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CH. II.)

RIGHTS OF THE INDIANS.

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could confer. It would seem strange to at the bottom of all their original enus, if, in the present times, the natives terprises."* of the South Sea Islands, or of Cochin It must, we think, be admitted, that China, should, by making a voyage to, it was right in principle for our foreand discovery of, the United States, on

fathers to seek to cultivate the soil of a that account set up a right to the soil country situate as this of America was, within our boundaries. The truth is, and to open a new pathway to the enthat the European nations paid not the terprise and energy of the human race; slightest regard to the rights of the yet, seeing that their intercourse with native tribes. They treated them as the natives was not always marked by mere barbarians and heathens, whom, either fairness or due regard to the natif they were not at liberty to extir- ural sentiments of those who had long pate, they were entitled to deem were held undisputed possession of the Contemporary occupants of the soil. They tinent, it is no wonder that dissensions might convert them to Christianity; and collisions soon occurred, and that all and, if they refused conversion, they the fierce passions of the Indians were might drive them from the soil, as un- aroused into savage and unpitying acworthy to inhabit it. They affected to tivity. Neither need it occasion any be governed by the desire to promote surprise that ere long the Indians perthe cause of Christianity, and were suaded themselves that the white man aided in this ostensible object by the was, with here and there an exception, whole influence of the papal power. their necessary and perpetual foe. The But their real object was to extend facts of history, as hereinafter related, their own power and increase their own will too sadly verify the correctness of wealth, by acquiring the treasures, as this general statement. well as the territory, of the New World. Avarice and ambition were ** Familiar Exposition of the Constitution," p. 13.

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Enterprise of Englishmen -- Willoughby and Chancellor -- Reign of Elizabeth --Frobisher -- Drake -Sir Hum

VIRGINIA – Lane, governor phrey Gilbert -- Sir Walter Raleigh -- Amidas and Barlow's Letter --- Roanoke

, Hariot -- Indian hostility - Abandonment of the colony- New one sent out - White, governor --Virginia Dare --- Political agitations in England - Colony lost entirely ---- Assignment of Raleigh's patent --- Gosnold -- James I. -- Hakluyt-- Pring -- Weymouth London Company - Plymouth Company OharterInstructions issued by the king.

The enterprising spirit of English-| the first setting forth of these northmen led them, from the earliest period, eastern discoverers,” observes the exto enter earnestly and vigorously into cellent Hakluyt, “they were almost althe work of discovery, and to engage together destitute of clear lights and with equal zeal and energy in attempts inducements, or if they had an inkling at settlement and colonization. The at all, it was misty as they found the fame of Sebastian Cabot's efforts, and northern seas, and so obscure and amhis undoubted skill and sagacity in biguous, that it was meet rather to derespect to naval affairs, were very in- ter than to give them encouragement. fluential during the reigns of Henry Into what dangers and difficulties they VIII. and Edward VI. Although the plunged themselves, “animus meminisse attempt to find a north-west passage to horret,' I tremble to relate. For, first the Indies had failed, still the idea of they were to expose themselves unto there being such a passage yet to be the rigor of the stern and uncouth discovered was ever uppermost in the northern seas, and to make trial of the minds of navigators of that age. By swelling waves and boisterous winds Cabot's advice and urgency a new path which there commonly do surge and was sought. He presented various blow." The “driftes of snow and reasons for thinking it probable that mountains of ice, even in the summer,

there was a passage to the the hideous overfalls, uncertaine cur

eagerly sought Cathay by the rents, darke mistes and fogs, and other north-east; accordingly a company of fearful inconveniences," which the exmerchants was formed, at the head of pedition had to encounter, he contrasts which Cabot was placed, and an expe- with “the milde, lightsome, and tempedition was fitted out with special in- rate Atlantick Ocean, over which the structions and directions drawn up by Spaniards and Portuguese have made so the celebrated navigator himself. The many pleasant, prosperous, and golden command of the expedition was en voyages, to the satisfaction of their trusted to Sir Hugh Willoughby. “At | fame-thirsty and gold-thirsty minds,

1553.

