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sound learning. Several of them had Newtown, a suburb of Boston, which enjoyed a university education in Eng- Mr. John Harvard, at his death in land, and were men of considerable 1638, endowed with his library and acquirements. Their literary taste was half his estate. It was now styled by of course in accordance with their re- the name of the generous benefactor, ligious views. We find Josselyn car- and the place was called Cambridge afrying with him from England to “ Mr. ter the famous University in England. Cotton, the teacher of Boston Church,” | By annual grants, donations of individthe same who defended the cause of uals, etc., the new college was enabled Massachusetts intolerance against the to lay the foundation of its future attacks of Roger Williams, “ the trans- strength and influence. It was at Camlation of several Psalms in English me-bridge—about 1640—that the first tre for his approbation, as a present printing press in America, was set up. from Mr. Francis Quarles, the poet." | Who could then have dreamed what Controversial divinity was extensively less than two hundred years has brought cultivated. Free schools and grammar forth, or have predicted the mighty schools were provided. A sort of train- power of the press in the nineteenth ing college had been established at century?

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Restoration of Charles II. - Course adopted by the colonists -- Declaration of Rights - Internal difficulties and

trials - Majority in favor of resisting royal supremacy - Consequences of the Restoration in England Massachusetts' commission — The king's reply - Winthrop's and Clarke's mission for Connecticut and Rhode Island

- Charter of Connecticut - Its principles — Charter of Rhode Island -— Toleration according to Rhode Island laws Massachusetts' reply to king's requisitions

Commissioners sent out -- Their course and ill success The king's summons His probable designs -- King Philip's war Its fearful details — Philip's death - Piesults

Charter declared to be forfeited Andros – Peace - New Hampshire — Randolph collector of royal customs appointed governor Connecticut - Saving of her charter - Revolution in England of 1688.

1660.

It was with no little anxiety that the 1660, brought also two of the regicide New England colonists watched the judges, Whalley and Goffe, who rapid progress of that revolution in the had fled to the New World to mother country which led to the re- ape the vengeance of the son of storation of Charles II. to the throne Charles I. These were well received of England; and it seemed a curious by Endicott the governor, and for a coincidence that the same vessel which time they lived without disguise or conbrought the news to Boston, in July, 1 cealment. The news having been con

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firmed by later arrivals, the General by force of arms against every aggresCourt, in December, adopted an apolo. sion; and to reject any and every ingetical address to the king, petitioning terposition which they might judge for the preservation of their civil and prejudicial to the colony." religious liberties, making excuse for At length, after more than a year's the capital punishments inflicted on the delay, Charles II. was formally proQuakers, etc. The king's answer was claimed, but all demonstrations usual on prompt and favorable. Soon after, such occasions were strictly forbidden,

however, early in 1661, an or- under the ingenious but rather queer

der arrived for the arrest of pretence that rejoicing was contrary to Whalley and Goffe; but they had re- the orders issued by the king himself! tired to New Haven, and though vari- Beside the enemies of the colonists ous efforts were made they were never in England, there were many active apprehended, most probably because opponents of the ruling party at home. the authorities at no time seriously pur- Those in favor of liberal measures, as posed bringing them to punishment. Episcopalians, Baptists, and others, who Further to make show of their loyal. were excluded from a share in the ty, the authorities condemned Eliot's government, had largely increased, and, “ Christian Commonwealth,” which had encouraged by the posture of affairs, been drawn up for the converted In- urgently called for a relaxation of the dians, and incautiously published in unjust restrictions under which they England. Eliot also himself recanted labored. Even among the theocratic the anti-monarchical principles con

principles con- freemen themselves there was a division tained in his book.

of opinion. The greater part adhered In the struggle which it was evident to their original principles, but many was approaching, the leaders in New finding them too rigorous, a "half-way England felt that they must trust, un- covenant” had been adopted, by which der Providence, mainly to their own those who strictly conformed to the determined energies. Their first mea- established worship, but without prosure was to draw up and publish a de- fessing themselves regenerate and elect, claration of what they held to be their were admitted to the civil prerogatives rights. These were defined to be “the of church membership. There were power to choose their own governor, also many who deemed it the wisest deputy governor, magistrates, and re- policy to bend to necessity, and not to presentatives; to prescribe terms for risk the loss of every thing by refusing the admission of additional freemen; to to make reasonable and timely concesset up all sorts of officers, superior and sions. But the majority sternly reinferior, with such powers and duties solved to maintain their independence as they might appoint; to exercise, by of English supremacy, whatever might their annually-elected magistrates and be the issue. To avert, however, if deputies, all authority, legislative, execu- possible, the necessity of a recourse to tive, and judicial; to defend themselves armed resistance, Norton and Brad

Vol. I.--16

1662.

