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reduced the price of their staple, to- led them to solicit the enforcement of bacco, saddled with the additional bur- a year's cessation from the planting of den of supporting a body of English tobacco: the Assembly could but refer soldiers, forbidden even to set up a it to “the pleasure of the king," and in printing press, the Virginians had to the mean time the exasperated sufferers bear their trials as best they might, in proceeded to cut up the tobacco plants. . hope that a day of redress would sooner These outrages, dictated by despair, led or later arrive.

to several executions, and laws were For a number of years subsequent passed for their future suppression. Afthe government of Virginia resembled ter thus conducting his administration much that of the mother country in the for three years, he was glad to surrenreckless profligacy and rapacity of those der his patent and take in its place a in authority. The grant of the colony pension of about $2,400. to Arlington and Culpepper has been In 1684, Lord Howard, of Effingham, already mentioned. The latter noble- succeeded Culpepper as governor. He

man had obtained the cession of quite surpassed his predecessor

his partner's share in 1680, and in extorting money. New fees had been invested besides with the of- were multiplied, and, in 1687, a court fice of governor for life, as the succes- of chancery was established, of which sor of Berkeley. The spirit of sordid | the governor declared himself the sole avarice which had infected the English judge. Despotism was rapidly attaincourt had alone dictated the request of ing its climax. A frigate was stationed these privileges, and in the same spirit to enforce the stricter observation of was the administration of Culpepper the navigation laws, and an additional conducted. Compelled to repair with excise duty in England on the import reluctance from the delights of the of tobacco still further discouraged court to the government of a distant trade. The conduct of the governor province, his only indemnification was towards the Assembly became more to make the best use of the period of and more arbitrary, until scarcely the his banishment. He carried out with shadow of popular liberty was left. him a general amnesty for the recent Such was the condition of affairs in political offences, and an act for increas- Virginia at the accession of the last of ing the royal revenue by additional du- the Stuarts. Alarming symptoms of ties. He obtained a salary of $8,000, insubordination having appeared, not double that of Berkeley's, and still fur- only among the body of the people, ther contrived to swell his emoluments, but even in the Assembly itself, who and to satisfy his greediness, by means presumed to question the veto of the of perquisites and peculations. The governor, that body, by order of the pinch began to be severely felt even arbitrary monarch, was summarily disby the most ardent loyalists, and symp- solved. But the same spirit that was toms of opposition arose in the Assembly about to hurl James. II. from the Engitself. The misery of the planters had lish throne was now fully awakened




also in the breast of the Virginians, upon all tobacco exported, one half of once so loyal, but whose loyalty had which went to defray colonial expenses, been too cruelly abused by an infatua- the other half was a personal revenue ted race of kings, and the next Assem- to the proprietary.

bly, in 1688, was imbued with Lord Baltimore's wise and prudent

such a determination to main- measures had rendered Maryland more tain its privileges, that the governor, successful to the proprietary, than any counting upon the royal support, deter- other of the American colonies. In mined, after a brief experience of its his old age he obtained a handsome temper, to dissolve it upon his own return for his heavy outlays. authority; upon which they deputed At his death the province had Ludwell, formerly conspicuous among ten counties, with about 16,000 inhabitthe most influential loyalists, to proceed | ants, the largest part of whom were to England and complain of his con- Protestants. This fact led to the ad

dressing of a letter, by the Rev. Mr. Philip Calvert, as before stated, Yeo of Patuxent, to the Archbishop (p. 83), had become firmly established of Canterbury, complaining as well of in the government of Maryland in the low state of morals in the colony, 1660. For some years subsequent to as of the fact that the clergy of the this everything went on prosperously Church of England had no settled inand harmoniously. The settlements comes like their Virginia brethren ; gradually extended, and the prospect consequently their position was neither of increase in wealth and population so respectable, nor so well calculated was bright and cheering. Lord Balti- to effect good, as it ought to be. When,