CH. III.]

WILLOUGHBY, CHANCELLOR, FROBISHER.

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1554.

with that reputation and wealth which quillity of the kingdom,” says Dr. made all misadventures seem tolerable Robertson, “maintained almost withunto them.” Willoughby and Chancel- out interruption, during the course of a lor were divided by storms, and after long and prosperous reign; the peace doubling the “ dreadful and mistie with foreign nations, that subsisted North Cape," the terrors of a polar more than twenty years after Elizawinter surprised them, but with very beth was seated on the throne; the different issue. The former sought queen's attentive economy, which exshelter in an obscure harbor of Lap- empted her subjects from the burden land, to die a fearful and a lingering of taxes oppressive to trade; the popudeath. In the following spring his re- larity of her administration; were all

treat was discovered, the corpses favorable to commercial enterprise, and

of the frozen sailors lay about called it forth into vigorous exertion. the ship, Willoughby was found dead The discerning eye of Elizabeth having in his cabin, his journal detailing the early perceived that the security of a horrible sufferings to which they had kingdom environed by the sea dependbeen reduced. Chancellor, more for-ed on its naval force, she began her tunate, entered the White Sea, and government with adding to the numfound a secure shelter in the harbor of ber and strength of the royal navy; Archangel. Here the Muscovites re- she filled her arsenals with naval stores; ceived their first foreign visitors with she built several ships of great force, great hospitality, and Chancellor, on according to the ideas of that age, and learning the vastness of the empire he encouraged her subjects to imitate her had discovered, repaired to Moscow, example, that they might no longer and presented to the czar, John Vasi- depend on foreigners, from whom the lowitz, a letter with which each ship English had hitherto purchased all veshad been furnished by Edward VI. sels of any considerable burden. By The czar, who was not deficient in saga- those efforts the skill of the English city, saw the advantages likely to ac- artificers was improved, the numbers crue from opening a trade with the of sailors increased, and the attention western nations of Europe, and accord- of the public turned to the navy, as the ingly treated Chancellor with courtesy most important national object."* The and attention. He, also, by a letter to queen gave every encouragethe king, invited the trade of England, ment to her subjects to trade under promises of ample protection with Russia, to seek to peneand favor.

trate into Persia by land, and in any The spirit of maritime adventure, and every way to open new paths to though not so active during the reign commercial enterprise and activity. of Mary, was still on the increase. The The attempt to discover a northaccession and reign of Elizabeth afforded full opportunity for its large

* Robertson's “ History of America,” Book ix., p. development.

“The domestic tran- 207.

1561

1568. 1576.

1578.

merce.

east passage having failed, a new effort the ideas of that age with respect to was made to find an opening to the the nature of such settlements. Eliza

north-west. Three small ves- beth authorizes Sir Humphrey Gilbert ·

sels were placed under the com- to discover and take possession of all mand of Martin Frobisher, an eminent remote and barbarous lands, unoccumariner of that day; but although he pied by any Christian prince or peomade three successive voyages, and ex- ple; invests in him the full right of plored to some extent the coast of La- property in the soil of those countries brador, he did not succeed in accom- whereof he shall take possession ; emplishing the object of his expedition. powers him, his heirs and assigns, to

It was about this same date dispose of whatever portion of those

that Sir Francis Drake entered lands he shall judge meet, to persons upon his voyage of fortune, which by settled there, in fee simple, according its success added a kind of lustre to his to the laws of England; and ordains name, without producing any essential that all the lands granted to Gilbert benefit to legitimate trade and com- shall hold of the crown of England by

Drake had the boldness to homage, on payment of the fifth part follow in the track of Magellan, and, of the gold or silver ore found there. crossing the equator, he ranged the The charter also gave Gilbert, his heirs Pacific coast of America to the latitude and assigns, full power to convict, punof forty-three degrees north, in hope ish, pardon, govern, and rule, by their of discovering the north-west passage good discretion and policy, as well in from the Atlantic to the Pacific; but causes capital

causes capital or criminal as civil, both without accomplishing that object. marine and other, all persons who shall

