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CH. III.]

SLOW PROGRESS OF COLONIZATION.

29

1588.

1602.

1590.

On reaching England, White found ducing colonists to go to Virginia; the whole country aroused to prepare for they simply carried on a traffic of no the great invasion threatened by Philip great moment, by the agency of a few of Spain and his Invincible Armada. vessels, without being able to effect Yet Raleigh was not forgetful of his any settlements in the New World. colony; even amidst his engrossing Hence, in 1603, after a period of more cares at home, he managed to fit out, than a hundred years from the time

in April, two vessels with sup- that Cabot discovered the Continent

plies; but the ships' company, of North America, and twenty from eager after prize-money, sought the the time that Raleigh sent out his gains of privateering rather than the first colony, not a single Englishman path of duty. Worsted in an engage- remained in the New World. Thus ment, they were compelled to put back, slowly did the work of colonization and thus they virtually abandoned the go on! colony to ruin. The delay proved fa- In the last year of the reign of tal; nothing further could be done at Elizabeth, Bartholomew Gosthe time ; Raleigh was nearly bank- nold set out in a small vessel to rupt by the heavy outlays to which he make a more direct course to Virginia had been subjected; and it was not than that which was usual by way of

till 1590 that White was en- the Canaries and West Indies. In

abled to return and search for seven weeks he reached the coast of his family and the colony he had left. Massachusetts, near Nahant. Keeping Roanoke was literally a desert; the to the south in search of a harbor, he ruins of desolate habitations, and the discovered the promontory which he word “Croatan,” on the bark of a tree, called Cape Cod; this was the first were all the traces that remained of spot ip New England ever trod by the ill-fated colony. It was thought Englishmen. Doubling the cape, and possible that they might have taken passing Nantucket, they entered Buzrefuge with Manteo and his people; zard's Bay, which they called Gosnold's but nothing transpired ever after to Hope. On the westernmost of the point out what had been their lot. islands in the Bay they determined to

Raleigh, who had spent nearly $200-settle, and named it Elizabeth, after 000 in his noble efforts, was unable to the queen. They built a fort and do anything more. Accordingly he as- store-house, on a rocky islet in the signed his rights as proprietary to Sir centre of a small lake of fresh water,

Thomas Smith and a company traces of which were seen by Dr.

of merchants in London, and Belknap in 1797. They were delightged in other schemes, especially ed with the luxuriant vegetation of that of penetrating into the heart of early summer, the fragrance of the Guiana, where he fondly hoped to re- scented shrubs, the abundance of the pair his shattered fortunes. The Lon- wild grapes and strawberries; and the don company did not succeed in in-natural impulse was to wish to remain

1589.

1605.

1603.

there. But the smallness of their num- discoveries of Gosnold, and ascertain ber, surrounded as they were with the the correctness of his statements. They Indians, the want of provisions, and returned with an ample confirmation the recollection of what had befallen of his veracity. A similar expedition, the hapless settlers in Virginia, with commanded by Captain Weythe dissensions that sprung up, induced mouth, equipped and despatched them, shortly after, to return to Eng- by Lord Arundel, not only produced land. They arrived in less than four additional testimony to the same effect, months from the time of their depart- but reported so many further particuure, without having suffered from any lars in favor of the country, that all sickness; and spread on all sides most doubts were removed; and an associafavorable reports of the soil and climate tion sufficiently numerous, wealthy, and of the new-discovered lands, while the powerful, to attempt a settlement, benew course they had held was shorter ing soon formed, a petition was preby one third than any by which the sented to the king for the sanction of shores of America had been previously his authority to its being carried into visited.

