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nists on a point where they were very ject of religion, because thereby the sensitive. The first colonial Assembly, public peace and quiet were likely to in 1635, had passed a body of laws, be disturbed; and practically, whether which the proprietary rejected on the necessity or policy, or more honorable ground, that the initiative of legisla- reasons, led to this result, toleration tion belonged to him. Soon after, he was established in Maryland. The Assent over a collection of statutes which semblies of the three following years

he had drawn up, to be laid be- maintained this principle of toleration

fore a second Assembly; that firmly and steadily, and in 1649, “an body, however, refused to admit the act of toleration” was enacted by both proprietary's claim to the initiative, or the upper and lower House. Liberty to adopt the laws proposed by him.of opinion was not indeed, nor could it Lord Baltimore, with great good sense, well have been, as absolute as in our

yielded the point, and a third own times. A profession of belief in

Assembly was held, at which the doctrine of the Trinity was rethe first statutes of Maryland were en- quired, and blasphemy was severely acted.

punished; but with this limitation the This Assembly was composed of depu- | terms of the statute forbade any interties from the several hundreds into ference in, or even reproachful censure which the colony had been divided; of, the private opinions or modes of an act was passed, “establishing the worship, already sufficiently numerous House of Assembly;" and a number and eccentric, established among the of bills on the subject of municipal citizens. “Whereas," it states, “ the enlaw were proposed for the approval of forcing of the conscience in matters of the House, but for some unexplained religion hath frequently fallen out to cause were not finally adopted. Trial | be of dangerous consequence in those by jury, conformity to the laws of Eng- commonwealths where it hath been land, provisions for the probate of wills, practised, and for the more quiet and obligation not to neglect the cultiva- peaceable government of this province, tion of corn, and the like, were estab- and the better to preserve mutual love lished; and it was declared, in the and amity among the inhabitants, no words of Magna Charta, that “Holy person within this province professing Church within this province shall have to believe in Jesus Christ, shall be any all her rights and liberties." Though ways troubled, molested, or discounteit is tolerably certain, that by this nanced, for his or her religion, nor in term the Roman Catholic Church was

the free exercise thereof; nor any way meant, yet the proprietary does not compelled to the belief or exercise of seem ever to have contemplated the any religion against his or her consent, establishment of a colony solely for so that they be not unfaithful to the those of like faith with himself; on the lord proprietary, or molest or conspire contrary, he endeavored by proclama- against the civil government estabtion, to repress disputations on the sub- lished.”

Vol. I.--13


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During the civil war in England, the colony with favor, Charles II., beClayborne, urged by a desire for re- cause of his displeasure against the

venge, stirred up rebellion in time-serving policy of Lord Baltimore,

the province. Repossessing him- Stone, who was the active deputy of self of the Isle of Kent, while Calvert the proprietary, and the victorious Parwas in England, and Giles Bent in liament, who, as before related, were charge of the administration, Clay- not disposed to allow disaffection or reborne, in conjunction with one Ingle, bellion in the colonies. endeavored to profit by their present A noisy and vexatious contest ensuccess. Early in 1645 the rebels were sued, into the details of which we need triumphant; but Calvert obtaining not enter. Stone was deposed assistance from Virginia, suppressed by the Commissioners, but rein

the rebellion, though not with stated on submission. On the dissolu

out bloodshed. Clay borne and tion of the Long Parliament, Stone reIngle managed to destroy or carry off established Lord Baltimore's authority a large part of the records, and were in full, which brought Clayborne again guilty of other acts of disorder and into the field: the government was misrule; yet it was judged wise to pass taken away from Stone, and retaliata general amnesty for all offences, and ory ordinances passed against the “parightful authority resumed its sway. pists;" Stone, next year, finding Calvert died in 1647, and Thomas himself blamed by Lord BaltiGreene succeeded him. But the pro- more, engaged in an attempt to put prietary deemed it expedient to dis- down his opponents, but without any

place him, in 1648, and appoint success, himself being taken prisoner,

William Stone, a zealous Pro- and narrowly escaping the death to testant and parliamentarian, as gover- which his principal adherents were nor of Maryland.

