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tion was exhausted; and as Webb gave satisfied with his present success, reno relief, Monro was compelled to sur-tired to Canada without further trial render. The garrison was to be allow- of strength with his enemies. ed to march out with the honors of war, Thus, after three campaigns, and and they and their baggage to be pro- large efforts on the part of the colontected as far as Fort Edward. The ists, the French were still masters. Indian allies with Montcalm were Louisburg, Crown Point, Ticonderoga, greatly displeased at these terms, and Frontenac, and Niagara, and the chain greedy of the plunder, they fell upon of posts thence to the Ohio, were still the unarmed and retreating troops. It in their hands. They had destroyed must always remain doubtful how far the forts at Oswego, and, compelling Montcalm was able or willing to re- the Six Nations to neutrality, were strain the savages in their detestable able to keep up a devastating warfare act of treachery, when hundreds fell all along the frontiers. No wonder victims to the fury of the red men. that discontent prevailed everywhere; “The fort,” says Israel Putnam, in no wonder that it was deemed high speaking of this dreadful scene,“ was time for new counsels, and more vigorentirely demolished, the barracks, and ous measures to be adopted. outhouses, and buildings, were a heap It was at this time that William of ruins; the cannon, stores, boats, and Pitt, afterwards Earl of Chatham, was vessels, were all carried away. The called, more through popular urgency, fires were still burning; the smoke and than from any liking of George II., to stench offensive and suffocating. Innu- the entire control of foreign and colomerable fragments, human skulls, and nial affairs. Conscious that he, if

any bones, and carcasses, half consumed, man, was able to save the country, his were still frying and broiling in the de- measures were characterized with a caying fires. Dead bodies, mangled vigor commensurate with the necessity, with scalping knives and tomahawks, while the agents appointed to carry in all the wantonness of Indian fierce- them into execution were seness and barbarity, were everywhere lected with wise discrimination. to be seen. More than one hun- His plans for the conquest of Canada dred women, butchered, and shock- infused new life into the colonists, and ingly mangled, lay upon the ground, as they were besides to be repaid for still weltering in their gore. Devasta- the expense of their levies, large forces tion, barbarity, and horror, everywhere of provincials were very soon collected, appeared, and the spectacle presented while, by the arrival of fresh reinforcewas too diabolical and awful either to be endured or described." The fall

* Ticonderoga is a corruption of Cheonderoga, an of Fort William Henry caused great Iroquois word, signifying sounding waters, and was

alarm in the colonies. Twenty applied by the Indians to the rushing waters of the thousand militia were ordered


a fort here in 1756, which they named Fort Carilout in Massachusetts ; but Montcalm, lion.


outlet of Lake George at the falls. The French built



ments from England, Abercrombie, tively to nearly six thousand men, were who remained commander-in-chief, soon carried prisoners to England. Amfound himself at the head of a force of herst sailed back to Boston with his fifty thousand men, a number greater troops, and thence marched to the than the whole male population of western frontier. New France. Louisburg, Ticonderoga, Some weeks before the fall of Louisand Fort Duquesne, were all to be at-burg, General Abercrombie, with about tacked at once.

sixteen thousand men, embarked at The first blow was struck at Louis- Fort William Henry, and passed down burg. Early in June, Boscawen made Lake George, to commence operations

his appearance before that for- against Ticonderoga. Israel Putnam,

tress with a fleet of thirty-eight afterwards famous in the Revolution, ships of war, and an army of fourteen | held the rank of major at the time, and thousand men under General Amherst. commanded a company of well-known The garrison at Louisburg was three and very effective rangers. After dethousand in number, and eleven ships barking at the landing place in a cove of war were in the harbor. The works on the west side of the lake, the troops were considerably out of repair, and were formed into four columns, the were not in a condition to stand a re- British in the centre, and the provingular siege; so that after a vigorous cials on the flanks. In this order they approach on the part of the English, marched toward the advanced guard and severe loss on the side of the of the French, which, consisting of French, the garrison was compelled, on one battalion only, posted in a logged the 27th of July, to capitulate. Wolfe, camp, destroyed what was in their who was destined to accomplish so power, and made a precipitate retreat. great things not long after, was promi- While Abercrombie was continuing his nent in conducting this expedition to march in the woods towards Ticondeits successful issue. Thus Louisburg, roga, the columns were thrown into with all its artillery, provisions, and confusion, and in some degree entangled military stores, as also St. John's Island with each other. At this juncture, (now Prince Edward's), and their de- Lord Howe, at the head of the right pendencies, were placed in the hands centre column, fell in with a part of of the English, who, without farther dif- the advanced guard of the enemy, ficulty, took possession of the island of which had been lost in the wood in reCape Breton. The conquerors found treating from Lake George. Accomtwo hundred and twenty-one pieces of panying Putnam, who tried to dissuade cannon, and eighteen mortars, with a him, Howe dashed through the woods, very large quantity of stores and am- attacked and dispersed the French, munition. The inhabitants of Cape killing a considerable number, and Breton were sent to France in English taking one hundred and forty-eight ships ; but the garrison, sea officers, prisoners. In this skirmish the gallant sailors, and marines, amounting collec- Howe received a musket shot in the

