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duction, a proposal carried by only a inexperienced in the art of war. . Cansingle vote. The northern States, in- non were dragged through morasses

vited to coöperate against the and over rocky hills, and batteries were

common enemy, furnished some established in an irregular sort of way; small supplies of men and money, but but no impression was made upon the the chief burden fell upon Massachu- works, and after the first outburst of setts itself. The enthusiasm of her citi- excitement was spent, the most sanzens was enkindled by religious zeal as guine were compelled to admit that the well as commercial interest: all classes place seemed all but impregnable, and offered themselves as volunteers, from that the campaign promised to be both the hardy woodman of the interior, to long and arduous. Happily the greatthe intrepid fisherman of the coast. est friends of the besiegers were a disThe celebrated Whitfield, at the time contented garrison and embarrassed on a preaching tour throughout the governor, whose supplies had been alcolonies, aided the expedition by his ready cut off by the vigilance of the stirring eloquence, and suggested as a English fleet, that now succeeded in motto for the flag of the New Hamp- capturing, under his very eyes, a ship shire regiment, “Nil desperandum of war sent to his relief. To hold out CHRISTO duce :” “Nothing is to be de- longer with any chance of success was spaired of with CHRIST as our leader.” impossible, and on the 17th of June he

Early in April ten vessels, with a accordingly surrendered. This importbody of over three thousand men, as- ant capture was looked on by the pious sembled at Canso, to wait there the New Englanders as "a remarkable melting of the ice and the arrival of providence,” and caused great rejoicthe Connecticut and Rhode Island ings at Boston. The enterprise indeed quotas. Very fortunately they were was all their own, though its success here joined by four English ships of had been materially promoted by sucwar, under the command of Captain cors from the mother country, where Warren, who, at the solicitation of their energy and prowess were duly Shirley, had been ordered to coöperate recognised, not without some slight zealously with the expedition. Over | tincture of jealous apprehensions for the New England armament was Wil- the future. Pepperell was made a barliam Pepperell, a wealthy merchant of onet, and both he and Shirley received Maine, but who had no further knowl-commissions as colonels in the British edge of military affairs than he had army. Warren was made rear admiral. obtained by commanding the militia. The attempt under the Duke D'Anville, On the morning of the last day of with a large fleet and several thousand April, the squadron arrived off Louis-veteran troops, to retake Louisburg, the troops were landed in spite burg, was defeated by storms of opposition, and the siege was carried and fatal sickness. The French, howon with all the energy of courage and ever, obtained possession again of this enthusiasm, though uninstructed and strong fortress by the terms of the


CH. II.)




treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; which ex- tired from the town to the castle, situacited very considerably the indignation ted on an island in the neighboring of the New Englanders. Parliament bay, a retreat which the more zealous subsequently reimbursed the colonies, of the mob began to consider equal to for the expenses incurred in their efforts an abdication. As matters had now against the French, to the amount of reached an alarming pitch, the leading upwards of a million of dollars. members of society, who had fully con

As an illustration of the spirit of the curred in the movement, began to think Bostonians in all matters where they that it was time to check it, and assemconceived their liberties entrenched bling in town meeting, declared their upon, it deserves to be noted how they intention, at the same time that they