condemned. Cromwell was appealed On receipt of the news of Charlesto, but he was too busy with other and First's execution, quite a burst of loy- weightier things, to give much heed to alty was stirred up by Greene, at the this matter. In 1656, Josias Fendal time temporarily in charge of the gov- was appointed by Lord Baltimore as ernment, Stone being absent in Virginia; governor, and for a time the colony Lord Baltimore, who wished to avoid was divided between two ruling aucollision with the dominant party, does thorities, the Romanist at St. Mary's, not seem to have approved this step, and the Puritan at St. Leonard's. In by which he gave offence to Charles March, 1658, a compromise was II., who appointed Sir William Da- effected, and Fendal acknowl

venant governor, without re-edged. Just before the restoration of

gard to the chartered rights of Charles II., the Assembly of Maryland, the proprietary. Maryland was now as in the case of Virginia, took claimed by four separate aspirants; occasion to assert its legitimate Virginia, who had never looked upon and paramount authority; and Philip




置 1660.

Ch. X.1



Calvert was established firmly in the sand; and despite the various trials position of governor.

and troubles which marked its earlier The population of Maryland at this history, the colony gradually increased date, is estimated at about ten thou- in wealth and strength.

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Kieft, governor of New Netherland -- His administration — Encroachments of Connecticut people - Attempts on

the Delaware - Indian war - Bitter fruits — Reduced state of the colony — Petrus Stuyvesant governor Kieft's death by shipwreck - Stuyvesant's efforts to settle difficulties Convention of delegates -- Dissolved by the governor

Reduction of the Sivedes — Dispute with Maryland - New England restiveness – Expedition against New Amsterdam — Its surrender to the English - New York — Albany Banks of the Delaware - New JERSEY - Its origin Carteret governor

Disputes Measures adopted in New York - Dutch attack · Andros governor — Attempt on Connecticut — East and West Jersey - The Quakers - The Presbyterians fron Scotland — Arbitrary measures Chartered liberties granted to New York -- Accession of James II.



WILLIAM KIEFT, who is described was declared to be the established reby Winthrop as "a sober and discreet ligion, which was publicly to be taught, man," was the very opposite of Van etc. By these and similar efforts, the Twiller in most respects; yet his ap- Director hoped to promote the prospointment does not seem to have been perity of the colony. In addition to a judicious step. Active, zealous, ra- the settlements at Wallabout and Flatpacious, quick-tempered, he entered lands on Long Island, another upon the duties of his post with en- at Breukelen was commenced. ergy and spirit, and endeavored in New boweries were established in

every many ways to remedy the difficulties direction, annual fairs were set up at

into which New Netherland had New Amsterdam, a new stone church

fallen under the administration was erected, and various like measures of Van Twiller. His protest against adopted to advance the welfare of the Swedish colonization on the Delaware community. was unsuccessful; nor was he able bet- The English settlement at Red Hill, ter to make headway in opposition to or New Haven, was considered by the the encroachments of the New Eng- Dutch an alarming encroachment on land people on the Connecticut. Valu- their territorial rights. The traders at able privileges were offered to settlers, the House of Good Hope on the Conthe patroonships were limited, the mo- necticut were subjected to various annopoly of the Indian trade was relin- noyances, and it seemed evident that quished, the Dutch Reformed Church | there was a settled purpose to drive

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the Dutch away altogether. Long rally enough, the New Haven people Island was claimed by Lord Sterling's took offence at all this, and the quarrel agent, and under that claim insult was proceeded to that length, that Kieft

offered by a party from Lynn, proclaimed a non-intercourse with the

Massachusetts, who attempted colony on the Connecticut. to settle on the western end of the About the same date, serious difficulisland. They pulled down the Dutch ties began to arise with the Indians. arms, and put up in its place an in- Several murders had been committed, decent caricature. The Dutch made and it was judged necessary to take prisoners of them, and on their apolo- steps to meet the emergency. A board gizing allowed them to retire to the of “Twelve Men” was appoint

eastern barren end of the island, ed; and eighty men were sent

where they founded Southamp- against the hostile Indians; but withton, and put themselves under the juris- out result, the guide having missed the diction of Connecticut. Various other way. Soon after, a Dutchman was active efforts were made by the New murdered out of revenge, by a HackEngland colonists, which resulted in ensack Indian, who had been made the founding of Stratford, Stamford, drunk and robbed. Kieft would have and Greenwich. Indeed the English no redress but that of blood, although inhabitants had increased so rapidly, full reparation was offered, according even in the territory acknowledging to the Indian idea of justice in such the jurisdiction of the Dutch, that an While this dispute was yet unEnglish Secretary was found necessary, settled, the Tappan Indians fled and George Baxter was appointed to to the Dutch on being attacked that office.