CH. IX.]




breast, and fell dead upon the field.* No further attempt was made on Ticonderoga was held by some two Ticonderoga, at the present. As some thousand Frenchmen. Having learned compensation, however, for this that reinforcements were expected to defeat, Colonel Bradstreet, with arrive soon, Abercrombie resolved on three thousand men, marched to Osan assault without waiting for his artil-wego, and embarking in vessels already lery. The troops having received or provided, ascended the lake, and landders to advance briskly, to rush upon ed, August 25th, at Fort Frontenac, the enemy's fire, and reserve their own (now Kingston). The place was feebly till they had passed the breastwork, garrisoned, and as the attack was enmarched to the assault with great in- tirely unexpected, its success was speedy trepidity. Unlooked-for impediments, and certain. Nine armed vessels were however, occurred. In front of the taken, and the fort, with a large store breastwork, to a considerable distance, of provisions, was destroyed. Bradtrees had been felled with their bran- street lost but few men in the attack, ches outward, many of which were but sickness carried off some five hunsharpened to a point, by means of dred of his troops. On the return, the which the assailants were not only re- soldiers aided in building Fort Stanwix, tarded in their advance, but becoming on the site where the village of Rome entangled among the boughs, were ex- is now situate. posed to a very galling and destructive The expedition against Fort Dufire. Finding it impossible to pass the quesne, was put under the command of breastwork, which was nine feet high, General Forbes. His force consisted and much stronger than had been re- of seven thousand men, including the presented, Abercrombie, after a con- Pennsylvania and Virginia troops, and test of four hours, abandoned the at the Royal Americans from South Carotack, and the next day made a hasty lina. Great delay occurred in retreat to Fort William Henry. His consequence of General Forbes conduct was regarded with so little not following the advice of Washington, favor, that he was superseded, and to advance by the road already opened Amherst was appointed commander-in- by Braddock, and ordering a new one chief.

to be cut from Raystown, on the Juniata.

The vanguard to whom this work was * No one of the royal officers was so popular and committed, had been nearly cut off,' like so universally admired as Lord Howe, and his death Braddock's, by a sudden surprise, havwas regarded as a public calamity. It is in regard to him that the story is told of the noted Stark, the hero ing lost two hundred men, when Forbes, of Bennington, who knew him, and loved him well.

on November 8th, came up with the Stark is said to have declared his apprehension that

, remainder of the forces. With fifty had Höwe lived, he could not have been a true whig in the Revolution ;-so great an influence was exer

miles of road to open across the forests, cised by this accomplished and brave young noble- the winter rapidly approaching, and Massachusetts erected a fitting monument, in

the disheartened troops beginning to Westminster Abbey, to testify their unfeigned sorrow in losing him.

desert, it was contemplated to retrace



VOL. I.--33

their steps, and abandon the enterprise, tially the same as that which Phipps when, by the accidental capture of and Warren had successively failed to some prisoners, they learned the weak- execute. Amherst was to advance by ness and distress of the French garrison. way of Lake Champlain, with twelve Nerved by this intelligence, they de- thousand regulars and provincials; and termined on making a vigorous effort General Prideaux was to proceed to to gain possession of Fort Duquesne the reduction of Niagara. Ticonderoga, , before it could be reinforced. Leaving Crown Point, and Niagara being distheir artillery behind, and pushing into posed of, Amherst and Prideaux with the trackless forest, through which their forces were to co-operate with with their utmost efforts they were not Wolfe against Quebec. This heroic able to advance more than a few miles officer* had sailed early in the spring a day, they had advanced within a from England, and had made his apfew hours' march of the place, (Novem- pearance in the St. Lawrence, in June, ber 24th,) when the French garrison, with an army of eight thousand regureduced to less than five hundred men, lar troops, in three brigades, under having set fire to the works, retreat- Monckton, Townshend, and Murray. ed down the Ohio. The abandoned Various delays occurred to hinder fort now received an English garrison, the progress of General Amherst; and and its name was changed from Du- it was the latter part of July, when he quesne to Pitt: the rest of the army appeared before Ticonderoga. As the retraced their steps, and the harassed naval superiority of Great Britain had frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, and prevented France from sending out Pennsylvania were now freed from the reinforcements, none of the posts in this incursions of the Indians.

