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1670.

A settled form of government for upper and lower House of Assembly; the vast extent of territory put in which three branches were to be called charge of the proprietaries, was every a parliament, and to constitute the way desirable. They entrusted the legislature of the country. The pardrawing up of the scheme to Shaftes- liament was to be chosen every two bury, who called to his aid the well years. No act of the legislature was

known John Locke. This emi- to have any force unless ratified in

nent metaphysician elaborated open parliament during the same sesa“ Grand Model,” which affords a singu- sion, and even then to continue no lar proof of how little practical value longer in force than the next biennial are theoretical attempts to arrange and parliament, unless in the mean time it regulate satisfactorily the position and be ratified by the hands and seal of claims respectively of the governors the palatine and three proprietors. and governed. It was never carried The upper House was to consist of the into effect, and indeed could not be in seven deputies, seven of the oldest an infant colony. For the sake of the landgraves and caciques and seven estimable author, however, we subjoin chosen by the Assembly. As in the a brief outline of its provisions : other provinces, the lower House was to

“ The eldest of the eight proprietors be composed of the representatives was always to be palatine, and at his from the different counties and towns. decease was to be succeeded by the Several officers were also to be apeldest of the seven survivors. This pointed, such as an admiral, a secretary, palatine was to sit as president of the a chief justice, a surveyor, a treasurer, , palatine's court, of which he and three a marshal, and register; and besides more of the proprietors made a quorum, these each county was to have a sheriff, and had the management and execution and four justices of the peace. Three of all the powers in their charter. classes of nobility were to be estabThis palatine's court was to stand in lished, called barons, caciques and room of the king, and give their assent landgraves; the first to possess twelve, or dissent to all laws made by the legis- | the second twenty-four, and the third lature of the colony. The palatine was forty-eight thousand acres of land, and to have power to nominate and appoint their possessions were to be unalienable. the governor, who, after obtaining the Military officers were also to be nomi. royal approbation, became his represen- nated, and all inhabitants from sixteen tative in Carolina. Each of the seven to sixty years of age, as in the times proprietors was to have the privilege of feudal government, when summoned of appointing a deputy, to sit as his by the governor and grand council, representative in parliament, and, to were to appear under arms, and, in time act agreeably to his instructions. Be- of war, to take the field. With resides a governor, two other branches, pect to religion, three terms of comsomewhat similar to the old Saxon con- munion were fixed; first, to believe stitution, were to be established-an that there is a God; secondly, that he

CH. XIV.]

LOCKE'S “GRAND MODEL."

125

1672.

is to be worshipped; and thirdly, that of the fort erected by the Huguenots, it is lawful, and the duty of every man, they finally settled at a spot between when called upon by those in authority, two rivers, which they called the Ashto bear witness to the truth, without ley and the Cooper, the farnily names acknowledging which no man was to of Lord Shaftesbury, and where they be permitted to be a freeman, or to laid the original foundations of Charleshave any estate or habitation in Caro- ton, whence they removed, however, lina. But persecution for observing some years afterwards, to the more different modes and ways of worship commodious situation occupied by the was expressly forbidden, and every present city. Before this removal took man was to be left full liberty of con- place, Sayle died, and was sucscience, and might worship God in that ceeded by Sir John Yeamans, manner which he in his private judg- governor of Clarendon, who introduced ment thought most conformable to the a body of negroes from Barbadoes, Divine will and revealed Word. Every afterwards recruited so largely that freeman of Carolina was declared to pos- they were twice as numerous as the sess absolute power and authority over

whites. Slave labor soon became thus his negro slaves, of what opinion or established in Carolina, to the soil and religion soever."

