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CH. IV.]

MARRIAGE AND DEATH OF POCAHONTAS.

39

1612.

garded, and in general scant justice the Episcopal Church. The powerful was meted out to them.

Chickahominies sought the friendship In the following year the Adven- of the English, and it was earnestly

turers in England obtained from hoped that intermarriages might be

the king an enlargement of their come frequent; but no such result folgrants. The Bermudas were included lowed. The colonists seemed to have within the limits of their third patent, eschewed all alliances of the kind; and but were soon after transferred to a the Indians nursed their vexation and separate Company, and named, in hon- wrath for a fitting revenge. or of Sir George Somers, the Somers A few words seem to be only due Islands. The supreme power which to the fate of Pocahontas. About heretofore resided in the Council was three years after her marriage she now transferred to the Company, and accompanied her husband to Engfrequent meetings were held for the land, where she was much caressed transaction of business, thus giving to for her gentle, modest behavior, and the corporation something of a demo- her great services to the colony. cratic form. The colony continued Here she fell in again with the galsteadily to increase in prosperity, and lant Smith, whom from report she supwas especially favored at this period posed to have been long dead, and in its history by a firm alliance being who has left us an interesting account effected between the English and Pow- of his interview with her, and of the hatan and the Indians, in consequence circumstances of her untimely death : of the marriage of the gentle and af- “Being about this time preparing to fectionate Pocahontas.

set sail for New England, I could not A foraging party, headed by Argall, stay to do her that service I desired had succeeded in carrying off this no- and she well deserved; but hearing ble maiden, and when her father indig- shee was at Branford with divers of nantly demanded her return it was re- my friends, I went to see her. After fused. Hostilities were about to break a modest salutation, without any word, out, when a worthy young Englishman, she turned about, obscured her face, as

named John Rolfe, winning the not seeming well contented; and in

favor of Pocahontas, asked her that humour, her husband with divers in marriage. Powhatan was delighted; others, we all left her two or three his daughter, docile and gentle, was houres, repenting myselfe to have writ soon instructed in the Christian faith, she could speake English; but not long and received baptism at the hands of after, she began to talke, and rememthat

good man and minister of Christ, bered mee well what courtesies she had the Rev. Alexander Whitaker. The done, saying, “You did promise Powmarriage was solemnized by the same hatan what was yours should bee his, clergyman,* according to the usages of and he the like to you; you called him

* Dr. Hawks's “ Protestant Episcopal Church in father, being in his land a stranger, and Virginia," p. 28.

by the same reason so must I doe you; '

1613.

which though I would have excused, I exercise martial law, was yet so disdurst not allow of that title, because creet and just withal, that no oppresshe was a king's daughter; with a well- sion was felt during the five years that set countenance, she said, “Were you he remained in the colony—from 1611 not afraid to come into my father's to 1616. Argall

, in 1613, fell upon a countrie, and caused feare in him and colony which the French were just all his people but mee, and feare you planting on the Penobscot, and comhere I should call you father? I tell pletely destroyed it: subsequently he you, then, I will, and you shall call mee sailed north again, on a sort of piratichild, and so I will bee for ever and cal expedition, and threw down the ever your countrieman. They did tell fortifications of De Monts on the isle us alwais you were dead, and I knew of St. Croix, and set fire to the desertno other till I came to Plimoth; yet ed settlement of Port Royal. On his Powhatan did command Uttamatomak- return, in November, it is said that he kin to seeke you and know the truth, entered the mouth of the Hudson and because your countriemen will lie compelled the Dutch traders on the much.'.

island of Manhattan to make an ac“The treasurer, councell, and com- knowledgment of the authority and panie having well furnished Captaine claims of England. But the statement Samuel Argall, the Lady Pocahontas, is unsupported, and probably fictitious.* alias Rebecca, with her husband and Gates returned to England in 1614, others, in the good ship called the and Dale two years later, leavGeorge, it pleased God, at Gravesend, ing George Yeardley as deputyto take this young lady to his mercie, governor. Through the efforts of a where shee made not more sorrow for faction he was displaced, and her unexpected death, than joy to the Argall, an active, but coarse beholders to hear and see her make so and tyrannical man, was appointed religious and godly an end."* This sad deputy-governor, and also admievent occurred in 1617, when Pocahon- ral of the country and the neightas was about twenty-two years of age. boring seas. His rapacity and tyranny She left an infant son, who was educated soon occasioned loud complaints, and in England, and through whom several the Company solicited Lord Delaware families in Virginia claim direct de- to resume his former office: he left scent from the daughter of Powhatan. England, but died on the passage off

