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C1. IV.




of his lieutenant. At this date, the certain trustees nominated and elected Rev. James Blair, who had some years by the General Assembly of the colony. before been a missionary in Virginia, Nicholson and seventeen others nomireturned to the colony with a commis- nated and appointed by the Assembly, sion as Commissary of the Bishop of “were confirmed as trustees, and were London, whose jurisdiction extended empowered to hold and enjoy lands, over the entire American colonies. possessions, and incomes, to the yearly Mr. Blair was a Scotchman by birth, value of £2,000, and all donations, an earnest, able, devoted man, and for bestowed for their use. The Rev. the next half century he exercised a James Blair, nominated and elected by large measure of influence in Virginia.* the Assembly, was made first president, It was mainly in consequence of Blair's and the Bishop of London was ap

zealous activity that the king pointed and confirmed by their majes

granted a charter for “The Col. ties to be the first chancellor of the lege of William and Mary in Virginia.” | college. To defray the charges of The preamble states, “ that the Church building the college, and supporting of Virginia may be furnished with a the president and masters, the king and Seminary of ministers of the Gospel, queen gave nearly £2,000, and endowed and that the youth may be piously the college with twenty thousand acres educated in good letters and manners, of the best land, together with the perand that the Christian faith may be petual revenue arising from the duty of propagated among the western Indians, one penny per pound on all tobacco to the glory of Almighty God”-their transported from Virginia and Marytrusty and well beloved subjects, con- land to the other English plantations. stituting the General Assembly of their By the charter, liberty was given to the colony of Virginia, have had it in their president and masters or professors to minds, and have proposed to themselves, elect one member of the House of Burto found and establish a certain place gesses of the General Assembly. In of universal study, or perpetual college grateful acknowledgment of the royal of divinity, philosophy, languages, and patronage and benefaction, the college other good arts and sciences, consisting was called William and Mary."* This of one president, six masters or profes- was the second college founded in North sors, and a hundred scholars, more or America. less, according to the ability of said Sir Edmund Andros, of whose troucollege, and its statutes, to be made by bles in New England we have already

spoken, was appointed Governor of * “Of the activity and practical usefulness of this Virginia in 1692. Contrary to excellent man, sufficient evidence will be furnished what might have been expected

of him from his previous course, Anminister of the Gospel ; fifty-three years Commissary dros rendered himself very popular in for Virginia ; president of a College for forty-nine years; and a member of the king's council for fifty." --Hawks's “ Prot. Epis. Ch. in Virginia," p. 75.


in the statement, that when, at the advanced age of eighty-eight, he died, he had been sixty-four years a

* Holmes's "American Annals," vol. i., p. 443,



his new government, and, during the eration acts were extended to the dissix years he was in office, he was par- senters. ticularly serviceable to the colony in Although this last was a step in the collecting, arranging, and taking mea- right direction, yet but little, if any, sures to preserve the public records. aid was to be expected from the royal Early in 1693, Thomas Neale obtained governors towards attaining enlarged a patent for establishing a post in the political freedom. “The powers of the colonies at rates proportioned to those governor," says Mr. Bancroft,“ were exof the English post-office. An act was orbitant; he was at once lieutenant

also passed, in 1696, fixing the general and admiral, lord treasurer and

salaries of the ministers at six-chancellor, the chief judge in all courts, teen thousand pounds of tobacco, to- president of the council, and bishop or gether with a glebe, and a dwelling ordinary, so that the armed force, the house to be provided by the parish. revenue, the interpretation of law, the

Nicholson, in 1698, was reappointed administration of justice, the church,---to Virginia, and, with his usual activi- all were under his control or guardianty, undertook various measures for the ship."* Checks on this power, it is benefit of the colony. An act was true, did exist, in the instructions from

passed in December of this year the mother country, the Council, and

for the building of a new city, the General Assembly ; but, as the which was to be hereafter the capital instructions were kept secret, the memof the province in place of Jamestown. bers were in a great measure dependent The college had already been erected on the governor for their seats, and as at Middle Plantation, and the region the Assembly was under pretty strict having proved salubrious, the site of the surveillance and occupied somewhat of new city was fixed upon in the vicinity a subordinate position, the governor, if of the college on two pleasant creeks so disposed, was at liberty to exercise that run out of James and York Rivers. tyrannical sway over the people. As showing their loyal devotion the