more endeavored to establish after Lord Baltimore's death, his suc

his claim to jurisdiction even cessor repaired to England, earnest atto the banks of the Delaware; but he tempts were made by the Bishop of found the officers of the Duke of York London-under whose jurisdicquite as unwilling to yield to him in tion the colonies were placedthis, as the Dutch had been when they to induce Lord Baltimore to provide were in possession of New Netherland. maintenance for the Church of England As in Virginia, the cultivation of to- clergy, a claim which he was enabled bacco was the principal staple; a great with some difficulty to resist. The impulse was given to its increase by popular feeling of the time was, howthe introduction of slave labor, and a ever, so unfavorable to Roman Cathoproportionable discouragement was the lics, both in England and in the colony result of the navigation act, which cut itself, that an order was sent out by

off a valuable revenue to the Charles II. to confine the possession of

colony from the impost on to- office to Protestants alone, a stretch of bacco exported in Dutch vessels. Fol- authority evidently unauthorized by the lowing the example of Virginia, a tax terms of the charter granted to his of two shillings per hogshead was laid father, which exempted the proprietary



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from any control on the part of the prietary of Maryland. On the contrary,

This requisition of the king he was disposed to favor the met with little attention in Maryland. Quaker William Penn, far more,

It was while Lord Baltimore was in and in the disputes about the boundEngland that a Protestant excitement aries, Lord Baltimore was compelled was raised in the colony against the to yield to his neighbor's claims. proprietary on the ground of his being Even the charter of Maryland, like a Papist. Fendal, the former gover- other charters at the time, was not safe; nor, took the lead in this matter, he and despite Lord Baltimore's remonbeing experienced in managing in times strances and appeals, a writ of Quo of civil commotion. The proprietary, Warranto was issued against it. however, hastened his return, and soon He hastened to England to de

succeeded in putting an end to fend his rights, but before the question the insurrection.

Fendal was

was settled, the abandonment of the arrested, tried, found guilty of sedition, throne by James II. placed this and all and banished

other matters of the kind on an enAlthough James II. was an avowed, tirely new footing. We shall see, as as Charles II. was a secret, Romanist, we proceed, the effect of the political yet his accession was by no means changes in England upon the American favorable to the Roman Catholic pro- colonies.



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Heath's patent in 1630 Settlements about 1660 - The proprietaries -- Provisions of the charter Measures

adopted towards the settlers Albemarle - Clarendon Second charter George Fox's preaching - The “Grand Model” of John Locke - Outline of its plan —- Emigrants under Sayle -- Spanish intrigues — Discontents --Emigration under Yeamans's governorship — Proprietaries dissatisfied Increase in population North Carolina affairs - Disturbances for some years -- Seth Sothel's career -- The buccaneers –Favored by the Carolinians - James II. and the Quo Warranto Further troubles in South Carolina -- Sothel again Progress of North and South Carolina.

THE disastrous results of the attempts a settlement on the coast. The efforts on the part of the French to found a

made by Raleigh and Gilbert had been colony on the shores of Florida have productive of no permanent result; already been narrated. Spain had

Spain had and even the patent granted by never relinquished her title to that Charles I. to Sir Robert Heath, region, yet she had made no progress his Attorney General, in 1630, for a in colonization beyond here and there tract to the southward of Virginia, to be


VOL. I.-18



called Carolana, does not appear to have south of the Chesapeake the new proled to any settlement. Heath's patent vince of CAROLINA, embracing the was subsequently declared void, the region from Albemarle Sound, southconditions on which it was granted not ward to the River St. John's, and westhaving been fulfilled. Different points, ward to the Pacific. The charter emhowever, in this fertile region, were, powered the eight joint proprietaries, during the following fifteen or twenty named above, to enact and publish years, occupied by bands of emigrants. any laws which they should judge neCertain persons, suffering from religious cessary, with the assent, advice, and difficulties in Virginia, fled beyond her approbation of the freemen of the limits and occupied a portion of the colony; to erect courts of judicature, country on the banks of the Chowan, and appoint civil judges, magistrates, north of Albemarle Sound. A small and officers; to erect forts, castles, cities, party of adventurers from New Eng- and towns; to make war, and, in cases

land settled near the mouth of of necessity, to exercise martial law;

