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ity, found also among other uncivil- one God, and living peaceably in society, ized tribes. Shocked and embarrassed should be molested for his opinions or though he was, Penn wisely refrained his practice, or compelled to frequent from rebuke, but quietly taking no or maintain any ministry whatever. notice of his visitor, she after a while A revenue was also voted to the proreturned to her own place of rest. prietary, to be raised by a duty on
The tract at the confluence of the imports and exports; unfortunately, Schuylkill and the Delaware having however, Penn having consented to appeared to Penn very desirable for suspend the receipt of it for a year or the location of his capital city, that two, it was presently lost altogether.
locality was fixed upon early in The Assembly of the next year
1683. It was entitled Phila- (1684) voted £2,000 towards delphia, to show forth to men the the expenses of the government, to be brotherly love which the Quakers ad- raised by a tax on spirits. vocated and endeavored to practice. At his mansion on Pennsbury manor, Its buildings rapidly increased, and by about twenty miles above Philadelphia, the end of the year eighty houses were Penn enjoyed for a season, the sootherected.
ing tranquillity and beauty of nature, In the midst of active preparation and had the gratification of beholding for the future growth of the new city, the unexampled increase of his colony. in March of this year (1683), Penn The news of its prosperity had been summoned his newly constituted legis- carried to Europe, and many settlers lature to meet him in Philadelphia. from Germany and Holland, of whom This Assembly accepted a frame of go- he and Barclay had made converts vernment modelled after the late act during his tour in those countries, came of settlement, with a proviso that no to seek an asylum from the storms of changes should be made except by Europe, while numerous Quakers conthe joint consent of the proprietary tinued to arrive from England. He and six parts in seven of the freemen might well boast that he “had led the of the province. By this frame it was greatest colony into America that ever ordained, beside the provisions on these any man did upon a private credit, and points before named, that to prevent the most prosperous beginnings that lawsuits, three arbitrators, to be called ever were in it, are to be found among peace-makers, should be chosen by the us." county courts, to hear and determine But the active spirit of Penn promptsmall differences between man and man; ed him to return, for a while at least, that factors wronging their employers to England. Accordingly, in August, should make satisfaction, and one third 1684, he set sail for home, having over; that every thing which excites the firmly planted and organized his propeople to rudeness, cruelty, and irrelig- vince; and leaving judicial affairs in ion should be discouraged, and severely the hands of five judges chosen from punished ; that no one, acknowledging the council, with Nicholas Moore for
TROUBLES IN THE GOVERNMENT.
chief justice. The executive adminis- the council, which he superseded by five tration was committed to the council, commissioners, charged with executive Lloyd being president, and Markham functions, but soon after appointed secretary. So rapid had been the in- Blackwell, an old officer of Cromwell, crease of Pennsylvania that when Penn and at the time resident in New Engreturned to England, it contained al- land, who sternly insisted upon the ready twenty settlements and seven maintenance of proprietary rights; yet thousand inhabitants.
to so little purpose, that after another James II. ascended the throne soon period of dissension, Penn, anxious, to after Penn's arrival, and he continued use his own words, " to settle the goto enjoy the same favor at the hands of vernment so as to please the genethe king which he had received from rality," determined “to throw all into
the Duke of York. It may be their hands, that they might see the
worth noting, that the charter confidence he had in them, and his of Pennsylvania was the only one in desire to give them all possible conAmerica against which a Quo War- tentment." Thus did the council, at ranto was not issued.
