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them without astonishment, nor with in the city volunteered against them, honor suffer the House to sit any longer;"" and Chief Justice Delancey exerted and he accordingly dissolved it. In the influence of his high station against

1741, Clarke, again endeavoring them. Ignorant and unassisted, nearly

to bring the Assembly to his all who were tried were condemned. views, took occasion to charge upon Fourteen were burned, eighteen were them a settled purpose or desire of in- hung, and seventy-one were transportdependence, a charge which the As- ed. Of the whites two were convicted, sembly denied, and no doubt correctly, and suffered death. for, however tenacious the colonists All apprehension of danger having were of what they held to be their subsided, many began to doubt whejust rights and privileges, there is no ther there was really any plot at all. probability whatever that at that time None of the witnesses were persons of there was any idea of a formal severing credit; their stories were extravagant, the connection with the mother country. and often contradictory; and the proClarke at last yielded to the necessity ject was such as none but fools or of the case, and accepted such grants madmen would form. The two white as the Assembly chose to make. men were respectable; one had re

In this year, a delusion, not so fa- ceived a liberal education, but he was mous as the Salem witchcraft, but, in a Roman Catholic, and the prejudice

proportion, quite as sanguinary, against these was too violent to permit

occurred in New York, com- the free exercise of reason. Some of monly known as the “Negro Plot." | the accused were doubtless guilty of The frequent occurrence of fires, most setting fire to the city ; but the proof of which were evidently caused by de- of the alleged plot was not sufficiently sign, first excited the jealousy and sus clear to justify these judicial murders, picion of the citizens. Terrified by which disgrace the annals of New York. danger which lurked unseen in the In 1743, George Clinton, a younger midst of them, they listened with eager son of the Earl of Lincoln, was sent credulity to the declaration of some over as governor of the colony. abandoned females, that the negroes One of his earliest measures had combined to burn the city, and confirmed the favorable accounts which make one of their number governor. had preceded him, of his talents and Many were arrested and committed to liberality. To show his willingness to prison. Other witnesses, not more res- repose confidence in the people, he aspectable than the first, came forward ; sented to a bill limiting the duration of other negroes were accused, and even the present and all succeeding Assemseveral white men were designated as blies. The House manifested its graticoncerned in the plot.

tude by adopting the measures When the time of trial arrived, so he recommended for the defence strong was the prejudice against the of the province against the French, who unhappy black men, that every lawyer | were then at war with England. In

置 1941.



Ch. III.]





1745, the savages in alliance with steadily forward, although its annals France, made frequent invasions of are marked by serious disputes on the the English territories. Encouraged subject of paper money, conveyances by success, the enemy became more of land by Indians to certain claimdaring, and small parties ventured ants, the resistance of the squatters to within even the suburbs of Albany, the efforts made to oust them, etc. and there laid in wait for prisoners. After Morris's death, in 1745,

Distressed by these incursions, Belcher, in 1747, took charge

the Assembly, in 1746, deter- of the difficult post of governor of New mined to unite with the other colonies Jersey; but he was not able to manage and the mother country in an expedi- matters much better than his predecestion against Canada. They appropri- sors. His course was conciliatory; and ated money to purchase provisions for he favored the founding of the college the army, and offered liberal bounties at Princeton, which received a charter to recruits. But the fleet from Eng. in 1748. The population of New Jerland did not arrive at the appointed sey at this date is computed to have time; the other colonies were dilatory been forty thousand. in their preparations, and before they Pennsylvania, too, was not without were completed the season for military its share of trouble, though, on the operations had passed by. The treaty whole, it continued to advance in prosof Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, put an end perity. George Keith, a Scotch Quato the contest for a time, but only for ker, gave rise to a kind of schism, by a time. The grand struggle for mas- pressing the question of non-resistance tery was soon to be made and decided. to. an extent quite beyond what the