On the quarter were able to withstand so great eastern frontier, Fort Pownall was built on the Penobscot, to hold the

* James Wolfe, the second son of a colonel who Indians in check, and cut off their

had served under Marlborough, was born at the viccommunication with Canada.

arage of Westerham, in Kent, on the 2d of JanThe campaign of 1758, proving thus uary, 1727. When first he entered the army in his

father's company, he was a lad of fourteen, and so successful, Pitt found parliament both

delicate that he was obliged to be landed at Portsready and eager to further his wishes mouth. On his recovery, he joined the troops, was in carrying on the war against Canada. engaged at Dettingen and Fontenoy, and at the enThe colonial Assemblies acted prompt- gagement of La Feldt was publicly thanked by the

Duke of Cumberland on the battle-field. His rely and with energy, for nearly a mil-markable merit soon attracted the eye of Pitt, who, lion of dollars had been reimbursed to overleaping the ordinary rules of the service, made them on account of the year's expenses.

him a brigadier-general, and associated him with

Amherst in the expedition against Louisburg. His Twenty thousand colonial troops natural character displayed a union of qualities but

were ready for service in the seldom united ; delicate in frame, excitable in temspring of 1759, and high hopes were


domestic enjoyments, he was no less daring, enerentertained of brilliant success.

getic, and desirous of obtaining distinction in the The plan now adopted was substan- service of his country.

perament, refined in tastes, and with a love of


CH, IX.]



a force as that under Amherst. Ticon- of Detroit, Venango, and Presqu'ile, deroga was immediately abandoned; with which, and a party of Indians, the example was followed at Crown they resolved, if possible, to raise the Point; and the only way in which the siege. But they were totally routed, French seemed to think of preserving and a large part taken prisoners. The their province was by retarding the fort surrendered the next day, and six English army with shows of resistance hundred men with it; these were cartill the season of operation should be ried to New York. According to the past, or till, by the gradual concentra- plan marked out, Johnson ought now tion of their forces, they should become to have advanced to co-operate with numerous enough to make an effectual Amherst and Wolfe on the St. Lawstand. A succession of storms upon rence; but the want of proper shipping the lake, and the want of vessels, ren- and scarcity of provisions, put this quite dered it impossible for Amherst to out of his power. Thus, as it happened, carry out the portion of the plan de Wolfe was left to carry on the siege pendent on him, and instead of joining and reduction of Quebec single handed. Wolfe or advancing upon Montreal, he As we have stated above, Wolfe, on was compelled to go into winter quar- the 26th of June, arrived off the Isle of ters at Crown Point. The New Hamp- Orleans. Quebec, that Gibraltar shire Rangers, under Major Rogers, in of America as it has been termed, September and October, made a suc- was defended by the Marquis de Montcessful foray against the Indian village calm, with a force of two thousand reguof St. Francis, which they destroyed lars and several thousand militia and completely, and thus relieved the New Indians. The attack having been long England frontier of the dreaded attacks foreseen, as Murray relates, in his Hisfrom that noted spot.

tory of British America," full time was General Prideaux, early in July, allowed Montcalm to entrench and reached Niagara with a considerable strengthen his position, but the supply force. While directing the operations of provisions was very limited. An of the siege, he was killed by the burst- attempt was first made to destroy the ing of a gun, and the command devolved British fleet by fire-ships; but these on Sir William Johnson. That general, were caught with grappling irons, prosecuting with judgment and vigor towed aside, and allowed to burn out the plan of his predecessor, pushed the without doing any injury. Brigadierattack of Niagara with an intrepidity general Monckton then occupied Point that soon brought the besiegers within Levi, opposite Quebec, which was a hundred yards of the covered way. thence bombarded with vigor; but, Meanwhile, the French, alarmed at the though a number of houses were dedanger of losing a post which was a stroyed, the defences remained almost key to their interior empire in America, uninjured. The place therefore could had collected a large body of regular troops from the neighboring garrisons

* Vol. i., p. 175-178.

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