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name of Virginia, to her distinguished the frontiers of Carolina in alarm. son, for the services he had rendered This formidable tribe, after the reducto his country. Washington rose to tion of Fort Duquesne, where they reply; blushed — stammered — trem- had aided Forbes, had become involved bled-could not utter a word. “Sit in a serious quarrel with the back setdown, Mr. Washington," said the tlers of Virginia and the Carolinas. speaker, with a courteous smile, “your The origin of the quarrel is obscure. modesty equals your valor; and that It is said that the Cherokees seized surpasses the power of any language I upon some horses which they found

running wild through the woods, but Great was the exultation of the co- which in reality belonged to Virginian lonies at this successful termination of owners, and that the latter, supposing the struggle with the French. New it to be a theft, killed twelve or fourYork was especially pleased, since its teen of them; an outrage deeply renorthern and western limits had been sented by the Indians, who, inflamed so long in dispute; and now it might by French influence, were led to believe lay claim to large increase of its terri- that the English meditated tory.“ By the sudden death of Delan- their entire extermination. Govcey,

in July, 1760, the administration ernor Littleton refused to listen to a of New York had devolved on Cad- proposal for arranging the dispute, and wallader Colden, who was presently in October, 1759, marched into the appointed lieutenant-governor. Though Cherokee territories with fifteen hunnow upwards of seventy years of age, dred men; but he was glad to retire as Colden continued in that office for six- soon as possible. Sickness and insubteen years; and, in consequence of the ordination speedily put an end to the frequent absence of the governors, was expedition. Fresh disputes soon after repeatedly at the head of affairs."* broke out, and the Cherokees prepared New England had equal reason with to do battle in their defence. An exNew York, to rejoice, because its fron- press was sent to General Amherst, tiers were now freed from the dreadful who detached twelve hundred men incursions of the Indians, whose power under Colonel Montgomery, to the refor further mischief was almost entirely lief of the Carolinas. Strengthened destroyed. Indeed the hostile tribes by their militia, he marched into the were nearly annihilated. At the South, Cherokee country, relieved Fort Prince the war with the Cherokees still kept George, at the head of the Savannah,

which they had blockaded, and ravaged * We are indebted to Dr. Francis, for the interest- all the Indian settlements on his way. ing fact that “ Dr. Colden was the first American expositor of the Linnæan system in the New World. Finding the Cherokees rather in

1760. This le taught on the banks of the Hudson, almost flamed than intimidated by these immediately after its announcement by the illustrious proceedings, he advanced to Etchoe, Swede.” Colden, in addition to his “History of the

their capital, not far from whence Five Nations," was also the author of various literary and scientific productions.

they had posted themselves to oppose


his further progress.

(June 27th.) fear, that Amherst was earnestly solicIn doing so he had to pass through a ited to send back the troops he had hollow valley covered with brushwood, withdrawn. The conquest of Canada through which ran a muddy river with being now achieved, the Highclay banks. To scour this dangerous land regiment commanded by pass, Colonel Morrison advanced with Colonel Grant returned to Carolina; a company of Rangers, when the Indi- reinforced by the colonial militia and ans, suddenly springing from their am- scouts dressed in Indian costume, Grant bush, killed him at the first shot, with advanced, with two thousand six hun. several of his men. The light infantry dred men, to the spot where Montgombeing now moved forward, a warm fire ery had been repulsed, (June 10th.) was kept up on both sides, but the In- The Cherokees bravely maintained the dians still maintained the post without struggle for several hours, but were at flinching, till, threatened in the flank length entirely defeated; their towns by a movement of the agile Highland- and magazines destroyed, their corners, they slowly fell back and reluc- fields ravaged, and they themselves tantly yielded the pass, posting them- forced to retreat into the desolate reselves upon a hill, to watch the move- cesses of their mountains. Their rements of their invaders. Supposing sources being thus cut off, they were that Montgomery was advancing to compelled to sue for peace. In order wards Etchoe, they ran to give the to obtain it, they were at first required alarm to their wives and children, and to deliver four warriors to be shot at prepare for a still more desperate re- the head of the army, or to furnish sistance. But the English commander, four green Indian scalps within twenty deeming it not prudent to attempt days; a degrading and brutal condianything further, retired to Charleston tion, from which they were relieved by and prepared to leave for the north, the personal application of one of their in obedience to orders. The Upper aged chiefs to Governor Bull. Cherokees now beleaguered Fort Lou- Notwithstanding the exulting feeling don, the garrison of which, almost in a prevalent, everywhere, on account of starving condition, under promise of the triumph of English arms in Amersafe conduct had surrendered, early in ica, there was no lack of evidence how August. But the promise was not kept. jealously the colonists regarded any A few miles from the fort they were invasion, real or supposed, of their surrounded by a body of Indians, who rights and privileges. The question opened a heavy fire upon them, which respecting “writs of assistance," is a killed Captain Demeré, the command significant illustration of this fact. ant, and nearly thirty others, and car- Pownall, early in August, 1760, had ried off the remainder into captivity. been succeeded as Governor of MassThe Cherokees, who could now muster achusetts by Francis Bernard. This three thousand warriors, continued to latter held high notions of the authorravage the frontiers, and inspired such ity of the mother country over the


