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could not contain them. They would tion out of it was generally on the not only fill the houses, but crowd great concerns of the soul.' round the doors and windows without, “There is a circumstance which conand press together wherever they could siderably contributed to accelerate the hear the preacher. They would not diffusion of a revival spirit, which must only thus assemble in their own towns not be overlooked—the visits of the and parishes when the word was celebrated contemporaries, Wesley and preached, but if they had the knowl- Whitfield, to the American continent, edge of lectures in the neighboring just at this period. The extraordinary towns and parishes, they would attend exertions of the latter especially excited them. Sometimes they would follow and emboldened many faithful ministhe preacher from town to town, and ters of Connecticut, whose labors and from one place to another, for several pecuniary sacrifices now became greater days together. In some instances, in than they had ever before experienced places but thinly settled, there would or imagined they could endure. They be such a concourse, that no house could not only abounded in active exertions hold them. There was, in the minds among their own and neighboring conof people, a general. fear of sin, and of gregations, but preached in all parts of the wrath of God denounced against it. the colony, where their brethren would There seemed to be a general convic- admit them, and in many places in Mastion, that all the ways of man were sachusetts, and the other colonies. They before the eyes of the Lord. It was were very popular, and their labors the opinion of men of discernment and were generally acceptable to their sound judgment, who had the best op- brethren, and useful to the people. portunities of knowing the feelings and They were not noisy preachers, but general state of the people at that grave, sentimental, searching, and punperiod, that bags of gold and silver, gent. Connecticut was, however, more and other precious things, might, with remarkably the seat of the work than safety, have been laid in the streets, any part of New England, or of the and that no man would have converted American colonies. In the years 1740, , them to his own use. Theft, wanton- 1741, and 1742, it had pervaded, in a ness, intemperance, profaneness, sab- greater or less degree, every part of bath-breaking, and other gross sins, the colony. In most of the towns and appeared to be put away. The inter- societies, it was very general and powmissions on the Lord's Day, instead of erful. being spent in worldly conversation “It has been estimated, that, during and vanity, as had been too usual be- three years, from thirty to forty thoufore, were now spent in religious con- sand persons had their minds affected versation, in reading and singing the in the decided manner which has been praises of God. At lectures there was described. It might naturally have not only great attention and seriousness been supposed, that, as many of these in the house of God, but the conversa- impressions occurred at a period of ex

CH. V.]




traordinary excitement, they would not Their light shone before men, through have been generally productive of per. a long life, and brightened as they manently beneficial results. The con- advanced on their way. Some I was trary, however, in a very great majority called to visit in their last moments in of instances, appears to have been the full possession of their rational powers, fact. The effects on great numbers, who appeared perfectly to acquiesce in says Dr. Trumbull, 'were abiding and the will of God, to die in the full assumost happy; they were the most uni- rance of faith, and in perfect triumph form, exemplary Christians, with whom over the last enemy."" I was ever acquainted. I was born, But to return from this digression. and had my education, in that part of The government of Georgia thus far the town of Hebron in which the work had not proved quite satisfactory; the

most prevalent and powerful. trustees determined, therefore, after They were extraordinary for their con- Oglethorpe's return to England, to stant and serious attention on the pub- introduce important changes, commitlic worship; they were prayerful, right- ting civil affairs to a president eous, peaceable, and charitable; they and four councillors. William kept up their religious meetings for Stevens was appointed president, and prayer, reading, and religious conversa- notwithstanding his advanced age, he tion, for many years; they were strict discharged effectively the duties of his in the religion and government of their post. families, and I never knew that any The progress of Georgia was slow one of them was ever guilty of scandal, and uncertain. Not only did the course or fell under discipline. About eight pursued by the trustees serve to hinder or ten years after the religious revival its growth, but the nature of the cliand reformation, that part of the town mate and similar causes had a serious was made a distinct society, and it was influence upon its prosperity. “After mentioned to Mr. Lothrop, the pastor twenty years' efforts, and the expendielect, as an encouragement to settle ture of parliamentary grants to the with them, that there was not a drunk- amount of more than $600,000, besides ard in the whole parish. While I lived about $80,000 contributed by private in it, I did not know of one prayerless ostentation or charity, when the trusfamily among his people, nor tees surrendered their rights heard of one. Some of those people, under the charter, Georgia, who dated their conversion from that contained only three small towns and period, lived until they were far ad- some scattered plantations, with sevenvanced in life; and after I was settled teen hundred white inhabitants and in the ministry, I became acquainted four hundred negroes. The total value with them in one place and another. of the exports for the three years They appeared to be some of the most preceding, had hardly amounted to consistent practical Christians with $13,000. The exportation of wine and whom I ever had an acquaintance. | drugs had been totally relinquished,




