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by sea as by land”—the last words he they, “is the most plentifull, sweete, was ever heard to utter. At midnight, fruitfull and wholesome of all the the Squirrel being somewhat ahead, worlde; there are above fourteene sevethose on the watch on board the Hind, rall sweete smelling timber trees, and observing her lights to disappear in an the most part of their underwoods instant amidst the blackness of the are bayes and such like; they have swell, cried out that the general was those okes that we have, but farre lost: the miniature frigate had sudden- greater and better. After they had ly foundered. The Hind, after narrow

bene divers times aboord our shippes, ly escaping the tempestuous weather, myselfe, with seven more, went twentie at length reached Falmouth in safety, mile into the river that runneth towarde bearing the heavy tidings of loss and the citie of Skicoak, which river they disaster.

call Occam; and the evening following, The sad fate of his step-brother did we came to an island, which they call not deter Raleigh from endeavoring to Roanoke, distant from the harbour by carry out his favorite plan of coloniza- which we entered seven leagues; and tion and discovery in America. De at the north end thereof was a village sirous, if possible, to secure a milder of nine houses, built of cedar, and forclimate for his colony, he sought and tified round about with sharpe trees obtained from Elizabeth a patent fully to keep out their enemies, and the enas ample as that which had been be- trance into it made like a turnepike, stowed upon Gilbert. He was consti- very artificially; when we came totuted lord proprietary, with powers al- wardes it, standing neere unto the

most unlimited, on condition of waters' side, the wife of Granganimo,

reserving to the crown a fifth the king's brother, came running out to part of the gold or silver ore which meete us very cheerfully and friendly; might be found. In April, two ships her husband was not then in the vilset sail under the command of Philip lage; some of her people shee comAmidas and Arthur Barlow, and early manded to drawe our boate on shore in July they reached the shores of Caro- for the beating of the billoe, others lina. Ranging the coast for a hundred she appointed to cary us and twenty miles, they landed and backes to the dry ground, and others took possession, in the name of the to bring our oares into the house for queen, of the island of Wococon, the feare of stealing. When we were southernmost of the islands that form come into the utter roome, having five Ocracock Inlet.

roomes in her house, she caused us to Hakluyt has preserved the glowing sit down by a great fire, and after description which Amidas and Barlow tooke off our clothes and washed them, gave to Raleigh on their return to and dried them againe ; some of the England, in September of the same women plucked off our stockings, and year. Their language is graphic and washed them, some washed our feete well worth quoting :—“The soile,” say in warm water, and she herself tooke

1534.

on their CH. III.]

AMIDAS AND BARLOW'S LETTER.

25

great paines to see all things ordered hunting, whom, when we espied, we in the best manner she could, making beganne to looke one towardes angreat haste to dresse some meate for us other, and offered to reach our weapto eate. After we had thus dryed our ons; but as soone as shee espied our selves, she brought us into this inner mistrust, she was very much moved, , roome, where shee set on the boord and caused some of her men to runne standing along the house, some wheate out, and take away their bowes and like furmentie; sodden venison and arrowes and breake them, and withall, roasted ; fish, sodden, boyled, and beate the poore fellowes out of the roasted; melons, rawe and sodden; gate againe. When we departed in rootes of divers kinds; and divers the evening, and would not tarry all fruites. Their drinke is commonly night, she was very sory, and gave us water, but while the grape lasteth, into our boate our supper half dressed, , they drinke wine, and for want of pottes and all, and brought us to our caskes to keepe it, all the yere after boate side, in which we lay all night, they drink water, but it is sodden with removing the same a prettie distance ginger in it, and black sinamon, and from the shoare; shee perceiving our sometimes sassaphras, and divers other jelousie, was much grieved, and sent wholesome and medicinable hearbes divers men and thirtie women to sit all and trees. We were entertained with night on the banke-side by us, and sent all love and kindnesse, and with as us into our boates five mattes, to cover much bountie, after their manner, as

us from the raine, using very many they could possibly devise. We found wordes to intreate us to rest in their the people most gentle, loving, and houses; but because we were fewe faithfull

, voide of all guile and treason, men, and if we had miscarried the voyand such as live after the maner of the age had bene in very great danger, we golden age. The people onely care

durst not adventure any thing, although howe to defend themselves from the there was no cause of doubt, for a more cold in their short winter, and to feed kinde and loving people there cannot themselves with such meat as the soile be found in the worlde, as far as we afforeth; their meat is very well sod- have hitherto had triall."* den, and they make broth very sweet

Charmed with the beauty of everyand savorie; their vessels are earthen thing they saw, and quite willing to pots, very large, white, and sweete; believe that no change could ever mar their dishes are wooden platters of the loveliness of a scene so enchanting, sweet timber. Within the place where Amidas and Barlow contented themthey feede was their lodging, and selves with very limited explorations, within that their idoll, which they wor- and taking with them two of the naship, of whom they speake incredible tives, Wanchese and Manteo, they rethings. While we were at meate, there turned to England. Raleigh was in came in at the gates two or three men with their bowes and arrowes from

* Hakluyt, vol. iii., p. 301.

