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quite incompetent; so that, in fact, the most deare and well-beloved daughter, whole care and management of affairs a child of tenne or twelve years of fell into the hands of Smith. And age," after unavailing and passionato well was it for the colony that so it entreaties for the life of the white man,

so noble a being to her youthful imagiThe fortifications were repaired; con- nation, ran forward and clung to him spiracies set on foot by Wingfield and with her arms, and laying her head others were crushed; and winter, as it upon his own, disarmed the savage approached, furnished plenty of game fury of his executioners. The life of and wild fowl. Smith now set out to the wondrous stranger was preserved, explore the Chickahominy, a tributary and his

tributary and his open and generous character which entered James River a little won the heart of the youthfal Pocaabove Jamestown. This was in obe hontas. By the promise of “life, dience to a command which required, liberty, land, and women,” they now with singular ignorance as to the sought to engage Smith in an attack breadth of the continent, that a com- upon the colonists, but his address and munication should be sought with the influence turned them from the project, South Sea, by ascending some stream and he was, after seven weeks' captivthat flowed from the north-west. Sur-ity, dismissed with promises of support prised by the Indians while on this ex- and amity. Like a tutelary genius, pedition, Smith was made prisoner : the loving Indian girl, after saving the his presence of mind did not forsake life of their chief, “revived the dead him: he so astonished the Indians with spirits” of the colonists by her attena pocket compass, and with accounts of tion to their wants, bringing every day its marvellous powers, that he was con- with her attendants, baskets of producted by them with mingled triumph visions, so that, the enmity of the savand fear from tribe to tribe, as a re- ages disarmed, and a supply of food markable being, whose character and obtained, “all men's fear was now abandesigns they were unable to penetrate, doned." in spite of all the incantations of their On his return to Jamestown, Smith

At length he was brought in- found the colony on the brink of ruin, to the presence of the aged Powhatan. and only at the risk of his life sucThe politic chief, seated in the midst ceeded in preventing the deof his women, received him with a dis- sertion of the forty persons yet play of barbaric ceremony; and whilst remaining. Newport soon after arhe was feasted they proceeded to de- rived with supplies and a hundred and liberate upon his fate. Their fears dic- twenty emigrants. These, however, tated the policy of his destruction; he proved not only of no service to the was suddenly dragged forward, his colony, but positively injurious, for, head placed upon a large stone, and being chiefly vagabond gentlemen and the club already uplifted to dash out goldsmiths, they stirred up the old his brains, when Pocahontas," the king's thirst for gold; and Newport was

seers.

CH. IV.]

SMITH'S LABORS AND SERVICES.

35

1608.

1609.

foolish enough to carry back to Eng- were quite unsuitable in character for land a cargo of worthless earth which the benefit of the settlement: covetous and greedy eyes had magnified “When you send again," Smith into sands full of gold. Little satis- wrote home, “I entreat you rather fied with such egregious folly, Smith send but thirty carpenters, husbandnow undertook, in an open barge of men, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, three tons' burden, the exploration of masons, and diggers up of trees' roots, the vast Bay of the Chesapeake. The well provided, than a thousand of such event was more answerable to his an- as we have.” But he was equal ticipations, than to the very limited to the emergency, and his firmmeans at his command. During three ness never gave way; despite all diffimonths he visited all the countries on culties, he enforced order and industry the eastern and western shores, ex- among the colonists. plored the Patapsco, the Potomac, and The London Company, chagrined at" others of the great tributaries that its failure of acquiring sudden wealth, swell that magnificent basin, trading readily agreed to a change in its conwith friendly tribes, fighting with those stitution. The king made over to the hostile, observing the nature and pro- Company the powers which he had reductions of their territories, and leav- served to himself; the supreme council ing behind him, by the exercise of ready was to be chosen by the stockholders tact and dauntless intrepidity, unstained themselves, and in the exercise of the by a single act of cruelty, a high im- powers of legislation and government pression of the valor and nobleness of was independent of the king. The limthe English character. After sailing its of the colony were extended, and in two successive cruises above three many of the nobility and gentry, as thousand miles, in contending with well as tradesmen of London, became hardship and peril, and the discourage associates in the Company. The Counment of his companions, whose com- cil thus empowered to establish what plaints he humorously silenced by a laws they deemed best for the colony, reference to the expedition of Lane, and to send out a governor to execute and the “ dogge's porridge” to which them, obtained absolute control over he had been reduced, he succeeded in the lives, liberty, and fortunes of the bringing back to Jamestown an account colonists. There seemed now reasonof the regions bordering on the Chesa- able hope of at least a firm and effectpeake, with a map that long served as ive administration of the affairs of the the basis of subsequent delineations. colony. The first act of the new coun