that time entirely popular in its constiWhile Penn was in England, he tution, become, early in 1690, invested was subjected to a great deal of vex- with the chief authority, subject to the ation and disappointment. The same sole proviso of a veto on the part of scene of contention was renewed in the proprietary. Meanwhile, a printing Pennsylvania that had often before press, the third in America, was, about taken place between distant proprie- 1687, set up at Philadelphia. Penn taries and popular bodies dissatisfied also in 1689 gave a charter to a public with the limited authority that they high school. were constantly aiming to enlarge. Dis- The downfall of James was fatal to puted questions arose between the go- Penn's favor at court, and subjected vernor and council on the one hand, him to severe trials. The old settlers and the Assembly on the other, in on the Delaware became jealous of the
which Penn necessarily became newly-created colony; dissensions and
involved. Besides being subject quarrels arose ; and ended in the estato continual encroachments upon his blishment of the three lower counties, authority, he complained with reason, by Penn's consent, under a separate that the quit-rents to which he looked government of their own, of which as a return for his heavy outlays in Markham became the head. Penn founding the colony, were appropriated himself, however, was very soon dein part to the public service, for which prived, by an order of the Privy Coun
the Assembly refused to vote a cil, of the administration of colonial
suitable provision. He was affairs in both the Delaware counties also dissatisfied with the conduct of and also in Pennsylvania.
New France Missionary labors of Franciscans and Jesuits -- Extent of their explorations in the west and east
Charlevoix's account - No success with the Iroquois War with the Five Nations - A truce Labors of the Jesuits War again -- Company of New France given up Marquette and the Mississippi -- La Salle
La Salle -- Enterprise and activity — Proceeds to the Mississippi - Various fortune - Descends the Mississippi to its mouth LOUISIANA La Salle goes to France - Expedition
Expedition - Fatal termination - Affairs in Canada - De la Barre Denonville — War with the Five Nations - French attempts at colonization on the whole unsuccessful — Contrast with English colonies — Accession of William III. - War in consequence.
TOWARDS the close of our first chap- it must be confessed by even the sternter, we gave a brief account of the pro-est Protestant that their labors for the gress of navigation and settlement by cause which they had in hand have the French in Canada and its contiguous rarely been surpassed by missionaries waters. Resuming the narrative from in any age or in any part of the world. that point, we call the attention of the Two Jesuit missionaries, Brebeuf and reader to some interesting facts in con- Daniel, guided by a party of Huron nection with the efforts of those enter- Indians, set out for the far-distant prising Frenchmen by whose energy wigwams of their tribe. Paddling up and perseverance their country was the St. Lawrence, they ascended its enabled to lay claim to that vast region great tributary, the Ottawa, surmountof interior America known in general ing its numerous falls and rapids, and terms as NEW FRANCE.
by carrying their canoes through tanThe determined hostility of the gled pathways in the forest, as do the Mohawks having prevented the French “ voyageurs” of the present day, and from occupying the upper waters of enduring every species of hardship, the Hudson, and cut off all progress they reached, after a journey of three towards the south, the Franciscan hundred miles, the eastern projection of missionaries who had accompanied Lake Huron, converted one of the
Champlain to Canada were led leading chiefs, and succeeded in esta
to penetrate along the nor-blishing six missions among the rude thern shore of Lake Ontario till they but impressible savages on its borders. reached the rivers flowing into Lake “Now and then,” says Mr. Hildreth, Huron. When Canada was restored “one of these fathers would make a to the French in 1632, the Jesuits ob- voyage to Quebec in a canoe, with tained the privilege of occupying the two or three savages, paddle in hand, vast missionary ground which New exhausted with rowing, his feet naked, France laid open to their efforts ; and his breviary hanging about his neck,
his shirt unwashed, his cassock half- such of the missionaries as fell into the torn from his lean body, but with a power of this savage tribe. A like face full of content, charmed with the success attended the missionary efforts life he led, and inspiring by his air and toward the east, where, at a very early his words a strong desire to join him period, before the landing of the pilin the mission." The news of these re- grim fathers, the French had labored markable successes being transmitted to convert the natives to Christo France created great excitement, and tianity. Dreuillettes, the mis
led to many efforts in behalf of sionary explorer, having reported fa
the Roman Catholic religion in vorably, measures were taken by the Canada. A Jesuit college was estab- Jesuits to establish a permanent mission. lished at Quebec, as was soon after a "It is certain,” says Charlevoix—as hospital for the benefit of both French quoted by Hildreth-in speaking on and Indians, and a convent of Ursuline this subject, “ as well from the annual