street, two confidential envoys, were influence had procured a charter for sent over to attempt, if possible, to Rhode Island from the Long Parlia

amuse the English ministry, but ment. When charged with treason he

they were at the same time in- was “not afraid to bear witness to the structed to deprecate its interference, glorious cause” of popular liberty, nor or, if it came to the worst, openly to to “seal it with his blood," and his condisclaim its authority. It was a mission duct on the scaffold won the admiraby no means without hazard, under alltion of even his enemies. the circumstances; for when Norton The Massachusetts commission were and his colleague arrived in England only partially successful in their object. they found various and important The confirmation of the charter was changes had already taken place, conceded, together with a conditional changes, too, which were well calcu- amnesty for all recent offences; but the lated to alarm the New England col- king, firmly insisting upon the mainonists.

tenance of his prerogative, demanded Weary of the unsettled state of the repeal of all laws derogatory to his things in the last days of the Common- authority, the imposition of an oath of wealth, all classes had welcomed the allegiance, and the administration of Restoration. Charles promised every justice in his own name.

He also rething, but his promises were very soon quired complete toleration for the forgotten. There was besides a general Church of England, and the repeal of reaction against all parties concerned the law confining the privilege of voting in overturning the monarchy, which to church members alone, with the contended to fortify the prerogative of the cession of the franchise to every inhabking, and to abet the arbitrary pro- itant possessing a certain amount of ceedings of his advisers. The Church property. In one respect, indeed, he of England was again in the ascendant, responded cordially to the wishes of the Act of Uniformity had been passed, the Massachusetts council : they were and Presbyterians and Independents freely allowed to punish the pertinawere compelled to submit. The royal cious Quakers in any way they might ist party had to the utmost gratified see fit. their thirst for revenge. Such of the Connecticut and Rhode Island were regicides as could be taken were hung; more prompt than Massachusetts to acdrawn, and quartered—among them knowledge the authority of Charles II. Hugh Peters, father-in-law of the The younger Winthrop for Connecticut, younger Winthrop, and formerly min- and Clarke for Rhode Island, went to ister of Salem. A more illustrious vic- England in quest of charters. Their artim, Sir Henry Vane, was soon after rival was timely. Winthrop, a scholar conducted to the block. Though op- and a man of high standing, easily seposed to the intolerance of the Massa- cured to himself influential friends at chusetts theocracy, he had ever been a court. He was also possessed of a vafirm friend to New England, and his luable ring, which had been given by

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1664.

by which the Pawcatuck was fixed up- Prayer Book, none as yet among us on for the limit between the two col have appeared to desire it; touching

onies. This agreement, as Mr. administration of the sacraments, this

Hildreth says, was specially set matter hath been under consideration forth in the charter of RHODE ISLAND of a synod, orderly called, the result AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS.

whereof our last General Court comThe founder and people of Rhode mended to the several congregations, Island were, beyond doubt, sincerely and we hope will have a tendency to desirous of entire freedom and tolera- general satisfaction.” Such a reply, it tion in religious matters. “Yet how may be well conceived, gave but little difficult it is to act up to a principle satisfaction; and as fresh comin the face of prevailing prejudice and plaints against the government opposing example! The Rhode Island of Massachusetts continued to pour in, laws, as first printed, many years poste- the king declared his intention of presrior to the charter, contain an express ently sending out commissioners, armed exclusion from the privileges of freedom with authority to inquire into and deof Roman Catholics, and of all persons cide upon the matters in dispute. not professing Christianity. These laws The commissioners, Nichols, Carr, had undergone repeated revisals, and it Cartwright, and Maverick, arrived in is now impossible to tell when these Boston about the end of July, prerestrictions were first introduced, though pared to enter upon their work; but probably not till after the English re- they were met with icy coldness and volution of 1688.

most steadfast and determined oppoWhile Connecticut and Rhode Island sition. The leaders of Massachusetts were rejoicing in the privileges just con- were well aware of the vast importance ferred upon them by their new charters, of the contest, and while they never for Massachusetts remained uneasy and un- a moment failed in profuse professions willing to make any submission. Their of loyalty, they on the other hand never answer to the king's requisitions, spoken at any time yielded to the demands of of above, was couched in respectful but the commissioners. The demands which evasive language. “For the repealing these made, and the measures they purof all laws here established since the posed to adopt, were considered by the late changes contrary and derogatory to colonists as a violation of their charters. his majesty's authority, we, having con

The first session of the commissioners sidered thereof, are not conscious to any was held at Plymouth, where but little of that tendency; concerning the oath business was transacted; the next in of allegiance, we are ready to attend to Rhode Island, where they heard comit as formerly, according to the charter; plaints from the Indians, and all who concerning liberty to use the Common were discontented, and made several de

cisions respecting titles to land, which History of the United States," vol.

were but little regarded. In Massai., p. 459.

chusetts, the General Court complied

Hildreth's

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