climate of which it was peculiarly Such, in brief, was the complicated adapted. In consequence of the conscheme of government proposed by siderable distance at which the new John Locke, a scheme which, as Mr. settlement was from Albemarle, the Hildreth justly remarks,“ included and proprietaries established a separate even exaggerated some of the worst government over it; and in this way features of the feudal system,” and arose the distinctive appellations of which, when attempted to be carried North and South Carolina. out, was found to be wholly impracti- The trials and distress which attended cable. The colonists, meanwhile, were

the first efforts of the colonists were doing for themselves all that their ne. aggravated by the intrigues and assaults cessities required in the way of legisla- of the Spaniards at Fort Augustine. tion, and were little disposed to favor They sent emissaries among the settlers any action which they could dispense at Ashley River, in the hope of moving with on the part of the proprietaries. them to revolt; they encouraged inAfter long delay three vessels were dentured servants to abandon their sent out with a body of emigrants, masters, and fly to the Spanish terriunder the command of Captain William tory; and they labored so successfully Sayle, who had some years previously to instil into the savage tribes the most been employed in a preliminary explor- unfavorable notions of the English, ation. An expense of £12,000 was in whom they hated as heretics, that these curred in providing necessaries for the deluded Indians took up arms to enplantation of the colony. Touching at deavor to extirpate a race who neither Port Royal, where they found traces wished nor had ever done them any

own resources. ,

1672.

injury. Discontent and insubordina- pend solely on their own tion, as was but natural, were produced The proprietaries ascribed their disby the trials and hardships to which the appointment, in a great measure to the colonists were exposed; and as might mismanagement of Sir John Yeamans, be expected, it led to various insur- who, early in this year, was compelled rectionary movements soon after; but by the state of his health to lay aside these were easily suppressed by the gov- the duties of governor, a relief that was ernor. The Spanish garrison at Augus- ineffectual for the desired purpose, as

tine receiving intelligence of their he did not long survive. The factions

dissensions, a party advanced and confusion in which the colony was from that fortress under arms, as far as shortly after involved, have rendered the island of St. Helena, to dislodge or the annals of this period extremely perdestroy the settlers; but fifty volun- plexing, and have very considerably teers, under the command of Colonel obscured the order and connection of Godfrey, marching against them, they events. Yeamans abdicated his office, evacuated the island, and retreated to' and the council appointed Joseph West their fort. During the governorship as his successor ; several changes ocof Sir John Yeamans, two ship loads curred within a few years, in the office of Dutch emigrants from New York of governor. Between 1680 and 1685, arrived, and many other Dutch colon- it had changed hands five times. There ists soon after determined to remove. was, however, a steady increase in the The proprietaries encouraged them in population. Quite a number of emithis determination, and made them grants from England came to Carolina, liberal offers of land and other pri- and in 1679, a ship load of vileges.

foreign Protestants was sent out The colonists in Carolina were for by Charles II. to introduce the culture several years dependent on the proprie- of the grape and olive, and the breedtaries in England for considerable sup- ing of silk worms. Some Scotchmen plies of provisions and stores, and were also emigrated, and many of the Hugueby them liberally assisted to the extent nots, who migrated to America after of several thousand pounds; but the the Edict of Nantes, settled along the proprietaries finding, instead of any banks of the Santee. indications of repayment with a corre

After the death of Stevens, the govsponding profit, only demands for fur- ernor of Albemarle, or North Carother supplies, became discouraged with lina, the Assembly, in 1674, elected a result so contrary to their sanguine their speaker, Cartwright, to the vacant

expectations. Mutual dissatis- office, the limits of which being doubt

faction commenced, which em- ful under the grand model,” he sailed bittered all future intercourse between for England, accompanied by the new the parties, although it afforded in- speaker, Eastchurch, to submit struction to the colonists which was the case to the proprietaries. very beneficial, as it led them to de- / Millar, a person of eminence in the col

1679.

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1676.

CH, XIV.]

DISTURBANCES AMONG THE COLONISTS.

