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opened the General Court with formal the fronts of our battles, and where speeches, copies of which were delivered there was most danger; he has restored to the two Houses and afterward printed. to our nation the almost lost character We give an extract or two, as illustra- of bravery and valor; and, what is ting the style and manner of proceed- most valuable of all, his majesty is ing, as well as the sentiments of the entirely in the interest of his people. new governor. His first speech, a very It is therefore our duty and interest to long one by the by, concluded in these pray to God, in the most fervent manterms: "I should be wanting to you ner, that He would bless our great King and myself too, if I did not put you in William with a long and prosperous mind of the indispensable duty and reign over us, to which I am persuaded, respect we owe the king, for being the you that are present and all good peoglorious instrument of our deliverance ple will heartily say, Amen." His last from the odious fetters and chains of speech has more in the same strain : popery and tyranny, which have almost “The parting with Canada to the overwhelmed our consciences and sub- French, and the eastern country called verted all our civil rights. There is Acadia or Nova Scotia, with the noble something that is godlike in what the fishery on that coast, were most exeking hath done for us. The works of crable treacheries to England, and inredemption and preservation come next tended, without doubt, to serve the to that of creation. I would not be ends of popery. It is too well known misunderstood, so as to be thought to what interest that king favored who rob God of the glory of that stupen- parted with Nova Scotia, and of what dous act of his providence, in bringing religion he died." to pass the late happy and wonderful The noted pirates or buccaneers revolution in England. His blessed having been deprived of French and work it was, without doubt, and He was English support, by the remonstrances pleased to make King William, imme- of Spain, were compelled in a great diately, the author and instrument of measure to give up their lawless mode it. Ever since the year 1602, England of life. Some of them settled at the has had a succession of kings, who have west end of Hayti; others stuck to the been aliens in this respect, that they old trade, and in various places they have not fought our battles nor been were received and even winked at by in our interests, but have been, in an the colonial authorities. A company unnatural manner plotting and contriv- was formed, King William himing to undermine and subvert our re- self taking shares, to cruise for ligion, laws, and liberties, till God was recapturing the rich prizes which the pleased, by His infinite power and pirates had made. Curiously enough mercy and goodness, to give us a true as it seems to us now, the famous CapEnglish king in the person of his tain. Kidd, was put in command of a present majesty, who has, upon all oc- ship fitted out for this purpose. Kidd, casions, hazarded his royal person in at that time, bore a good character ;

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1699.

1700.

but the temptation appears to have | liam on the throne, Dudley reached been too great, and so he turned pirate Boston in 1702. In his first speech to himself. As it was an object to seize | the Council and Assembly, he inon Kidd, Lord Bellamont was charged formed them that he was com

with the duty of accomplish- manded by her majesty to observe to

ing it if he could find him. His them, “that there is no other province own reputation and that of several of or government belonging to the crown his friends depended upon his seizure, of England, except this, where there is that being the only effectual way of not provided a fit and convenient house removing the jealousies and sharp sur- for the reception of the governor, and mises, not only against several of the a settled stated salary for the governor, ministry but even the king himself. lieutenant governor, secretary, judges, Kidd having buried his treasures on and all other officers; which, therefore,

the east end of Long Island, is recommended to you. And since this

burned his ship, and was daring province is so particularly favored by enough to appear openly in Boston. the crown, in more instances than one, He was arrested, sent to England for their more ready obedience is justly trial, where, with Bradish and others, expected in this and all other occahe was executed.

sions.” The House, in their answer the Bellamont by his prudent course suc- next day, observed, “As for those ceeded in obtaining a vote for a more points which, in obedience to her maliberal salary than any of his predeces- jesty's command, your excellency has sors or successors, for the General Court laid before this House, we shall proceed voted him about $9,000 for the four- with all convenient speed to the conteen months he was with them. But he sideration of them.” Having resolved was not able to prevail upon them to that the sum of £500 be at this time rebuild the fort at Pemaquid, or pass presented out of the public treasury to ordinances enforcing the acts of trade. the governor, the House, in their answer A like unwillingness to be shackled in to some parts of his speech, observed, their commercial interests operated in “ As to settling a salary for the goverRhode Island and Connecticut, and nor, it is altogether new to us; nor can caused Bellamont a great deal of we think it agreeable to our present con

trouble and vexation. In 1701, stitution, but we shall be ready to do

while in New York and engaged according to our ability, what may be in pretty sharp controversy growing proper on our part for the support of out of the navigation act, Lord Bella- the government.” The sturdy Bosmont suddenly died.