served Commodore Knowles and yielded to none in a sense of the out

his attempts to impress men for rage committed by Knowles, to stand his ships. One morning in November by the governor and executive, and to he sent a press-gang on shore who seized suppress this threatening tumult, which and carried off several of the inhabit- they very conveniently attributed to ants. So soon as the outrage was “negroes and persons of vile condition." known the whole city was alive with Meanwhile Knowles, at the earnest soexcitement. A mob of several thou- licitation of the governor, consented sand people immediately collected, and to return most of the men he had imbesieged the town-house, where the pressed, and shortly afterwards departCouncil was then in session, with a stormed with his fleet, while Shirley, returning of stones and brickbats. In vain did to Boston, was escorted to his house by Governor Shirley come forth upon the the same militia who but a day or two balcony, and with a disavowal of the before had refused to obey his instrucoutrage, and a promise to obtain redress, tions. In his letters to the Board of endeavor to calm the exasperated feel Trade on the subject of this “rebelings of the populace; they seized upon lious insurrection,” Shirley ascribes the the officers of the ship, who happened“ mobbish turn of a town inhabited by to be on shore at the time, and detained twenty thousand people,” to its constithem as hostages for the ransom of tution, by which the management of it their fellow citizens. The governor devolves on “the populace assembled earnestly entreated Knowles to give in their town meetings. ” up the impressed seamen, in reply to The war was brought to a conclusion which he offered to land a body of by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Ocmarines to support the governor, and tober, 1748, a war on the whole very threatened to bombard the town unless unsatisfactory and adding largely to the tumult was appeased. The excite- the national debt of England. ment kept on increasing, and the militia, For the present the struggle who were called out next day, evincing between the French and English in a sympathy with the mob, Shirley, con- America was terminated; but it was sidering himself in personal danger, re- by no means finally settled. The dis


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Party feuds in New York -- Fletcher's administration --- Schuyler and the Indians — Fletcher's acts in religious

matters -- His efforts in Pennsylvania and Connecticut Rev. Mr. Miller's letter to the Bishop of London - Barbarities of Indian warfare --- Lord Bellamont governor - His administration - Lord Cornbury appointed — His character and acts — Committee of grievances - Lovelace governor. His death - Expedition against Canada Postage regulations - Hunter governor

German emigrants -- Burnet appointed -- Efforts against the French Cosby governor - Trial of Zenger-Governor Clarke's disputes with the Assembly -- The “Negro plot” in New York -- Clinton governor - Efforts against the French and Indians Affairs of New Jersey at this date Trouble in Pennsylvania — William Penn in America Efforts to settle the government --" Charter of Privileges” - Penn's return to England — His letter — Evans removed - Gookin governor - Sir William Keith his successor - Family dispute about the sovereignty of the province - Governor Thomas and the controversy between the proprietaries and the Assembly on the question of taxation, defence of the province, etc.



The unhappy fate of Jacob Leisler, charge; in the latter part of 1692, howas related in a previous chapter, pro- ever, Benjamin Fletcher was duced a deep impression in New York, appointed governor. He was and gave rise to party feuds which much such a character as Sloughter, in lasted a long time in that colony. want, and ready to grasp all within his

From this date, as Mr. Hildreth reach: he took sides, too, with the anti

correctly states, there was a final Leislerian party, which, together with abandonment of the ancient Dutch his efforts to obtain endowment for the usages, and the complete introduction ministers of the Church of England, of English law; and although the king stirred up strong opposition. Fortuvetoed a statute declaring the right of nately for Fletcher as well as for the the people to participate in the enact- general progress of the colony, he was ment of all laws, through an Assembly, duly impressed with a sense of the imyet in practice an Assembly became portance of cultivating the friendship from this time an essential part of the and obtaining the aid of Major Schuypolitical system of New York.

ler, in all matters relating to Indian Sloughter's sudden death left New affairs. This able officer's influence York for a year or so under Ingoldsby's | with the Five Nations was almost un






bounded, and he was ever ready to aid also passed.

passed. But, gentlemen, I must in measures for their defence against take leave to tell you, if you seem to the French. In the beginning of 1693, understand by these words, that none on an occasion of the French having can serve without your collation, or es

made an incursion into the Mo- tablishment, you are far mistaken. For

hawk country, Schuyler raised a I have the power of collating or susvolunteer force of two hundred men and pending any minister in my governmarched from Albany in pursuit of ment, by their majesties' letters patent; them. Fletcher, by extraordinary acti- and whilst I stay in the government, I vity, brought up from New York the in- will take care that neither heresy, sedidependent companies and other troops; tion, schism, or rebellion, be preached but the French effected their escape among you, nor vice and profanity enand the Indians, though greatly pleased couraged. It is my endeavor to lead a with the zeal of Fletcher, were never- virtuous and pious life amongst you, theless a good deal inclined to make and to give a good example: I wish peace with the French.

you all to do the same.