VOL. I.-- 6

1595.

raptures with the prospect before him, which tended to arouse uneasy and susand Elizabeth expressed her desire that picious thoughts in the breasts of the the new region should be called VIR- confiding Indians. One of these had GINIA, in honor of the virgin queen of been tempted to steal a silver cup; its England. Raleigh soon after received promised restoration was delayed; upon the honor of knighthood, and by which the English" burnt and spoiled special favor had granted to him a lu- their corn and towne, all the people crative monopoly of wines, which en- being fled.” abled him to carry on vigorously his The colonists being landed, Grenefforts at colonization. It was not dif- ville, after a short stay, and the colficult, under so many favoring circum- lection of a cargo of pearls and skins, stances, to fit out a new and strong ex- returned to England, capturing on the pedition. Seven vessels, which carried way a Spanish ship richly laden,“ boardout one hundred and eight colonists, ing her with a boat made with boards

sailed from Plymouth in April, of chests, which fell asunder and sank

under the command of Sir at the ship's side, as soon as ever he Richard Grenville, one of the bravest and his men were out of it." With men of his age. Ralph Lane was ap- this prize he returned to Plymouth, , pointed governor; and Hariot, an emi- and was warmly welcomed. After nent mathematician, and With, an in- this first experience of unprovoked crugenious painter, were included in the elty, the Indians, anxious to get rid of expedition. Proceeding by way of the the settlers, whom they now learned West Indies, on the 20th of June they both to hate and fear, began to form sefell in with the main land of Florida, cret combinations against them. Lane, and having narrowly escaped shipwreck who was evidently but little qualified at Cape Fear, they came to anchor, on for his post, being alternately severe the 26th, at Wococon.

and credulous, received such informaRalph Lane was a gallant officer, tion from one of the chiefs, as induced knighted subsequently by the queen him to ascend the Roanoke, partly in for his valor, but he possessed rather quest of pearls, mineral treasures, and the qualities of the ardent soldier than partly to explore the interior. The adof the patient and judicious colonist. venture was disastrous; the boats made Hasty in resolve, and “sudden and slow progress against the rapidity of the quick in quarrel,” his rash and hostile current; the banks were desertconduct towards the Indians was the ed, and no provisions to be obsource of very great tribulation to this tained; yet all agreed not to abandon and other succeeding expeditions. But the enterprise while a half-pint of corn the first deadly offence was given by remained for each man; moreover, Grenville himself. A party was sent they determined that they would kill on shore, accompanied by Manteo, and their “two mastives, upon the pottage all might have gone well, but for an of which, with sassafras leaves--if the act of hasty revenge, the first probably | worst fell out--they would make shift to

1586.

CH. III.1

ROANOKE ABANDONED BY LANE.

27

live two dayes.” Having been treach- many would be glad to touch it, to erously attacked by the Indians, and kisse, and embrace it, to hold it to their having consumed the “dogge's por- breasts and heads, and stroke all their ridge that they had bespoken for them- body over with it."* selves,” and returned to the river's Unhappily, however, the majority mouth, and their boats being unable to of the colonists were less distinguished cross the sound on account of a storm by marks of piety and prudence than "on Easter Eve, which was fasted very by an eager and vehement desire of truly,” they were reduced to the sassa- gaining sudden and great wealth. Failfras without the animal seasoning, “the ing in this, and in their vexation deallike whereof," observes Lane, "was never ing harshly with the Indians, the nabefore used for a meate as I thinke.” tives sought to rid themselves of their The next morning they arrived at visitors, willing even to abandon their Roanoke famished and dispirited. fields without planting, if famine would