tonians had no intention of saddling Joseph Dudley, an ambitious, but themselves with any such burdens as by no means a popular man, obtained these. Dudley could not bring them the appointment of governor from the to the point, and indeed from this time king. Having received his commission it became a fruitful source of contenfrom Queen Anne, who succeeded Wil- tion between the governor and the

1701.

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1703.

colonists as to their respective rights was calculated that every Indian scalp and privileges.

brought in during this war cost the The disputes between France and colony over $3,000. England relative to the “Spanish suc- This same De Rouville, in 1708, set cession” brought on a second inter. forth on another predatory expedition, colonial war, and involved the colonists with the view of surprising Portsmouth,

not only with the French in the but not being able to obtain some ex

north, but with the Spaniards, pected reinforcements, fell again upon also, in Florida. Active preparations the little village of Haverhill. With were made in Canada, in 1702, for re- that astonishing bigotry and fanaticism newing the contest, and the settle of the day, thinking that they were ments in Maine were furiously attack doing God service, they went through ed. The colonists had already pro- their devotions, then entered the

voked hostilities by plunder- village a little before sunrise,

ing the half-breed son of Baron and began the wonted work of destrucCastin, on the Penobscot. The eastern tion. Fifty of the inhabitants were Indians, wholly under French influence, killed by the hatchet, or burned in the were easily roused to seek revenge. flames of their own homesteads. The Accordingly a body of two hundred first panic having subsided, a bold deCanadians and a hundred and fifty In- fence was made. Davis, an intrepid dians, under the command of Hertelle man, concealed himself behind a barn,

de Rouville, in March, 1704, de- and by beating violently on it, and

scended the Connecticut and calling out to his imaginary succors, stole upon the village of Deerfield, in “Come on! Come on!" as if already the dead of a wintry night, while the on the spot, succeeded in alarming the sentinels were all asleep, and the snow- invaders. Here occurred another redrifts piled high rendered it an easy markable instance of female energy and thing to scale the palisade. The vil heroism, called forth by the terrible lage was burned, nearly fifty of—the emergencies of the period. One Swan, , inhabitants murdered, and a hundred and his wife, seeing two Indians apmore driven through the snow-covered proach their dwelling, to save themforests to Canada, a distance of about selves and children, planted themselves three hundred miles. As the women against the narrow doorway, and mainand children sunk with fatigue, their tained it with desperate energy against sufferings were ended by the toma- them, till their strength began to fail. hawk. In reprisal for these atrocities The husband, unable to bear the presthe English offered a premium of-on sure, cried to his wife that it was useless an average—$100 for the scalps of the any longer to resist, but she, seeing but Indians, and the whole frontier was a one of the half-naked Indians was alscene of bloody and barbarous recrimi- ready forcing himself into the doorway, nation. So difficult, however, was it seized a sharp-pointed spit, drove it with to succeed in taking an Indian that it her whole strength into his body, and

1704.

CH. II.]

EXPEDITION AGAINST QUEBEC.

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1711.

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1708,

1711.

thus compelled himself and his fellow miles, all others were exposed to plunsavage to retreat. The alarm being der and ill usage at the caprice of the given, it was with some difficulty that captors; and the proposition was even the invaders contrived to effect their made to drive them from their homes escape from the scene of their barba- "unless they would turn Protestants." rous assault.