The proprietaries of New Jersey, wea- more reasonable Quakers ever ried out with struggling with the set- were willing to go. His attack

tlers, in the year 1702 ceded to on negro slavery, as inconsistent with

the crown their rights of juris- these principles, and the “Address" diction ; whereupon Queen Anne joined which he set forth, led to his being New Jersey to New York, under the fined for insolence, and his being taken government of Lord Cornbury. They, up by the non-Quakers as a sort of too, as well as the New Yorkers, re-martyr. Penn was cleared from suspisisted the encroachments and fraudu- cion, and restored to the administration

lent acts of the governor. In of his province in 1694; but

1738, New Jersey obtained by the pressure of debt kept him petition, the privilege of having a go- in England, and he appointed Markvernor of its own; and Lewis Morris ham to act as his deputy. The Assemwas placed in the chair. The position bly having presented a remonstrance of New Jersey gave it superior advan- to Governor Markham, in 1696, comtages in comparative exemption from plaining of the breach of their charthe assaults and inroads of the Indians. tered privileges, a bill of settlement, We find, hence, that its progress was prepared and passed by the Assembly,




VOL. 1.-26



was approved by the Governor, form- poses of the rejected bills, the spirit ing the third frame of government of which, at least, was thus forcibly in Pennsylvania. Penn, however, to recommended to general imitation. whom was reserved the power of dis- Perplexed with many and serious approval, never sanctioned this act. A difficulties, Penn made up his mind to bill for raising £300, professedly for return to England; but before the relief of the distressed Indians doing so he pressed upon the beyond Albany, but really in compli- colonists to establish a constitution. ance with the demand of the governor The old frame of government was forof New York, to aid in the prosecution mally given up, and the one which of the war, was passed by the same le- Penn prepared and presented to the

gislature. In 1699, after fifteen Assembly was accepted. It confirmed

years' absence, Penn again set to them, in conformity with that of sail for America, accompanied by his 1696, the right of originating bills, family, with an intention of spending which, by the charters preceding that the remainder of his life in Pennsylva- date, had been the right of the Governia. Considerable difference of opinion nor alone, and of mending or rejecting existed between himself and the legis- those which might be laid before them. lature; more particularly on the sub- To the Governor it gave the right of ject of negro slavery, and the frauds rejecting bills passed by the Assembly, , and abuses that disgraced the character of appointing his own Council, and of of the colonists in their traffic with the exercising the whole executive power. . Indians. With the view of providing Liberty of conscience was specially a remedy for both these evils, Penn secured as before ; and the qualification presented to the Assembly three bills of voters was fixed at a freehold of which he had himself prepared; the fifty acres, or about $166 in personal first, for regulating the morals and mar- property. riages of the negroes; the second, for Directly after the “Charter of Priregulating the trials and punishments vileges," as the new frame was called, of the negroes; and the third, for pre-was accepted, Penn returned to Engventing abuses and frauds upon the land, leaving the management of his

Indians. The Assembly nega- private estates and the direction of

tived the first and last of these Indian affairs in the hands of James bills, acceding only to that which re- Logan, who was for many years cololated to the trial and punishment of nial secretary and member of the Countheir slaves. Though disappointed of cil. Scarcely had Penn arrived there, the more extensive influence, which, as when the disputes between the province a political legislator, he had hoped to and the territories broke forth exercise, he was yet able, by his pow. with greater bitterness than erful influence among the Quakers, to ever; and in the following year, the introduce into their discipline regula- separate legislature of Delaware was tions and practices relative to the pur- permanently established at Newcastle.










In addition to the tidings of these pro- an equitable consideration; but an atlonged disagreements, and of the final tack of paralysis put an end to rupture between the two settlements, further steps on his part at the Penn was

harassed by complaints time, and some few years afterwards against the administration of Governor he died. Evans, and rendered indignant with Gookin was removed in 1716, and charges made against himself of unfair was succeeded the next year by Sir dealing. Having

Having ascertained, by a William Keith. Penn's will, deliberate examination of the com- gave rise to a nine years' lawplaints against Evans, that they were suit as to the sovereignty of the pro

too well founded, he appointed vince; but Keith, studying popularity,

in his place Charles Gookin, a was in favor with all the claimants and gentleman of ancient Irish family, who so remained in office. He and the Asseemed qualified to give satisfaction to sembly proved mutually accommodatthe people over whom he was appointed ing, and they consented to his wishes in governor. The Assembly were out of enrolling a volunteer militia, and in humor because Penn had refused to adopting the English criminal law as a dismiss Logan, whom they termed an substitute for their existing statutes. enemy to the welfare of the province. Keith also consented to try the Logan soon after went to England, and paper money loan system by