127

1688.

ers.

ony, had been accused of sedition, but new governor, Seth Sothel, a man of being acquitted, had also repaired to sordid character, who, during an adLondon with complaints, and his treat- ministration of five years, pillaged both ment being disapproved of, he was re- the proprietaries and the colonwarded for his troubles with the office ists, until the Assembly deposed of secretary to the colony. Eastchurch him, banished him for a twelvemonth, being appointed governor, was, on his and compelled him finally to abjure return, delayed in the West Indies by the government for ever. a wealthy marriage; while Millar pro- During the period when the changes ceeded to execute his functions, and to in the office of governor were so frequent enforce the obnoxious provisions of the in South Carolina (1680–85), the farnavigation act, which pressed heavily famed buccaneers appeared at Charlesupon the rising commerce of the plant- ton to purchase provisions, and whether

The public discontent broke out from fear or interest, the people, and into an insurrection, headed by John even the governor himself, seemed to Culpepper; Millar was imprisoned; a have connived at and even encouraged popular assembly established; and when their visits. This dreaded body of freeEastchurch appeared to assume his gov- | booters had sprung up in the West ernment, the people refused their sub- India seas, where the Spaniards had mission. Confident in the justice of once destroyed their haunts, but during their cause, they sent Culpepper, who the war with Spain they appeared anew, had been appointed by them collec- and obtained privateering commissions tor of customs, to England, to obtain to harass the commerce and attack the the consent of the proprietaries to the cities of that country in America ;

recent changes; but Millar, hav- armed with which power they so in

ing in the mean time made his creased their numbers by desperadoes escape, charged Culpepper as he, having from every clime, and entered upon effected his object, was about to em- such daring and successful enterprises, bark, with “ treason,” for collecting the that their exploits inspired an admirarevenue without the authority of the tion, with which, however, a feeling of king. It may seem strange, but he was terror was largely mingled. One defended from this charge by no other of their leaders had even been than Shaftesbury himself-then aiming knighted by Charles II., and another at popularity-on the ground that the created governor of Jamaica. But the offence was not towards the crown, horrible abuses of such a system of libut the planters ; a plea so successfully censed outrage and plunder had sururged that Culpepper was acquitted by vived the occasion which led to its the jury. The proprietaries finding it permission, and the peace with Spain

useless to attempt to carry out had withdrawn from them the coun

the “ model” by force, agreed to tenance of the English government, a compromise with the settlers, pro- who now desired their suppression. mised an amnesty, and appointed a But connivance at piracy was not the

1680.

1684.

year wider.

only indication of a loose code of mo- ministration the dispute broke out into rality among the settlers. They per- an open quarrel. In vain did he prosisted in carrying on a border warfare duce a copy of the "grand model," with with the Indians, and selling the cap- its numerous titles and elaborate protives in the West Indies, in spite of visions, for the acceptance of the Asthe remonstrances of the proprietaries, sembly; they insisted that they had who found the breach between them- only accepted that modification of it selves and the colonists becoming every originally proposed to them, and drew

up another body of laws in substitution. The proprietaries of Carolina were in vain did he attempt to enforce the naturally anxious to conciliate James payment of the quit-rents due to the II. in regard to their charter; but in- proprietaries, and issue, as a last expe

asmuch as the colonists mani- dient, a proclamation of martial law.

fested quite as little willingness In the midst of these disturbances, the as the New Englanders to submit to noted Sothel, lately banished from Althe collection of revenue and the en- bemarle; appeared on the field. He put forcing the acts of trade, the king or himself at the head of the opposition ; dered a Quo Warranto to issue against a new Assembly was called ; the proprietaries.

Colleton was deposed and banAmid the contending parties, the ished; and Sothel was installed in his one in favor of the absolute control of place. Notwithstanding these difficulthe proprietaries, the other contending ties, the progress of the Carolinas was for a local and independent legislation, steady and effective, and both the Nor

Governor Morton, unable to thern and Southern settlements were

satisfy either, was shortly su- securely planted, with the reasonable perseded by Colleton, under whose ad- prospect of a prosperous future.

1685.

1686.

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