CH. JX.1



66 Otis was

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colonies. His zealous efforts to pro- first lawyers of the city, replied in an mote the objects of the ministry at ingenious and able speech, resting his home, were warmly seconded by arguments upon considerations purely Thomas Hutchinson, who had lately legal and technical. But Otis, who been appointed lieutenant-governor, followed him, was not to be restrained and also chief justice, to the disap- within these narrow and inconvenient pointment of Otis, who had been limits. He assailed the acts of trade promised a seat on the bench by Pow- as oppressive and even unconstitutional, nall. It was at this juncture that, and with a fire and vehemence which owing to a trade opened by the colon- carried everything before them, he ists with the French islands, by which roused the Bostonians and the public they obtained supplies, orders had been at large, to a consideration of quesgiven by the English ministry for the tions soon to assume a position of the stricter enforcement of the acts of gravest importance. trade, already so odious to the mercan- flame of fire," says John Adams, in his tile interest and the people at large. sketch of the scene.

“ With a promptTo prevent evasion of the law, orders itude of classical allusion, a depth of were sent to apply to the judicature for research, a rapid summary of historical “writs of assistance,” that is, for per- events and dates, a profusion of legal mits to break into and search any sus authorities, a prophetic glance into fupected place. It was not long before turity, and a rapid torrent of impetuous the custom-house officers applied for the eloquence, he hurried away all before issue of the writs, to which the mer him. The seeds of patriots and hero chants determined to offer the most were then and there sown. Every man strenuous opposition, and retained of an immensely crowded audience apThatcher and James Otis, son of the peared to me, to go away, as I did, ready speaker, to plead on their behalf. Otis, to take arms against writs of assistance. as advocate of the Admiralty, was

was Then and there was the first scene of the bound to argue in favor of the writs, first act of opposition to the arbitrary but urged by patriotic zeal, he resigned claims of Great Britain. Then and his office, and accepted the retainer of there, the child Independence was born. the merchants. On the day appointed In fifteen years, that is, in 1776, he grew for the trial, the council-chamber of the up to manhood, and declared himself old town-house in Boston, was crowded free.” The influence of Otis's fervid with the officers of government and the eloquence was widely felt in the apprincipal inhabitants of the city. The proaching dispute with the mother case was opened by the advocate for country. He himself was elected a the crown, who founded his long and representative from Boston, and became elaborate argument on the principle, a leading member of the House. The that the parliament of Great Britain is " writs of assistance," although granted, supreme legislator of the British em- were too unpopular to be used, except pire. Thatcher, who was one of the in rare cases.

VOL. 1.-34

Canada having been conquered, the of the Mississippi, then almost in a British arms were next directed against state of nature. Havana was also rethe French West India Islands, General stored to her in lieu of Florida, which, Monckton, in November, 1761, sailed divided into East and West Florida, from New York, with two line-of-bat- now became provinces of the British tle ships, a hundred transports and empire in America. On the twelve thousand regular and colonial 10th of February, 1763, the troops. Among his officers were Gates peace of Paris was publicly ratified, beand Montgomery, afterwards celebrated tween the contending powers. in the Revolutionary War. The expe- It was in this same year that a wide dition was completely successful, and spread combination among the Indians, all the islands then in possession of the led to fearful ravages on their part. French, were wrested from them. A The Delawares and Shawanese, now family compact between the different occupying the banks of the Muskingum, branches of the house of Bourbon, had Sciota, and Miami, provoked by being engaged Spain to side with France, and crowded rudely by the settlers fast declare war against Great Britain. To pouring across the Alleganies, and perhumble this new enemy was the next haps incited by the artful representa

object of her arms, and an ex. tion of French fur traders, made a sim

pedition was shortly afterwards ultaneous attack, in June, along the sent out, which, in August, 1762, whole frontier of Pennsylvania and wrested Havana from Spain. The Virginia. The noted Pontiac, a man . arms of England were every where tri- of superior ability, was the moving umphant, her cruisers swept the seas, spirit of this confederation, and it and her rivals were obliged to consent tasked to the utmost, the powerful into a humiliating peace.