Penn, now in his sixty-sixth an issue of £15,000, to be lent out at

year, sent back by him a letter five per cent.; the next year an addiaddressed to the Assembly, replete with tional £30,000 were issued on the same calm solemnity and dignified concern. plan. Through Logan's interferenceThis letter is said to have produced a Keith having served him rather shabdeep and powerful impression on the bily as secretary and counsellor—the more considerate part of the Assembly, governor was pretty sharply reprewho now began to feel for the father hended for some of his acts, and in of the province, and to regard with | 1725 he was removed from his office. tenderness his venerable age; to re- The members of the Penn family found member his long labors, and to appre- it most convenient to arrange and setciate their own interest in his distin- tle their long dispute about the sovguished reputation : in consequence of ereignty of the province. Keith tried this letter at the next election a new to be troublesome in the province by Assembly was chosen and most of the heading an opposition to the new points in dispute were arranged. Penn governor, Patrick Gordon; but had determined, in consequence of his with no great success. Subsepecuniary embarrassments and the vex- quently, on returning to England, he atiousness of his position, to relieve broached the notion of the propriety of himself from the troublesome position taxing the colonies for the benefit of in which he was placed, intending to the mother country; but, as Mr. Hilcede the sovereignty to the queen for dreth relates, Sir Robert Walpole is

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reported to have declared that it would sembly voted £4000 for the king's use, require more courage than he possessed they imposed upon Thomas the dispoto venture upon that step.

sing of it: true to their principles they On the death of the widow of Penn, would not openly vote money to carry the sovereignty and territorial rights on war. About this date com

of the province were reunited menced that warm controversy

in the three sons of Penn: between the proprietaries and the Asneither of them, however, possessed sembly, the latter claiming that the their father's ability or had even a former were bound to provide for the moiety of his popularity. Logan ad- defence of the province inasmuch as ministered the government for two they received a revenue from it in the years as president of the Council, until way of quit rents, etc.; the proprietathe arrival of George Thomas, in 1738, ries and the Board of Trade, on the as deputy governor.

The Quakers other hand, emphatically denying any were not more than a third of the pop- such view of the matter. Thomas ulation, yet as they possessed the most having given up the struggle with the wealth and were more united, they Assembly, he was succeeded in the kept the control of the Assembly. In office of deputy governor by

1740 a dispute arose as to ques- James Hamilton, a man of de

tions of measures of defence, cided ability and zeal for the cause of fortifications, etc., and though the As- | the proprietaries.



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Nicholson governor

Blair commissary — College of William and Mary - Administration of Andros - Founding of Williamsburg — Powers of the governor -- Spirit of liberty -- Office of governor made a sinecure--Spotswood's administration - His acts Gouch's administration - Progress of Virginia -- Affairs in Maryland -- Dr. Bray commissary - "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts" - Persecution of the Roman Catholics -- Lord Baltimore becomes a Protestant - Question of boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania - Progress of Maryland - Affairs in Carolina --- Ludwell governor — Feuds

“Grand Model” abrogated Archdale's visit and labors - Introduction of rice - Dissenter's disfranchised - Act declared null and void

— Church of England established by law -- Mr. Bancroft's picture of the state of North Carolina – War with the Tuscaroras — Attack on St. Augustine - Unsuccessful Moore censured Paper money issued — War with the Yemassees and other Indians ---- Craven victorious in the contest — Heavy loss and debt -- Revolution in South Carolina Administration assumed by the crown - Proprietaries sell out to the king — Treaty of peace and amity with the Cherokees - Emigration of Swiss – Advance of the colony notwithstanding many sharp trials.

ALTHOUGH the commission of Effing- | charges against him, he did not return ham-see page 148—was renewed to Virginia, and Francis Nicholby William III., notwithstanding the son, in 1690, accepted the place

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