Cape Fear River, about 1660; | to build harbors, make ports, and enbut as the land was not found to be joy customs and subsidies, imposed productive, and the neighboring In- with the consent of the freemen, on dians were not well disposed, the goods loaded and unloaded. One of

greater part of the emigrants the provisions of this charter deserves

soon after returned home; to particular notice. The king authorized the honor of Massachusetts it must be the proprietaries to allow the inhabitstated, that contributions were for- ants of the province such indulgences warded, in 1667, to the relief of those and dispensations in religious affairs, who remained, and who had fallen into as they, in their discretion, should think great distress.

proper and reasonable: and no person, Soon after the Restoration, a body to whom such liberty should be granted, of noblemen of the highest rank, the was to be molested, punished, or called Earl of Clarendon, Monk, Duke of in question, for any differences in specuAlbemarle, Lords Berkeley, Craven, lative opinions with respect to religion, and Ashley, Sir George Cartaret, Sir provided he disturbed not the civil orJohn Colleton, and Sir William Berke- der and peace of the community. ley, governor of Virginia, “excited," The first object of the proprietaries as they declared, “ by a laudable and naturally was to conciliate the settlers

pious zeal for the propagation from New England and Virginia, who

of the Gospel, begged a certain were already on the ground. Very country in the parts of America not liberal terms were offered to the former yet cultivated and planted, and only of these, such as a hundred acres of inhabited by some barbarous people, land to each free settler, liberty of who have no knowledge of God.” conscience, a distinct and recognized Charles II. readily granted their peti- share in the government, etc.; but for tion, and erected out of the territory reasons just now stated the colony at



Ca. XIV.]





Cape Fear did not prove successful, and things easy to the people of New Eng. fresh emigrants from New England land, from which the greatest emigrawere not attracted to the new province. tions were expected;" an instruction

Towards the Virginia settlers on the which he carried out so wisely, as soon Sound, which, with the surrounding to incorporate the remains of the old district, now received the name of settlement. He also opened a profitAlbemarle, and who were supposed able trade in boards and shingles with by the proprietaries to be “a more fa- the island whence he had emigrated, cile people” than the New Englanders, and arranged the general affairs of the

Berkeley, upon whom the juris- little colony with great prudence and a

diction had been conferred, was fair measure of success. instructed to be somewhat less liberal The proprietaries of Carolina, on furin his concessions. But to a body, ma- ther acquaintance with the geography ny of whom had fled malcontent from of that region, were desirous of makVirginia, and with whose temper he ing still larger additions to their terwas well acquainted, he judged it ex- ritory. Accordingly, in June, 1665, pedient to behave with caution. Mak- | they obtained a second charter which ing therefore the tenure of land as easy extended the limits of Carolina both as possible, and appointing as governor northwardly and southwardly; and by the popular William Drummond, the an additional grant in 1667, the same who afterwards shared and suf Bahama Islands were also confered death in Bacon's rebellion, he veyed to the same proprietaries. Acmade no attempt at further interfer- cessions from Virginia and New Engence in the concerns of the settlers. | land continued to be made to the We are sorry to say that the noble settlement at Albemarle; and under proprietaries made no provision for the Stevens, who succeeded Drummond as spiritual interests of the colonists, or governor, the first laws were for the conversion of the Indians, al- enacted by an Assembly comthough the spread of the Gospel had posed of the governor and council, been one of their professed objects in with twelve delegates chosen by the asking a grant of the territory.

settlers. Some planters from Barbadoes, hav- A few years afterwards, the proprieing examined the coast of Carolina, taries, by a solemn grant, confirmed the entered into an agreement with the settlers in the possession of their lands, proprietaries to remove to the neigh- and gave them the right to nominate borhood of Cape Fear River, near the six councillors in addition to the six neglected settlement of the New Eng- named by the proprietaries. About landers. Sir John Yeamans, one of the same date, the famous George Fox,

their number, was appointed the founder of the Quaker sect, visited

governor of the new district, the settlement at Albemarle, and by his which received the name of Clarendon. preaching and efforts, he gave a strong He was especially directed to “make impulse to Quakerism in that vicinity.



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