On the 3d fluence of Sir William Johnson, to keep of November, 1762, the preliminaries the Six Nations from joining Pontiac, of peace were signed at Fontainebleau, against the white men.* The English by which the whole of North America, traders were plundered and slain, and from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, the posts between the Ohio and Lake was ceded to Great Britain. The Erie, were surprised and taken. Only island and city of New Orleans were Niagara, Detroit, and Fort Pitt held ceded to Spain, with all Louisiana west out, the two latter being closely block

aded; and the troops which Amherst

sent to relieve them did not reach their The present contest for territorial and commer

destination without severe encounters. cial supremacy had extended even to the East Indies, thus, as it were, encircling the globe. A twenty This onslaught provoked a bloody years' struggle in Hindostan, between the French and English East India Companies, had ended in the complete triumph of the English, securing to them * As our limits do not admit of details, we must the dominion of the Carnatic and Bengal; the be- refer the reader to Mr. Parkman's admirably written g‘nning of that career of territorial aggrandizement volume, “ History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac, and in India, since so remarkably carried out.”_-Hildreth's the War of the North American Tribes against the Ilistory of the United States," vol. ii., p. 501. English Colonies, after the Conquest of Canada."

Ch. X.



retaliation on the part of a body of "Paxton boys,” as they were called, to Scotch and Irish settlers in Paxton retire without further shedding of township, Pennsylvania. They attack

They attack- | blood. It was a disgraceful and scaned a friendly and harmless tribe, living dalous outrage, but unhappily, there under the guidance of some Moravian was no power in the province sufficient missionaries, murdered men, women, to punish these murderers. and children indiscriminately, forced General Gage, the new commandertheir

way into Lancaster workhouse, in-chief in America, called for levies of where some of the fugitives had taken troops to aid in putting an end to refuge, and killed them, and then this war with the Indians. Two marched down to Philadelphia, in Jan- expeditions were sent out, one by way uary, 1764, to exterminate a body of of Pittsburg, and the other along the Indians who had fled to that city. It lakes. The Indians finding themselves was with much difficulty that Franklin thus vigorously pressed, deemed it exsucceeded in forming a body of militia, pedient, soon after, to consent to terms to defend the city, and in compelling the


of peace.

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Progress of settlements Advances in wealth, learning, and art - Recuperative energies of the colonies — The flame

of liberty -- How the collision was hastened on - Causes which led to the contest M. Guizot's philosophical remarks — Policy of the English government in having ten thousand troops in America - Authority of parliament over the colonies Not quite clear what it was — Walpole's view as to taxation - George Grenville's plan — How the news was received in America — Resolution of the General Court in Massachusetts Instructions to the Agent in England ---- Otis's bold pamphlet - Action in the other colonies · Reasons for Grenville's delay in not pressing the passage of the stamp act - View of the colonists on this point — Excitement in regard to it; but urged forward - Ignorance in England of America's true condition — Taxation and Representation inseparable - Townshend's inquiry - Colonel Barré's eloquent rejoinder — The bill passed Franklin's letter to Thompson — The “Quartering Act" — Patrick Henry and the Virginia Assembly — Resolutions — Violent debate -- Henry's speech — COLONIAL CONGRESS recommended — Popular outbreaks in various places against the stamp tax - Assembling of the Colonial Congress in New York - Its acts -- No stamps allowed to be used — Riot in New York — The stamp act treated with general contempt

“Sons of Liberty" Change in the English ministry – Parliament of 1766 Pitt's great speech -- Grenville's speech -- Pitt's eloquent reply Franklin's evidence before the House of Commons- Repeal of the stamp act proposed and carried - Saving clause in regard to its repeal Camden's views —- The king's assent General joy in England at this result. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER X. — I. Franklin's Letter to W. Alexander, Esq. — II. The Stamp Act.

THE subjugation of Canada and the the oldest in North America, had been Indian tribes in the north-east, gave a very seriously retarded by successive fresh and vigorous impulse to the settle- wars with the Indians. New settlers ments in Maine, which although among began to occupy the Lower Kennebec,

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