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CH. VI. ]





the harbor of Pensacola-D'Iberville command of the governor of Biloxi."* landed on Dauphine Island, near Mo- England, ever wakeful in her jealousy bile, and soon after discovered the of France, determined to assert a claim River Pascagoula and the tribes of the to the region thus occupied; and an Biloxi. Leaving most of the colonists expedition under Coxe, a London phyin huts on Ship Island, D'Iberville, in sician, who had purchased the old patent company with his brother, Bienville, of Carolana, set out for the mouth of and about fifty men, took two barges the Mississippi. In September, and set out to find the entrance to the | 1699, as Bienville was exploring Mississippi. Guided by the muddy the forks below New Orleans, he met waters, on the 2d of March, they dis- an English ship of sixteen guns; with covered the mouth of the great river, the ready wit of genius he persuaded which they ascended as high as Red the English commander that the region

River, and received from some where he then was, was already occu

Indians the letter which Ton- pied and settled by the French, and ti had written to La Salle, in 1684. thus got rid of a very troublesome Turning again down the river, D'Iber- visitor. The point where this occurred ville left the main stream, and passing in the river is still known as the Engthrough the Lakes Maurepas and Pont- lish Turn. chartrain, made his way back by a D'Iberville returned early in Decemshorter passage, to the place where the ber, 1699, and various and important main body of the colonists were waiting projects were entrusted to him to carry his movements. At the head of the out; but especially was he to seek for, Bay of Biloxi, on the sandy and deso- and to find, gold. In company with late shore, and under the burning sun his brother, he ascended the Mississippi, of that region, a fort was erected in and visited various tribes of Indians; May. D’Iberville returned to France, but all inquiry and search for gold was leaving his brothers Sauvolle and Bien- in vain: the aged Tonti, with a few ville in command.

companions from the banks of Such was the beginning of the the Illinois, joined D'Iberville colony, and though it was plainly im- in this expedition, and they ascended possible to look for prosperity there, the Mississippi, some three or four still it was an important movement in hundred miles. Bilious fevers carried advancing the purposes of the French off numbers, the amiable Sauvolle in America. “Already a line of com- among the earliest; and when D'Ibermunication existed between Quebec ville returned again from France, to and the Gulf of Mexico. The bound- which he had gone for provisions and less southern region—made a part of soldiers, he found only a hundred the French empire by lilies carved on and fifty alive. D'Iberville was forest trees, or crosses erected on bluffs, and occupied by French missionaries

* Bancroft's History of the United States," vol. and forest rangers—was annexed to the iii., p. 202.




attacked by yellow fever, and his health mingo, even these would probably have was broken down by its effects upon perished by starvation. his constitution. He died at Havana, Hardly sustaining itself in existence, in 1706. Louisiana, at his death, was even by such means, the colony became little more than a wilderness: in the a burden to Louis XIV., and in whole of its borders there were not 1712, he granted to Anthony more than thirty families.

Crozat the exclusive privilege for fifteen The major part of the settlers found years of trading in all that immense it necessary to abandon Biloxi, and re-country, which, with its undefined limmoved to Mobile, near the head of the its, France claimed as her own under bay of that name. This was the first the name of Louisiana. Bienville, still European settlement within the limits acting as Governor, was succeeded, in of what is now the State of Alabama, 1713, by Cadillac, as Governor, he himand it remained, as Mr. Hildreth states, self being appointed Lieutenant Govfor twenty years the head quarters of ernor. Crozat charged Cadillac to look the colony. No regular systematic in- especially after mineral wealth; and dustry had place among them; pearls, the new Governor, whose character is gold mines, furs, the wool of the buffalo, presented in a very ludicrous light by were sought for by the colonists. Bi. Mr. Gayarré, expected soon to realize loxi was a sandy desert, and the soil on

an immense fortune. But his expecDauphine Island was meagre and un- tations met with a mortifying failure, productive; in fact, to use Mr. Ban- and he was dismissed without ceremony croft's poetic language, “Bienville and from his office, whose duties he had dishis few soldiers were insulated and un-charged to so little profit to any one. happy, at the mercy of the rise of Crozat, wearied out with the ill success waters in the river; and the buzz and of his plans for establishing commercial sting of mosquitoes, the hissing of the relations with the Spaniards, and getting snakes, the croaking of the frogs, the a share in the trade with the Indians, cries of alligators, seemed to claim that which trade was monopolized by the Enthe country should still for a genera- glish, begged the government, tion, be the inheritance of reptiles,- in 1717, to take the colony off while at the fort of Mobile, the sighing his hands. At this date, the whole popof the pines and the hopeless character ulation, white and colored, was only of the barrens, warned the emigrants about seven hundred, and notwithstandto seek homes farther within the land.” ing Bienville's activity and success in Recruits, it is true, were added from conciliating and overawing the Natchez time to time to the colony; but the Indians, among whom he had placed whole number of the colonists does not Fort Rosalie, and notwithstanding variseem ever to have exceeded two hun- ous efforts in behalf of the colony, it dred at any one time during the next was at this date in a very depressed ten years; and had it not been for prostate. visions sent from France and St. Do- France, however, was unwilling to

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