You ought Fletcher, who, it seems, was not cal- to consider that you have but a third culated to raise the reputation of any share in the legislative power of the denomination of Christians, was espe- government; and ought not to take all cially urgent in favor of the Episcopal upon you, nor be so peremptory. You Church and the claims of its ministry ought to let the council have a share. for support. As illustrative of the man They are in the nature of the House of and the times, we give his address to Lords, or upper house; but you seem the members of the Assembly after his to take the whole power in your hands, ineffectual attempt to accomplish his and set up for every thing. You have favorite project of having endowments, sat a long time to little purpose, and and presenting or naming the ministers have been a great charge to the counto officiate in the churches : “Gentle- try. Ten shillings a day is a large almen, there is also a bill for settling a lowance, and you punctually exact it. ministry in this city, and some other You have been always forward enough countries of the government. In that to pull down the fees of other ministers very thing you have shown a great in the government. Why did you not deal of stiffness. You take upon you, think it expedient to correct your own as if you were dictators. I sent down to a more moderate allowance ? Gentleto you an amendment of three or four men, I shall say no more at present, but words in that bill, which, though very that you do withdraw to your private immaterial, yet was positively denied. affairs in the country. I do prorogue I must tell you, it seems very unman- you to the 10th of January next, and nerly. There never was an amendment you are hereby prorogued to the yet desired by the council board but 10th day of January next ensuing. "* what was rejected. It is the sign of a stubborn ill temper, and this I have Smith's "History of New York," p. 84.

Vol. I.--25

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Fletcher, beside being charged with shortly afterward Fitz John Winthrop, administering the government of Penn- who had been sent to England as agent sylvania and Delaware—Penn having to protest against a violation of the recently been deprived—was author- charter, returned with the royal conized by a royal letter to the colonies, cession that on ordinary occasions, at except Carolina, to call on them for aid least, the command of the local militia in defence of New York. The Qua- belonged to the respective States. Conker's of Pennsylvania did not at all necticut promised, however, to be in fancy voting money or anything of the readiness to furnish a quota of a hunkind, and agreed reluctantly to only a dred and twenty men for the defence small appropriation, stipulating that it of New York.

should not be dipped in blood.” A Mr. Hildreth* quotes quite fully from few months later--in October-Flet- a letter addressed by the Rev. John cher went to Hartford on a similar Miller, in 1695, to the Lord errand. The Assembly was in session, Bishop of London, in which is and Fletcher endeavored to overawe contained an interesting account of the them into consent to his demands. In- writer's views of the ecclesiastical and forming them that he would not set moral condition of New York. The foot out of the province till his majes- sentiments of Mr. Miller, though evity's orders had been obeyed, he then dently not much approved of by Mr. directed the trained bands to be assem- Hildreth, are worthy of consideration, bled, and his commission to be read to and notwithstanding he speaks as an them. Captain Wadsworth, the senior Episcopalian, the facts which he states captain, walked up and down, engaged, show that New York was, a hundred to all appearance, in exercising his and fifty years ago, as much divided,

“ Beat the drums !" was his or- in proportion, on religious subjects, and der, as Fletcher's officer lifted up his as much given to folly and wickedness, voice to read. The governor com- as it is now. Mr. Miller's proposed manded silence, and his officer pre- remedy was the sending over a bishop pared to read. “Drum, drum, I say for the colonies ; about the expediency again !" called out Wadsworth, and the of which, at that date, there has been voice of the reader was a second time no little difference of opinion among drowned in the discordant roll. “Si- those who fully recognize bishops as of lence !" passionately vociferated Flet- divine appointment. cher. “Drum, drum, I say !" shouted Wadsworth in a still louder key; and *History of the United States," vol. ii., pp. 189– significantly turning to Fletcher, he exclaimed, “if I am interrupted again, I will make the sun shine through you adjoining, on Broadway, known as Trinity Parish. in a moment!” The angry governor,

In 1705, the Queen's Farm, on the west side of Manastounded at this display of spirit, was compelled to swallow the affront; and



+ In 1697, a royal grant was made of a certain church, in the city of New York, and piece of ground

Berrian's "History of Trinity Church,” pp. 14, 15.

hattan Island-from St. Paul's Church to Christopher street-was donated to Trinity Church.-See Dr.

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