The stability of the colony was the entrance of the bay which bears. much promoted by the establishment his name. After a struggle, Yeardley, of a right of private property, and the the former deputy, was appointaddition of a number of respectable ed governor, and the honor of young women from England.

from England. Sir knighthood was conferred upon him. Thomas Dale, though empowered to

* Mr. Brodhead positively asserts its falsity. See

his “ History of the State of New York,” First Po* Smith's “ History of Virginia," p. 121. riod, p. 54.

11614.

1616.

1617.

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1619.

CH. IV.]

INTRODUCTION OF SLAVERY.

41

1620.

Argall made a hasty departure to the Jamestown a cargo of twenty negroes, West Indies. Yeardley, soon after his who were purchased by the arrival, called together the first Colo- planters for slaves: at intervals nial Assembly of Virginia, composed others were brought and purchased in of the governor, the council, and depu- the same way, and for the same purties from the eleven plantations. These pose. Whatever may have since been deputies were called burgesses, a name thought and said of the practice of of note in the history of Virginia. buying and selling negroes, it is but Two years later, when Sir Francis simple justice to state, that neither the Wyatt succeeded Yeardley, the Com- Virginians of that day, nor any one pany issued a Charter or Ordinance, else, supposed that there was the slightwhich gave a constitution and perma- est moral wrong in condemning to pernent government to the colony. At petual slavery that part of the human the same time the plantations were di- race whose skin is black. vided into parishes, a glebe of a hun- The Earl of Southampton succeeded dred acres was allowed to each clergy- Sandys as treasurer, and, during the man, and public worship according to two years following, twenty-three hunthe usages of the Church of England dred emigrants were sent to Virginia. was positively enjoined.

New plantations were established on Sir Edwin Sandys, whose integrity James and York Rivers; and an esand energy were of the highest value, tate of ten thousand acres near the had succeeded Sir Thomas Smith, as falls of James River was assigned as treasurer. During the year that he an endowment for a College in which held office he sent out to Virginia the Indians, as well as colonists, were twelve hundred emigrants, among to be educated. “The cultivation of whom were ninety young women, who tobacco had given a sudden impulse to became wives of the planters on the Virginia; but the use of it was still payment to the Company of a hundred quite limited, and the English market pounds of tobacco, equal to about $75. I was soon overstocked.

was soon overstocked. The price beThe introduction of these into the gan to fall, and great anxiety was colony, sanctioned by marriage and evinced by the enlightened treasurer domestic ties, was in every point of for the introduction into the colony of view a decided advantage, and proved other staples—flax, silk, wine, and the in the result a blessing. The king preparation of lumber. New attempts also did the colony the great injustice were made at the manufacture of glass, to send out a hundred dissolute vaga- pitch, tar, and potashes, and some bonds, picked out of the jails and sold Italians and Dutch were sent out to to be servants for a term of years—a instruct the colonists in these opera practice, by the way, which was long tions. continued, though earnestly protested The colony thus far, on the whole, against by the colonists. At this date,

Hildreth's "History of the United States," vol. ing a Dutch trading vessel brought into

p. 121.

VOL. I.--8

避 1621.

was

had not proved profitable to the Com- saved. Such was-God be thanked pany; although it had taken deep root, for it—the good fruit of an infidel and promised great results in the fu- converted to Christianity; for though ture.