A few days after his return, Smith cil was to appoint Lord Delaware, was made president of the council, and whose virtues adorned his rank, as speedily infused vigor and activity into Governor and Captain-general of the the whole administration of the colony. colony. Sir Thomas Gates and Sir Seventy new emigrants, two of them George Somers were authorized to adfemales, arrived, but as before, they minister its affairs until his arrival.

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Under such auspices, an expedition of Pocahontas still proved herself the unusual magnitude might have been guardian angel of the unruly colonists; expected; and nine vessels, under the and, “under God," as Smith declared command of Newport, containing more in a letter to the queen of James I., than five hundred emigrants, were soon " the instrument for preserving them on their way out. The prosperity of from death, famine, and utter confusion. Virginia seemed placed at length be- When her father," he observes, “with yond the reach of danger. An un- policy sought to surprise me, having foreseen accident interrupted their san- but eighteen men with me, the dark guine expectations; a violent storm night could not affright her from com

the vessel on board of which ing through the irksome woods, and were Gates, Somers, and Newport, was with watery eyes gave me intelligence, separated from the rest, and after a with her best advice, to escape his narrow escape from foundering, was fury, which, had he known, he had stranded on the coast of the Bermudas, surely slain her.” While disunion thus but without loss of life. The rest of exposed the settlers to Indian treachthe ships, with the exception of one ery, the want of concerted industry, small ketch, succeeded in reaching and the rapid consumption of their Jamestown in safety.

stores, soon threatened them with all Smith meanwhile had been zealously the horrors of famine. Although his occupied in maintaining order and se- authority had been superseded, Smith curity among the little band of colo- still continued, from a feeling of pubnists. The sudden arrival of so con- lic spirit, to wrestle with the factious siderable a reinforcement disconcerted colonists, and to hold the helm until all his arrangements. The new emi- the arrival of his successor. grants were “unruly gallants, packed this critical period, when every thing off to escape ill destinies at home," seemed to be rapidly tending to anmen of broken fortunes and unsteady archy and ruin, an accidental explosion habits; the actual government was of gunpowder inflicted upon him a void, the fate of the new governor un- dangerous wound which the surgical certain, the provisional authority of skill of Virginia could not relieve. Smith doubtful and contested, and “Delegating his authority to Percy, he everything tended to the speedy disso embarked for England. Extreme suflution of their little society. Union fering from his wounds, and the ingratialone could insure their defence against tude of his employers were the fruits the Indians, whose jealousy of their of his services. He received for his encroachments was steadily gaining sacrifices and his perilous exertions, not ground; but every day their dissen- one foot of land, not the house he himsions increased. Powhatan, checked at self had built, not the field his own times by the ascendancy of Smith, at hands had planted, nor any reward but others formed plans for cutting them the applause of his conscience and the all off. In these distresses and perils world. He was the Father of Vir

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ginia, the true leader who first planted not only be not forgotten, but should the Saxon race within the borders of be freshly remembered.

His name the United States. His judgment had should not only be honored by the been ever clear in the midst of general silent canvass, and the cold marble, despondency. He united the highest but his praises should dwell living spirit of adventure with consummate upon the lips of men, and should be powers of action. His courage and handed down by fathers to their chilself-possession accomplished what others dren. Poetry has imagined nothing esteemed desperate. Fruitful in ex- more stirring and romantic than his pedients, he was prompt in execution. life and adventures, and history, upon Though he had been harassed by the her ample page, has recorded few more persecutions of malignant envy, he honorable and spotless names."** never revived the memory of the faults On the departure of Smith the colof his enemies. He was accustomed to ony speedily plunged into misery and lead, not to send, his men to danger; wretchedness. Their supply of prowould suffer want rather than borrow, visions soon failed; the Indians refused and starve sooner than not pay. He further aid, and murdered numbers; had nothing counterfeit in his nature ; in less than six months a horrible but was open, honest, and sincere. He famine, remembered long after in Virclearly discerned that it was the true ginia, as the “starving time, brought interest of England not to seek in Vir- the colony to the last point; out of five ginia for gold and sudden wealth, but hundred persons left by Smith in the to enforce regular industry. "Nothing,' colony, only sixty remained; and indosaid he, 'is to be expected thence but lence, vice, and famine had so reduced by labor. 914

