Massachusetts. The former totally opposed to all toleration in rehad many perilous struggles before its ligion, and when opportunity serves to existence and liberties were secured. carry them out, lead necessarily to perThe latter put forth many sincere but secution. The Romanists, at this pefruitless efforts, to establish itself on a riod, from a variety of causes, found foundation of theocracy, where private their position uncomfortable in Engjudgment and religious toleration should land, for the Puritans, equally with obtain no resting-place. In the case of others, were bent upon the full execuMaryland, however, the advantages of tion of the penal statutes against them; a government in which the freemen of consequently they had even greater the colony were to bear a part, and reason than the Puritans to desire to where toleration in matters of con- escape from their trials at home, by science was to be allowed, were wisely emigrating to the New World. provided for by its founder; so that About the beginning of James First's its origin was peaceful, and its course reign, George Calvert, a native of Yorkprosperous from the beginning. And shire, and a graduate of Oxthis deserves to be noted the rather, ford, was so popular in his own because the founder of Maryland was a county, by far the largest in England, sincere and liberal-spirited member of as to be chosen its representative in

1604.

**RIGINAY YAY38-+TYY

Cu. IX.]

CHARTER AND BOUNDARY OF THE COLONY.

79

1619.

1622.

Parliament, and was so great a favorite crown; and thus the charter which at Court as to have become one of the gave to him, and to his heirs, the ab

Secretaries of State. Calvert, solute proprietorship in the soil, to

however, had, some time pre- gether with the power of making necesviously, become a convert to the Rom- sary laws, was coupled with the condiish Church. With honorable candor tion that nothing should be enacted he avowed his opinions, and tendered without the advice, consent, and approthe resignation of his office. Far, how- bation of the freemen of the province, ever, from losing the influence he had or their representatives convoked in obtained, he was loaded with fresh general assembly, and nothing enacted favors, and soon after created an Irish but what was in spirit, if not in letter, peer, by the title of Lord Baltimore. consonant with the laws of England. He had been one of the original asso- Maryland, too, furnishes the first inciates of the Virginia Company, and stance in which the local proprietary had tried an experimental colony of his was exempted from the control of the

own at Avalon, on the island of crown, and from the power of parlia

Newfoundland ; after having mentary taxation. The Potomac, with twice visited it, and expended in the a line due east from its mouth, across attempt at colonization more than the Chesapeake Bay, and the peninsula $100,000, he at length resolved to called the eastern shore, formed the abandon it. He then turned his at- southern boundary of the new provtention to Virginia, where he met with ince; on the east it had the ocean and little encouragement to engage in a set- Delaware Bay; on the north the fortlement, the oath of allegiance, framed tieth degree of latitude, the southern so as that no Roman Catholic could boundary of the great New England conscientiously subscribe it, being ex- patent; and on the west, a line due pressly tendered for his adoption. He north from the westernmost head of thus became desirous of obtaining a the Potomac. settlement to which those of like faith Before the patent had passed through with himself might repair unmolested; all the necessary formalities, Lord Baland on his return to England he had timore died; but the charter was issued little difficulty in obtaining from Charles and confirmed to his son, Cecilius CalI. a grant of a considerable tract on vert, whose zealous energies were dethe river Potomac, which, in compli- voted to the carrying out his father's ment to the queen, Henrietta Maria, he purposes. Considerable opposition was denominated MARYLAND.

excited against the charter and its Lord Baltimore was a man of clear privileges, by William Clayand comprehensive mind, and of high borne, secretary, and one of the

and generous character; he ap- Council of Virginia. An acute and

preciated the necessity of a enterprising man, he had entered into popular

government, as well as of its speculations and trade with the Indians independence of the despotism of the under a royal license. Consequently,

1633.

1632

1634.

having established a post on the Isle tion would have disturbed the steady of Kent, and another at the mouth of growth and prosperity of Maryland. the Susquehanna, he and his associates In August of the present year (1634) were little disposed to look with favor Calvert sent the Dove to Massachusetts upon any grant or charter likely to in- with a cargo of corn, to exchange for terfere with their license. Clayborne's fish. But notwithstanding the friendly appeal to the Privy Council was set advances of Calvert, backed by Haraside, and orders were sent to Virginia, vey of Virginia, the suspiciousness of insisting upon a good understanding the Puritans was too strong to admit being maintained, and forbidding that of any thing like cordiality; some sharp either should entertain fugitives from words passed between the ship's people the other.

and the inhabitants; and when the Leonard Calvert, a natural son of the Dove was allowed to depart, the masfirst Lord Baltimore, was appointed by ter was charged “to bring no more his brother Cecil, to the command of such disordered persons." the company destined to found the Clayborne's hostility did not sleep. colony of Maryland. They embarked Beside endeavoring to injure the coloin the Ark and Dove, in November, nists with the Indians, he even ven1633, proceeded by way of the Westtured to fit out a small vessel, under

Indies, and early the next year color of his exclusive right to trade,

arrived in the Chesapeake. The and gave orders to capture all the number of the new settlers was about water craft of the colonists. Two two hundred, mostly of the Roman Cath- armed boats from. St. Mary's pursued olic persuasion, and many of them rank- the vessel; an engagement took place; ing amongst gentry. They were cour- several lives were lost, and the officers teously received by Governor Harvey, made prisoners. Clayborne escaped to and had no difficulty in fixing upon a Virginia, and was demanded by Calsite for a settlement. Calvert entered vert as a fugitive from justice; the Potomac, and upon a spot partly but Harvey declined giving occupied, which was about to be aban- him up, and he was sent to Engdoned by the Indians, and was ceded land. by them the next year in full to the Colonization proceeded steadily, emigrants, he built the little village of though not rapidly. The proprietary St. Mary's. The liberal provisions of offered very liberal terms to settlers, the charter, and the unusual readiness in the expectation that his own heavy with which the Indians were willing to outlays might to some extent at least, give them a peaceful footing upon the be reimbursed: during the first soil, were all in favor of the establish- two years he expended nearly ment and rapid progress of the colony; $200,000 on the colony. But in no and had it not been for the unfriendly respect, probably, was the wisdom of acts and vindictive spirit of Clayborne, Lord Baltimore more evident than in hardly a difficulty or trial worth men- his yielding to the wishes of the colo

1635.

1636.

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