The Virginians, however, nursed the streets of the new city, named Williams- spirit of independence in various ways. burg, were laid out in the form of a They knew well the importance of the cypher made from the letters W and colony to England; they were jealous M. In order to defray the expense of of their rights; they would not vote building a Capitol or State House, the money unless they could have some tax on liquors was continued, and a new oversight of its distribution; and by tax on servants not born in England or their aristocratic tendencies they both Wales, and on slaves imported into the acquired and retained extensive power colony. During the same session, pro- in the management of public affairs. vision was made for thoroughly revis- When Nicholson favored the project of ing the colonial statutes, and also, in obedience to orders received from Eng

* Bancroft's - History of the United States," vol. land, the benefits of the English tol- | iii., p. 26.

CH. IV.]



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providing for the general defence of the afterwards governor of New York, but colonies against the French by quotas he having been captured by the French of money, Virginia not only refused to on his passage out, Edmund vote its money but with entire unani- Jennings, president of the mity justified its course, despite the Council for several years, discharged special orders from England. Nichol- the duties of the post. Alexander son, having manifested his dissatisfaction Spotswood, a military officer of age, in pretty plain terms, with this result, judgment, and conciliating manners,

he became unpopular, and as he was appointed deputy governor

had been guilty of some acts in 1710; and he brought with that would not bear too close scrutiny him the formal extension of the habeas he was removed in 1705.

corpus act to the province of Virginia. The ministers of Queen Anne now Soon after his arrival, Spotswood, who adopted a line of policy by no means seems to have been in advance of his wise or just. The office of governor compeers in divining the purposes of was made a sinecure, and so remained the French in the west and south west, for about fifty years, the nominal gov- undertook an expedition across the ernor receiving three-fifths of the salary, Blue Ridge, and thereby opened the or £1200 sterling annually, and the way to a knowledge of the country on deputy governor receiving the balance, the Ohio and Western lakes. Although or £800 for doing all the work. The no immediate results followed this exEarl of Orkney was the first governor pedition, yet it was a good beginning; under this arrangement. Edward Nott, Spotswood was knighted, and in due the deputy, lived only a year; there time the beautiful valley beyond the was, however, effected during his brief Ridge was settled by colonists. administration a fifth revision of the In 1711, the province was reVirginia code, which had been in pro- presented by Spotswood as in a state gress for some years. Most of the pro- .of entire peace and happiness, and visions relate to the cases of indented though occasional trials of his equanservants, slaves, the Indians still remain- imity occurred, when Councils were ing, etc., and in general the enactments stubborn and Assemblies obstinate, yet, are marked by a desire to promote hu- on the whole, the gallant deputy govmanity and justice. Each county was ernor passed the thirteen years of his allowed two burgesses, and Jamestown official life in Virginia in quiet and one, to be elected by the freeholders. satisfaction; probably Mr. Bancroft is The twelve counsellors were allowed correct in terming him “the best in the about $1600 annually, for their services line of Virginia governors.” in attending the General Assembly and In 1723, Hugh Drysdale was sent Courts, in proportion to the time spent cut as Spotswood's successor. He in actual duty.

proved himself quite acceptable On Mr. Nott's death, the place of to the Virginians, and reported lieutenant was bestowed upon Hunter, to the authorities at home that there





夏 1948.

was in the province “ general harmony efforts to oppose the establishment in and contentment.” Drysdale's death any and every way they could. The occurred in 1727, and the government Rev. Dr. Bray, whose zeal and self-dewas committed to William Gouch, a nial deserve to be held in honor, was military officer of amiable manners and appointed commissary by the Bishop temper. Virginia enjoyed peace and of London, in 1696; it was prosperity for many years under his through his efforts, that “The government.* Settlers also began to Society for the Propagation of the

penetrate the Blue Ridge, and Gospel in Foreign Parts” was origi

established themselves in the nated in 1698, and obtained a charter valley beyond. There were, however, in 1701.