, In the same year that Frobisher's from time to time, settle within the third voyage terminated so fruitlessly, said countries; and declared, that all an attempt was made by Englishmen, who settled there should have and en

under the queen’s patronage, to joy all the privileges of free denizens

plant a colony in America. It and natives of England, any law, cuswas mainly due to Sir Humphrey Gil- tom, or usage to the contrary notwithbert, a gentleman of distinction and standing. And finally, it prohibited marked ability, as a soldier and a all persons from attempting to settle writer on navigation. Without difi-within two hundred leagues of any culty he obtained a patent from the place which Sir Humphrey Gilbert, or queen which empowered him to pro- his associates, shall have occupied durceed at once with every hope of suc- ing the period named for the permacess in carrying out his designs. Six nent founding of the colony.* years were allowed for the establish- Sir Humphrey Gilbert embarked a ment of the colony. As this is the large part of his fortune in this profirst charter to a colony granted by the jected expedition, but dissensions and crown of England, the articles in it merit especial attention, as they unfold

* Hakluyt, vol. iii., p. 135.

1578.

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CH. III.)

GILBERT'S VOYAGES AND FATE,

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1579.

disputes among those who had volun- obstacle. As they steered towards the teered to go with him, rendered it vir- south, to “bring the whole land within tually a failure before it set out. With compass of the patent," the principal

only a few tried and fast friends ship, owing to their carelessness, struck

he put to sea; one of his ships upon a shoal and was totally lost; nearwas lost in a storm, and it is probable, ly a hundred men perishing with her, also, that he had an encounter with a among whom were Parmenius the HunSpanish squadron; so that, disheart-garian-called Budæus, from his native ened to a great extent, he was com- city—who was to have been the chronipelled to return.

cler of the expedition, as well as “ their The step-brother of Gilbert was the Saxon refiner and discoverer of inestiillustrious Sir Walter Raleigh, a man mable riches," and the valuable papers of surpassing genius, wonderful acquire of the admiral. They now decided on ments, and lofty aspirations. He was returning home; the autumnal gales a soldier under Coligny, eminent for were already beginning to render the gallantry and skill: he was a states- navigation perilous for such small vesman, a patriot, a devoted lover of his sels; yet Sir Humphrey, who had country and his country's fame. Ra- sailed in the Squirrel, their "frigate of leigh readily came to the aid of his ten tons, contrary to all remonstrance, brother; it is even thought that he ac- persisted in remaining with his brave companied Gilbert in his first voyage, shipmates, rather than go on board the in 1579; by his influence he enlisted larger vessel. The two ships sailed in the queen's special favor in behalf of company, Gilbert from time to time the expedition; he furnished a vessel repairing on board the Hind, and enof two hundred tons, which bore his couragino name; and did everything that could pects of future success. The weather be done except go in person with the now became frightful; and the oldest

expedition. With a fleet of five sailors never remembered more moun

ships and barks, the Delight, tainous and terrific surges. On MonRaleigh, Golden Hind, Swallow, and day, the 9th of September, in the Squirrel, in which a large body of men afternoon, the Squirrel, which was overwere embarked, Gilbert set sail in charged with artillery and deck hamJune on his second voyage. On reach- per, was nearly ingulfed by a heavy ing Newfoundland, early in August, he sea, from which she escaped as by mirtook possession of it in the name of acle. As she emerged from the watery Elizabeth ; a pillar with the arms of abyss, a shout of surprise and thanksEngland was raised, and, after the giving burst from her decks; and Gilfeudal custom, the royal charter was bért, seated on the stern with a book read, and a sod and turf of the soil in his hand, calmly exclaimed, when delivered to the admiral. The muti- the roll of the waves brought them nous and disorderly conduct of many within hearing of those on board the of his sailors had already been a trying other vessel, “We are as near to heaven

1583.

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