Thomas Hariot was undoubtedly the drive away the English. Lane, appremost acute observer in the colony, and hensive of a conspiracy to destroy the his efforts at obtaining a correct knowl-colony, sought an interview with Winedge of the country, the people, pro- gina, the most active of the chiefs, and ductions, etc., were unusually success- treacherously murdered all within his ful. He labored especially among the reach. The stock of provisions which simple natives, and endeavored to lead they had brought from England was them to a knowledge of the truths of exhausted; and the colony, reduced to Christianity. To use his own language, very great straits, was about to dis“Most things they saw with us, as ma- solve; when unexpectedly Sir Francis thematicall instruments, sea-compasses, Drake appeared with his fleet, on his the vertue of the loadstone, perspective return from a successful expedition glasses, burning glasses, clocks to goe against the Spaniards in the West of themselves, bookes, writing, guns, Indies. He supplied to the full the and such like, so far exceeded their ca- wants of Lane; gave him a bark of pacities, that they thought they were seventy tons, with suitable boats, and rather the workes of gods than men, or arranged everything for the prosperous at least the gods had taught us how to continuance of the colony. A sudden make them, which loved us so much storm, however, destroyed the vessel better than them; and caused many of which Drake had provided; and not them to give credit to what we spake only the colonists themselves, but Lane concerning our God. In all places also, in great despondency, begged to where I came, I did my best to make be permitted to return with Drake's His immortall glory knowne; and I ships to England. The privilege was told them, although the Bible I shewed freely given, and in June, 1586, the them contained all, yet of itselfe, it settlement at Roanoke was abandoned. was not of any such vertue as I thought they did conceive. Notwithstanding,

* Hakluyt, vol. iii., p. 324.

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Their desertion of the colony was families were sent out to make their quite too precipitate; for only a few homes in the New World; municipal days after their departure, a vessel ar- regulations were established; Mr. John rived laden with stores. It had been White was appointed governor, and a sent by Raleigh ; but finding the col- charter of incorporation was granted ony broken up, the ship returned home for the “City of Raleigh." Leaving again. Within less than two weeks, Portsmouth on the 26th of April, they Sir Richard Grenville, too, appeared anchored off the coast on the 22d of off the coast with three ships well fur- July. An immediate search was made nished, in search of the colony. Leav- for the men left the year before on the ing fifty men* on the island of Roanoke, island of Roanoke ; but in vain. The with two years' provisions, he also re- Indians had easily wreaked their venturned home. “The Paradise of the geance upon them. Desolation and ruin World” thus far had been little else brooded over the scene. than expense and disappointment.t According to the instructions of

Raleigh, however, was not the man Raleigh, Chesapeake Bay was marked to yield to disappointment. The valu- out for the new settlement; but dissenable descriptions which Hariot gave of sion speedily arising, White was unable

the country and its productions, to proceed farther, and the foundations

the soil, climate, etc., rendered of the proposed city were laid on the it comparatively easy to collect a new island of Roanoke. Manteo, with his colony for America ; and it was deter- kindred, joyfully welcomed the Engmined to found if possible an enduring lish; but the Indians in general were state. Emigrants with their wives and decidedly hostile. As little progress

could be made under so many discour* Mr. Bancroft says fifteen ; but Smith, and others, aging circumstances, the united voices fifty. The latter seerns the more probable number. † It is asserted by Camden, that tobacco was now

of the colonists begged White to refor the first time brought into England by these set- turn with the ship to England to se

cure prompt and abundant supplies been directed to import it by Raleigh, who must have seen it used in France during his residence

and reinforcements. Only a few days There is a well-known tradition, that Sir before sailing, the daughter of the Walter first began to smoke it privately in his study, Governor, Mrs. Eleanor Dare-August and that his servant coming in with his tankard of ale and nutmeg, as he was intent upon his book, see- 8th-gave birth to a daughter, who ing the smoke issuing from his mouth, threw all the was the first child born of English liquor in his face by way of extinguishing the fire, and running down stairs, alarmed the family with parentage on the soil of the United piercing cries, that his master, before they could get States. She was appropriately named up, would be burned to ashes. From its being VIRGINIA DARE. Reluctantly leaving deemed a fashionable acquirement, and from the his family and the colony, which now favorable opinion of its salutary qualities entertained by several physicians, the practice of smoking spread numbered eighty-nine men, seventeen rapidly among the English ; and by a singular ca

tlers ; and there can be little doubt that Lane had

women, and eleven children, White reprice of the human species, no less inexplicable than

turned home. He was never priviunexampled, it has happened that tobacco has come

leged to look upon them again.

there.

into almost universal use.

- .tdoo

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