effect. The accession of James I. was speedi- James listened with a favorable ear

ly followed by peace between to the application. But as the extent

England and Spain. Many act- as well as value of the American conive and energetic men who had been tinent began now to be better known, engaged in the struggle, were desirous a grant of the whole of such a vast of new fields of labor and enterprise, region to any one body of men, howand nothing promised so well as the ever reputable, appeared to him an New World. Merchants and others act of impolitic and profuse liberalbecame deeply interested in the re- ity. For this reason he divided ports of Gosnold and his companions, that portion of North America, and it was not found difficult to induce which stretches from the thirty-fourth them to undertake the following up to the forty-fifth degree of latitude, the discoveries already made. These into two districts nearly equal; the one projects were powerfully aided by the called the First or South Colony of Virjudicious counsel and zealous encour- ginia, the other, the Second or North agement of Richard Hakluyt, a pre- Colony. He authorized Sir Thomas bendary of Westminster, a man of Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard eminent attainments in naval and com- Hakluyt, and their associates in the mercial knowledge, the patron and London Company, being mostly resicounsellor of many of the English ex- dent in London, to plant anywhere bepeditions of discovery, and the histo- tween thirty-four and forty-one degrees rian of their exploits. By his per- of north latitude, or between Cape suasion, two vessels were fitted out by Fear and the east end of Long Island. the merchants of Bristol, under com- The Plymouth Company, composed of mand of Martin Pring, to examine the residents in the west of England,

1606.

CH. III.]

CHARTER OF THE LONDON COMPANY.

31

might plant anywhere between the granted them liberty of coining money, thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees of of repelling enemies, and of detaining north latitude, or between Delaware ships trading there without their leave. Bay and Halifax; but neither company “In this singular charter," says Dr. Rowere to begin its settlement within a bertson, “the contents of which have hundred miles of any spot previously been little attended to by the historians occupied by the other. Each colony of America, some articles are as unfawas to extend along the coast fifty vorable to the rights of the colonists as miles either way from the point first others are to the interest of the parent occupied, and from the same point in- state. By placing the legislative and land a hundred miles, embracing ten executive powers in a council nominathousand square miles of continental ted by the crown, and guided by its territory. The supreme government instructions, every person settling in of the colonies that were to be settled, America seems to be bereaved of the was vested in a council, resident in noblest privilege of a free man; by the England, named by the king, with laws unlimited permission of trade with forand ordinances given under his sign eigners, the parent state is deprived of manual; and the subordinate jurisdic- that exclusive commerce which has been tion was committed to a council, resi- deemed the chief advantage resulting dent in America, which was also nomi- from the establishment of colonies. nated by the king, and to act conforma- But in the infancy of colonization, and bly to his instructions. The charter, without the guidance of observation or while it thus restricted the emigrants experience, the ideas of men, with rein the important article of internal spect to the mode of forming new setregulations, secured to them and their tlements, were not fully unfolded or descendants all the rights of denizens, properly arranged. At a period when in the same manner as if they had re- they could not foresee the future granmained or had been born in England; deur and importance of the communiand granted them the privilege of hold- ties which they were about to call into ing their lands in America by the freest existence, they were ill qualified to and least burdensome tenure. The king concert the best plan for governing permitted whatever was necessary for them. Besides, the English of that the sustenance or commerce of the new age, accustomed to the high prerogacolonies to be exported from England, tive and arbitrary rule of their monduring the space of seven years, with archs, were not animated with such out paying any duty; and, as a farther liberal sentiments, either concerning incitement to industry, he granted them their own personal or political rights, liberty of trade with other nations; as have become familiar in the more and appropriated the duty to be levied mature and improved state of their on foreign commodities, as a fund for constitution. the benefit of the colonies, for the pe

History of America," book ix., riod of twenty-one years.

He also

* Robertson's

p. 212.

1606.

Not long after the grant of this sedition, along with seven other ofcharter, James issued “Instructions for fences, all triable by jury, were dethe Government of Virginia," in which clared capital ; lesser offences were to

he appointed a council, as pro- be tried summarily, and punished by

vided for in the charter, to be the local councils at their discretion ; increased or altered at the king's plea- all laws enacted by these councils not sure, and authorized to nominate and touching life or limb, to remain in force superintend the local councils, reduced till set aside by the king or the council by these instructions to seven mem- for Virginia. For five years after their bers each. These seven were to choose first plantation, the trade and industry a president from their own number, of the colonists were to remain a comwith power to suspend him or any mon stock, or “two or three stocks at counsellor for good cause, and to fill the most," to be managed, in each vacancies till new appointments came colony, by a factor selected annually from England; the president to have by the local council, and in England, a double vote. It was made the espec- by committees appointed for that purial duty of these councils to provide pose. A knowledge of these provisions that “the true Word and service of is quite necessary to make the early God, according to the rites and service history of Virginia intelligible. of the Church of England, be preached, Under such a state of things as this, planted, and used in the colonies and and under auspices of this nature, was among the neighboring savages." Tu- the first permanent settlement effected mults, rebellion, conspiracy, mutiny and I by Englishmen in the New World.