. Dr. Bray visited Maryland no towns, as yet, in the ordinary sense in 1699, returned to England the next of the word, and but few villages. year, and during the remainder of his The capitol at Williamsburg having life did all in his power to promote the been destroyed by fire, the burgesses spiritual interests of the Colonies.* In endeavored to remove the seat of gov- 1702, by the act of toleration,

ernment; but the Council de- every sect was allowed liberty

feated the project. Near the except the Roman Catholic. Two years close of Gouch's administration, the later, after Colonel Seymour had arsixth and last colonial revisal of the rived as governor, legalized persecution Virginia code was made.

was set on foot against the papists; As we have before stated, (p. 150,) mass was forbidden to be said publicly; the government of Maryland was for and children were tempted to hypoc

some three years in the hands risy by offers of shares in their

of the insurgents. In 1692, the parents' property, etc. Seymour king sent out Lionel Copley as royal died in 1709, and John Hart was apgovernor, under whom the Assembly pointed governor in 1714. not only repealed all existing laws, but The first Lord Baltimore had become enacted an entirely new code. The a Roman Catholic from conviction; the Church of England was established by present successor to his title and estates, law; the province was divided into perceiving that ruin was impending thirty parishes, and tithes were imposed unless he or his family could obtain upon every inhabitant without regard a restoration of the proprietary rights, to his religious opinions. Great com- prevailed upon his son Benedict Leonplaints were made by the Roman ard, to embrace the doctrines of the Catholics and Quakers of the oppres- Established Church. This havsiveness of this tax, and they spared no ing been done, the administra


tion of the colony was restored to the * During the ten years from 1720 to 1730, according to Mr. Hildreth, the value of goods exported from England to the North American colonies,-i. e. New * Dr. Bray died in 1730, at an advanced age. See England, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Vir- Dr. Hawks's Protestant Episcopal Church in Maryginia, and Carolina,--was £4,712,992—$20,906,140 ; land," p. 82, etc., for a more full account of this exbeing an annual average of about $2,000,000.

cellent man and his labors.


1 15.

CH. IV. )





was, how




Calvert family, in full. His infant son, In Carolina, Philip Ludwell was apCharles,-his father having died within pointed by the proprietaries,. in 1690, a year—succeeded as the fifth Lord to the governorship of that Baltimore. Hart was continued in province. Sothel was office, and though no special effect was pelled to retire from the place he produced in Maryland by this change had usurped, (see page 128) and Ludof religious views on the part of the well began his administration, over proprietary, it was judged expedient, both South and North Carolina, in a by the legislature, to impose a test oath way that promised to give peace and by which Roman Catholics were ex- satisfaction to the colony. It cluded from all share in the govern ever, of but short duration. The old ment. Charles Calvert, a kinsman of enmities between Churchmen and Dis

the proprietary, succeeded Hart senters, and between these same and

as governor, in 1720. Some the Huguenots, now considerable in years later the free school system was number and political importance, were carried out, with advantage to the col- revived, and Ludwell, in 1693, ony and its progress.

retired in disgust. He was sucA younger brother of the proprie- ceeded in Albemarle by Thomas Hartary was governor of Maryland from vey, and in the southern province by 1727 onward: during his administra- Thomas Smith, a man of high charac

tion, acts were passed offering ter and a member of the Council. The

bounties on flax, hemp, and iron. “Grand Model,” which had never satisCalvert went to England in 1732, and fied any one, was this same year—1693 soon after the proprietary in person ar

--formally abrogated, it being voted rived in the colony. His main object by the proprietaries, “That as the peowas to endeavor to agree upon the line ple have declared they would rather be between Maryland, and Pennsylvania governed by the powers granted by the and Delaware. The controversy was charter, without regard to the fundanot settled until after some twenty mental constitutions, it will be for their years of litigation. Lord Baltimore quiet, and the protection of the well

returned to England in 1736, disposed, to grant their request."

and Benjamin Ogle took charge In order to restore tranquility, Smith of the administration of public affairs. advised the proprietaries to send over During the remainder of the period one of their own number. This advice between this and the peace of Aix-la- was adopted; the place was offered to Chapelle, Maryland continued to ad- the Earl of Shaftesbury; on his devance in prosperity, and was ready to clining, John Archdale, a worthy Quatake her share in the measures rendered ker, was appointed. His measures were, necessary by the jealousy of the French, on the whole, judicious and productive and the near approach of that contest of good results, and having sucfor the mastery soon to be fought be ceeded in allaying some of the tween the hostile nations and colonies. ferments and disputes between contend



VOL. I.-27

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