Nicholson, who had gone to EngDudley having obtained information land, returned again in June, of the weakness of Canada, prevailed 1711, and brought with him upon Rhode Island and New Hamp- the important information that a large

shire to join in an enterprise armament was under way for the sub

against the French. The expe- jugation of Canada. A few weeks dition consisted of a thousand men, and afterwards a fleet of fifteen ships of was directed against Port Royal; but war, commanded by Sir Hovenden they were not able to reduce the fort. Walker, with forty transports, and five Having burned and ravaged in every regiments of veterans of Marlborough's direction, and having failed in a second troops, arrived at Boston. Delayed attack on the citadel, they were com- rather vexatiously, it was not till the pelled to abandon the enterprise. An last of July that the expedition, with

earnest petition was made at this seven thousand men on board,

time (1708) to Queen Anne, to sailed against Quebec. Nicholterminate this “consuming war” of son repaired to Albany, to take the comlittle less than twenty years' duration, mand of a large body of troops that by the final conquest of all the French were to proceed by land to attack Monpossessions. All the northern States treal. When the fleet had advanced ten joined in raising and equipping troops, leagues up the river St. Lawrence, the and agents were sent over to urge the weather became tempestuous and foggy. coöperation of the English Govern- A difference of opinion arose concerning ment. Their application was success the course to be pursued; the English ful, and two English ships of war, with pilots recommending one course, and five hundred marines on board, ap- the colonial another. The admiral,

peared in the harbor of Boston. like most English officers, preferred

With a considerable force raised the advice of his own to that of the by the colonists, they proceeded, under colonial pilots. Pursuing the course the command of Nicholson, to invest they recommended during the night, Port Royal, which was in no condition eight transports were driven upon the to offer a protracted resistance. The rocks and dashed to pieces. From French were obliged to capitulate, and every quarter cries of distress arose, the conquered fortress, in honor of the conveying through the darkness, to English queen, received the name of those who were yet afloat, intelligence Annapolis, which it has ever since re- of the fate of their comrades, and of tained. With the exception of the their own danger. The shrieks of the inhabitants within a circuit of three drowning pleaded powerfully for assist

1710.

ance, but none could be afforded until become the instrument and measure of the morning dawned, when six or seven commerce, and silver and gold were hundred, found floating on the scat. hardly at all to be obtained. The price tered wrecks, were rescued from death, of every thing bought or sold consenearly a thousand having sunk to rise quently, was no longer compared with no more. Chagrined by this terrible gold or silver, but with the paper disaster, the admiral sailed away as fast bills, or rather with mere ideal pounds, as possible for England, where he ar- shillings, and pence. The rise of exrived in the month of October. The change with England and all other New England troops returned to their countries, was not attributed to the homes, and Nicholson, having learned true cause, the want of a fixed staple the fate of the fleet, led back his troops medium, but to the general bad state to Albany. The indignation of the of the trade; and it was thought by colonists knew no bounds, and they un- many that increasing the paper bills sparingly denounced those who had | would enliven and increase trade. caused the failure of the expedition, Three parties grew out of the differand involved them in this heavy and ence of views on this question. One disgraceful expense and loss.

was

very small, and advocated the The treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, put an drawing in the paper bills and dependend to the second intercolonial war. ing upon silver and gold currency.

So far as America was concerned Mr. Hutchinson, one of the members

the colonists obtained consid- for Boston, was among the most active erable advantages, inasmuch as there of this party. He was an enemy, all was yielded to them the entire posses- his life, to a depreciating currency, sion of Hudson's Bay and the fur trade, upon a principle very ancient, but too the whole of Newfoundland, the French seldom practised upon-nil utile quod having certain privileges in the fisheries, non honestum : “nothing is advantaand the territory of Acadie, which re- geous which is not honest.” ceived the name of Nova SCOTIA.

Another party was very numerous. The affairs of the war bad so en- These projected issuing bills of credit, gaged public attention, that we hear which all the members of the company little of party disputes for five or promised to receive as money, but at six years; but as soon as they were no certain value compared with silver delivered from enemies without, a con- and gold; and real estates, to a suftention began within, the effects of ficient value, were to be bound as a which were felt for many years to- security that the company should pergether. The paper bills of credit were form their engagements. They solicited the cause of this contention: so many the sanction of the General Court, and of which had been issued for the an act of government to incorporate charges of the war—particularly the them. This party consisted, for the large sum of £40,000, issued for the most part, of persons in difficult or inCanada expedition — that they were

that they were volved circumstances in trade, or such

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