by the Mohawks; and it was while The people of New Haven were de- they were thus trusting to the hospisirous of founding a settlement on tality of white men that the detestable Delaware Bay, and some fifty families plan was hastily and wickedly formed set out for this purpose. On touching to cut them off. In spite of the reat New Amsterdam, Kieft protested monstrances of the best men in the warmly against these encroachments; colony, the cry for blood prevailed; but they did not heed his words. Ac- and in February, 1643, the shrieks of cordingly, in May, 1641, Kieft sent two the victims were heard even across the sloops to break up the settlement, an icy river. Warriors, old men, women, enterprise into which the commander and children were slain without

mercy, of the Swedish fort heartily entered; to the number of eighty or more. InLamberton, the leader of the party, fants with their mothers perished in was obliged to pay a ransom; the rest the river, the wounded were killed the were compelled to swear allegiance to next morning in cold blood, and about Sweden; and the Director insisted upon thirty prisoners were taken to New duties being paid at New Amsterdam, Amsterdam. on the fur-trade in the Delaware. Natu- Retaliation followed as a matter of



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Ch. X.)






Eleven of the smaller tribes The horrors of the Pequod massacre in the vicinity joined together to make were to some extent acted over

on the Dutch. The scattered again. Kieft's conduct was warmboweries, extending twenty and thirty ly complained of by the "Eight Men," miles to the north and east, were fu- in an appeal to Holland respecting the riously attacked; houses were burned; war; and it was not till August, 1645, men, women, and children killed and that a treaty of peace was agreed upon, , carried into captivity. The colonists and a day of thanksgiving appointed. ied in terror to New Amsterdam; The settlements about New AmsterKieft was bitterly reproached and as- dam were almost ruined by the late sailed for what had happened; and a war, and hardly a hundred men could fast was proclaimed. The Indians, be mustered. Only five or six retheir revenge satiated for the time, mained out of some thirty flourishing soon after made advances for peace, boweries; and it appeared, on examiand a treaty was arranged early in the nation, that New Netherland, up to spring of the same year (1643); but this time (1638), had cost the West war broke out again in the autumn. India Company more than $200,000 Great distress was the result; and in over and above all receipts. an appeal from the board of "Eight Kieft became more and more unMen," sent to Holland in October, popular, and the people complained there is an affecting account of the of his tyranny, exaction, and arbitrary wretched condition of the colony. It exercise of lawful authority. He fell was at this date that “a good solid into several violent disputes with minfence,” or palisade, was erected as a isters of churches, as well as individuprotection to New Amsterdam, where als in the community; and altogether, the far-famed Wall Street now stands. matters came to such a pass, that it

In July of this year, Kieft wrote a was evidently high time to supersede letter of congratulation to the Com- him and appoint a new Director. Acmissioners for the United Colonies of cordingly, Petrus Stuyvesant, New England. At the same time, he governor of Curaçoa, a staunch took occasion to complain of the “in- old soldier, but very haughty and imsufferable wrongs" which the people of perious in his bearing, was appointed Connecticut had been guilty of towards Director General of New Netherland, the Dutch residents at the fort of Good with a nominal jurisdiction over his Hope. The Commissioners, at their former field of service. Some remainmeeting in September, were not a whit ing restrictions on imports and exports behind the Director in making com- were removed; but New Amsterdam plaints, which led, as was natural, to still continued the sole port of entry. a rejoinder on the part of Kieft.

Poor Kieft, having freighted a vessel Various expeditions against the In- with a valuable cargo of furs, worth, dians were undertaken during 1643, it was said, $100,000, and set sail for and 1644; and with ultimate success. home, was wrecked on the coast of


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