relations of those happy times, as from Montreal, which was in the highway | the constant tradition of that country, to the newly established missions, was that a peculiar unction attached to this solemnly consecrated to the Virgin Ma- savage mission, giving it a preference ry, grew up into a religious station, over many others far more brilliant and became the nucleus of a future and more fruitful. The reason no doubt city. Fresh bodies of Jesuit mission was, that nature, finding nothing there aries continued to arrive, and emulate to gratify the senses or to flatter vanity the zeal of their predecessors. Among --stumbling blocks too common even
these Raymbault, and his com- to the holiest-grace worked without
panion Jogues, coasting the obstacle. The Lord, who never allows shore of Lake Huron, reached the dis- himself to be outdone, communicates tant country of the Chippewas, at the himself without measure to those who foot of the falls of St. Mary. Worn sacrifice themselves without reserve; out with hardships, Raymbault again who, dead to all, detached entirely from reached Quebec, but only to die; while themselves and the world, possess their his companion, descending the St. Law- souls in unalterable peace, perfectly esrence with his Huron converts, was beset tablished in that child-like spirituality by a party of the hostile Mohawks, and which Jesus Christ has recommended forced to run the gauntlet three succes- to his disciples as that which ought to sive times, between rows of tormentors, be the most marked trait of their cha
his Indian companions perishing racter.” “Such is the portrait,” adds
in his sight by the tomahawk Charlevoix, “ drawn of the missionaor the flames. Jogues, having escaped, ries of New France by those who knew made his way to the Mohawk valley, them best. I myself knew some of where he was hospitably received by the them in my youth, and I found them Dutch commandant at Rensselaerwyck. such as I have painted them, bending Similar sufferings were inflicted upon / under the labor of a long apostleship,
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with bodies exhausted by fatigues and sacre. Even Quebec itself was not safe. broken with age, but still preserving The Huron missions were entirely broall the vigor of the apostolic spirit, and ken up, and the French became so disI have thought it but right to do them pirited as to ask aid from New Enghere the same justice universally done land against the Indians ; but we are them in the country of their labors. sorry to say it was denied. After
The French missionaries were not, two or three years, the Iroquois however, favored with any success consented to a peace (1654). The ocamong the Iroquois or Five Nations, casion was embraced for fresh efforts but met with unyielding and fierce op- by the Jesuits to plant the cross among position. These Five Nations or allied | their vengeful adversaries, and this communities, comprising the Senecas, time, happily, with somewhat better the Cayugas, the Onondagas, the Onei success. Some Christian Hurons, who das, and the Mohawks, occupied the had become captives to the Mohawks, country between the banks of the St. paved the way for the reception of Le Lawrence and the Hudson. Against Moyne, while Mesnard repaired to the these tribes, soon after his arrival in Cayugas, and Chaumont and Dablon Canada, Champlain had joined the Al visited the other tribes. At first, their gonquins and Hurons in a warlike success seemed to be great, but they expedition, an impolitic interference, soon discovered that they had only which was punished by these implaca- lulled, not subdued, the passions of ble savages with an inveterate hostility these ferocious warriors, and that to his country and their allies. They their lives hung by a single menaced the infant settlement of Quc- thread. Some Frenchmen had venturbec, and waylaid, as we have seen, the ed to establish a colony on the banks Jesuit missionaries, until the French of the Oswego; collisions took place were compelled to sue for peace. No- with Indians; and a third time thing therefore was so much desired as war again burst forth. The distheir conversion. During a temporary tress was now so extreme, that the Compacification, Jogues set out again on this pany of New France, reduced to a mere perilous mission, from which he never handful, resigned in 1662, to the king, again returned, being put to death soon a colony which they were unable to after his arrival among the Mohawks. defend, by whom it was transferred to
The Dutch having supplied the Iro- the new West India Company, just quois with fire-arms, the war broke out then formed by Colbert. The protecwith increased ferocity; the mission- tion implored by the Jesuits was im
aries were cruelly tortured and mediately afforded, and a French regi
put to death, and the terrified ment commanded by Tracy, who was colonists lived in daily dread of mas- appointed viceroy, repaired to
Quebec, a measure which Hildreth's “ History of the United States," vol. ii., length effectually restrained the per
severing hostility of the Five Nations.
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