Sir Francis Wyatt superseded three hundred and more of ours died
Yeardley as governor, and was by many of these pagan infidels, yet

instructed, beside restricting the thousands of ours were saved by the amount of tobacco which each planter means of one of them alone, which was might raise, to cultivate the good will made a Christian." of the natives. But unhappily it

Α.

savage war of retaliation and extoo late, and a fearful visitation fell termination ensued. Sickness and famupon the colony in consequence. ine, too, came upon them, and within a

The aged Powhatan was dead. Ope- brief period the colonists were rechancanough, his successor, a bold and duced from four thousand to twentycunning chief, had bided his time, and five hundred. But the white men in profound secrecy he arranged and soon regained their wonted superiority matured a scheme for an universal over the red race, and the Indians, enmassacre of the whites. The Indians trapped by lying promises of security had been treated with contempt, as and immunity, were

slain without enemies of no moment; military exer- mercy: this state of warfare continued cises had gone into desuetude; and for about fourteen years. the Indians had gradually become as The colonists, by the terms of the dexterous as the colonists in the usé of charter, were not much better than in

fire-arms. On the 22d of March, dented servants to the Company, who,

at a given signal, in the midst notwithstanding the privileges they of apparent security, they fell upon had granted, still retained the supreme every settlement; men, women, and direction of affairs. Their policy was children were slaughtered without narrow, timid, and fluctuating; and its mercy; and had not a converted In- unfortunate result led to disdian, named Chanco, given warning sensions, in which political, even the night before, the extent of the more than commercial, questions, soon massacre must have been nearly uni- became the subject of eager dispute. versal. As it was, three hundred and In England the ministerial faction fifty persons perished, including six of eagerly endeavored to fortify itself by the Council. “And thus,” says a con- gaining adherents among the Virginia temporary, quoted by old Purchas, Company, but the great majority were “the rest of the colony, that had warn- determined to assert the rights and ing given them, by this means was liberties of the subject at home, as well

as of the colonists abroad. A freedom * “ The first culture of cotton in the United States This year (1621) the

of discussion on political matters in seeds were planted as an experiment; and their general was thus generated, which was plentiful coming up' was, at that early day, a subject of interest in America and England. "_Ban regarded by the asserters of royal precroft's History of the United States," vol. i., p. 179.

rogative, as being of highly dangerous

1622.

1623,

deserves commemoration.

Cu. IV.1

FALL OF THE VIRGINIA COMPANY.

43

an

1624.

66

tendency. King James, who had taken the court of King's Bench. Parliament the alarm, was appealed to as arbiter having assembled, a last appeal was by the minority, and, furnished with a made; little sympathy, however, had pretext in the ill-success and presumed that body for their exclusive privileges. mismanagement of the Company's af- At length the commissioners returned fairs, determined upon a summary from Virginia with accumulated evimethod of reforming them after his dences of misgovernment, and own standard. Without legal right, earnest recommendation to the monby the exercise of his prerogative alone, arch to recur to the original constituhe ordered the records of the Company tion of 1606, and to abrogate the demoin London to be taken possession of, cratic element which, it was asserted, and appointed a commission to sit in had occasioned so much dissension and

judgment upon its proceedings, misrule. This afforded additional

while another body was sent to ground for a decision, which, as usual Virginia to inquire into the condition in that age, says Robertson, was perand management of the colony. The fectly consonant to the wishes of the first inquiry brought, it was confessed, monarch. The charter was forfeited, much mismanagement to light, upon the Company was dissolved, and all the which the king, by an order in council, rights and privileges conferred on it redeclared his own intention to assume in turned to the king, from whom they future the appointment of the officers flowed.” Thus fell the Virginia of the colony, and the supreme direc- Company, in 1625, after spendtion of its affairs. The directors were ing nearly $700,000 in their efforts to invited to accede to this arrangement, establish the colony. on pain of the forfeiture of their char- An agent was sent to England by the ter. Paralysed by the suddenness of colonists praying that no change might this attack upon their privileges, they take place in their acquired franchises begged that they might be allowed and privileges; he, however, died on time for consideration. An answer in the passage. James continued Wyatt three days' time was peremptorily in- in office to exercise his authority on the sisted on.

Thus menaced, they deter- precedent of the last five years, i. mined to stand upon their rights, and from the time that the Company estabto surrender them only to force. Upon lished the Colonial Assembly. The king their decided refusal, a writ of Quo had further plåns in view, but his death Warranto was issued by the king on the 27th of March, 1625, finally against the Company, in order that the closed his career with all its good and validity of its charter might be tried in all its evil.

1625.

e.,

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