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The London Company - Members of the council and emigrants Dissensions Enter Chesapeake Bay James

town --- John Smith - His eminent value to the colony-Sickness Smith takes the lead - Explorations Taken prisoner - Saved by Pocahontas - New arrivals --Smith explores the Chesapeake — Made president of the council - New charter Lord Delaware captain-general -- Character of emigrants --Smith returns to England - The "starving-time” – Timely arrival of Gates, Somers, and Lord Delaware Return of better days -- Dale - Enlargement of grant ---- Marriage of Pocahontas -- Rights of private property - Argall Yeardley – First Colonial Assembly -- Introduction of Negro slavery — Tobacco, cotton, etc. Colony not profitable to the Company - Massacre by the Indians -- Retaliation - Dissolution of the Company -- Death of King James.

The London Company consisted of field, and others, especially Sir Thomas Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Smith, one of the assignees of Raleigh's Richard Hakluyt, Edward Maria Wing-patent. Every contributor of about

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sixty dollars was entitled to a hundred and the deep water for anchorage led

acres of land, and every person to the name of Point Comfort. De

emigrating to the colony, or lighted with this noble inlet, they carrying others there at his own ex- sailed up and explored James River for pense, was allowed a hundred acres for fifty miles, and there fixed upon the each person. On all grants of lands a site for the colony. The name JAMESquit-rent was reserved. Three vessels TOWN was adopted, and it is the oldwere fitted out by the Company, un- 'est town founded by the English in der command of Christopher Newport, | America. and together with Wingfield, Gosnold, Smith was found named as one of Hunt, the chaplain, and the famous the council, when the box came to be John Smith, a hundred and five men opened, yet so great was the jealousy embarked—this was on the 19th of of Wingfield that he succeeded in December, 1606. Unfortunately, less having the only competent man among than twenty of these were practical them excluded from the council, and mechanics and workmen, the large pro- put upon his trial for sedition. He portion being in no sense possessed of was honorably acquitted, and by the the qualifications necessary in laying good offices of Hunt, the chaplain, was the foundations of a colony in a new restored to his seat in the council. Inand unknown world.

deed, had it not been for this couraDissensions arose on the voyage, al- geous, energetic, and ever ready man, most of necessity, for the king, by a the whole colony would probably soon refinement of folly, had sealed up in a have shared the like disastrous fate

box, the names and instructions of with that at Roanoke. those who were to form the council. In

company with Newport, Smith The evident superiority of Smith for the ascended James River, and visited Powpresent undertaking excited envy and hatan, who received them with cerejealousy, and on a frivolous charge he mony, but with little cordiality. In was put in confinement on the voyage. June, Newport returned to England The prudent and judicious conduct and with the ships, and the colonists beexhortations of the excellent chaplain came speedily sensible of their true served, however, greatly to allay the position. Weak in numbers, reduced feelings of jealousy and animosity which by sickness, without suitable provisions, had been aroused. Newport took the suffering from the summer heats, exold route by the Canaries, so that he posed to the hostility of the natives,

did not reach the coast of Vir- their condition was truly deplorable;

ginia till April, 1607. By what half of the whole died before autumn, may be termed a fortunate gale, he one of whom was Gosnold. The presiwas driven quite past the site of the dent of the council, Wingfield, was deold colony, into the mouth of the noble posed for avarice and endeavoring Chesapeake Bay. The headlands were meanly to desert the colony in its called Cape Henry and Cape Charles, trouble; Ratcliffe, his successor, was

160

VOL. I.

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