these, that had relief been delayed ten This illustrious man never revisited days longer they also must have perVirginia, although he was several times ished. in New England in the service of the But succor arrived in season to prePlymouth Company.

His death Oc- vent so sad a catastrophe. Gates and curred in 1631, at London, in the fifty- Somers, who had been shipwrecked on second year of his age. Mr. Hillard, the Bermudas, but without losing a in his well-written biography of Cap- single life, had fortunately succeeded in tain Smith, thus sums up the obliga- preserving their provisions and tions which America owes to him :- stores; and while the colonists “The debt of gratitude due to him is of Virginia had suffered the pinchings national and American, and so should of want, the spontaneous bounties of his glory be. Wherever upon this con- nature had richly supported them for tinent the English language is spoken, many months. Anxious to rejoin their his deeds should be recounted, and his companions, they constructed two crazy memory hallowed. His services should

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* Life of Captain John Smith," p. 143. See * Bancroft's "History of the United States," vol. i.,

also Mr. W. G. Simms's picturesque and pleasantly written Life of the same brave adventurer.

p. 138.

1611.

vessels, and were fortunate enough, ment; but scarcely had Lord Delaware May 24th, to reach Virginia in safety. brought about this gratifying result, They were horror-struck at the appear when his health failed, and he was ance of the few surviving colonists, compelled to return to England, leavand, finding that their stores would ing George Percy as his deputy. Durlast but for sixteen days longer, they ing his short stay, he had not only reresolved to abandon Virginia, the duced the colonists, now numbering scene of so many and prolonged mis- about two hundred, to some degree of eries, and even to consume the town order, but had repressed the encroachon their departure; an act of insane ments of the Indians, by the erection folly which was happily prevented by of new forts, and by attacking some of Gates. On the 7th of June, at noon, their villages. Sir George Somers was they embarked in four pinnaces, and dispatched for provisions to the Berfell down the river with the tide. mudas, but he did not live to return. Next morning, before they had reached Captain Samuel Argall, who accompathe sea, they were startled with the nied him in another vessel, succeeded sudden

appearance of the long boat of at last in obtaining supplies of corn on Lord Delaware, who had just arrived | the shores of the Potomac. at the mouth of the river with ships In May, soon after the departure of and reinforcements. By persuasion and Lord Delaware, Sir Thomas Dale authority he prevailed upon the melan- arrived in Virginia with three choly band to return. The first act of ships, three hundred emigrants, and a Lord Delaware was, on the 10th of supply of cattle, provisions, and other June, to publish his commission, and to articles needful for the colony. He consecrate his functions by the solem- was empowered to administer summary nities of prayer and supplication to justice upon any and all classes of ofGod. The hearts of the colonists were fenders. In the latter part of August, full; the arrival of the governor seemed Sir Thomas Gates also arrived with six to them like a special deliverance of ships, two hundred and eighty men, Divine Providence. They took cour- and twenty women, a considerable age to grapple with the difficulties of quantity of cattle and hogs, military their situation, and ere long found them stores, and other necessaries ; and asto yield to determined energy. The sumed the government amid the thanksmingled firmness and gentleness of the givings of the colony, and with daily new governor restrained the factious, prayers for England, their much loved and won over the dissolute and refrac- native land. The colony now began tory. A regular system of daily labor to extend itself up James River, where was established, and every one submit- several new settlements were effected, ted to his appointed work, which was and a town built, enclosed with a paliregularly preceded by public worship. sade, which, in honor of prince Henry, The colony now began to put forth was called Henrico. Yet the rights of some promise of permanent establish the Indians were not sufficiently re

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