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Henry Hudson - Enters the service of the Dutch Discovers and explores the River now called by his

- His conduct to the natives ---- His fate - Dutch East India Company - Block's explorations -- New Netherland - The Walloons - Purchase of Manhattan Island - Trade the principal object - Plan of Colonization - The patroons and their purchases -Swaanendael – Difficulties of this plan- Minuit recalled

- Van Twiller governor - Disputes with the English - Attempts of the Swedes at colonization on the Delaware — Their success.

1609.

ABOUT two years after the settlement country along the river's banks “as of Jamestown, and nearly at the same beautiful a land as one can tread upon.” point of time that Champlain was ma- Hudson ascended the river with his

king explorations in northern ship as far as where the present city of

New York, a famous navigator, Albany stands, and thence sent a boat named Henry Hudson, entered the which probably explored somewhat beservice of the Dutch East India Com- yond Waterford. Mr. Hildreth stigpany. He was by birth an English- matizes Hudson's conduct towards the man, and an intimate friend of the natives on several occasions, as marked illustrious Captain John Smith. He by “reckless cruelty,” which is hardly had already made two voyages in the borne out, we think, by the facts on employ of London merchants, in search record.* Descending the river, Hudof a north-west passage to India, but son, on the 4th of October, set sail for not meeting sufficient encouragement home,t and in little more than a month at home, he went to Holland, and, early

* See Cleveland's Life of Henry Hudson," ch. iv. in April, 1609, was placed in command

† Mr. Bancroft's language, after narrating Hudson's of a small vessel of eighty tons' burden, departure for Europe, will interest those who would called the Half-Moon, for a third voy- like to know something about “New York as it was : "

—“ Sombre forests shed a melancholy grandeur over age. Impeded by the ice in the north

the useless magnificence of nature, and hid in their ern seas, he ran along the coast of deep shades the rich soil which the sun had never Acadie, entered Penobscot Bay, made warmed. No axe had levelled the giant progeny of

the crowded groves, in which the fantastic forms of the land of Cape Cod, entered the

withered limbs, that had been blasted and riven by Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, and lightning, contrasted strangely with the verdant freshon the 2d of September discovered and ness of a younger growth of branches. The wanton entered Sandy Hook Bay.

On the grape vine, seeming by its own power to have sprung

from the earth and to have fastened its leafy coils on 11th, he passed through the Narrows, the top of the tallest forest tree, swung in the air with and on the 12th began his voyage up every breeze like the loosened shrouds of a ship... that noble river which now justly per- harmed over piles of mouldering trees. The spotted

Reptiles sported in stagnant pools, or crawled unpetuates his fame, pronouncing the deer crouched among the thickets ; but not to hide,

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CH. V.]

MANHATTAN ISLAND FIRST OCCUPIED.

45

1610.

1615.

1613.

arrived safely at Dartmouth in England. of the East River, ran through the The ship, after some eight months' de- formidable “Hellegat,” or Hell Gate, lay, was allowed to continue its voyage and traced the shores of Long Island to Holland, but Hudson was detained and the coasts of Connecticut as far as by a royal order, and soon after fitted Cape Cod. A few years later, Captain out for a fourth voyage. Froni that Thomas Dermer was the first Englishvoyage he never returned, but, set man who visited the Dutch at Manhat

adrift in an open boat with his tan and saiied through Long Island

young son and eight others, he Sound. A fort was erected on Manhatperished in the frozen regions of that tan Island, and another a few Bay which still bears his name and re- miles below Albany, more, howminds us of his fearful fate.

ever, as centres of traffic with the InThe Dutch East India Company dians, than with the view of permanent claimed a right to the new lands dis- colonization. After a further duration covered by their agent; and vessels of three years, during which they were were immediately despatched to open first brought into contact with the Mo

a trade with the natives. A hawks, the easternmost of the Iroquois

few fortified trading houses or Five Nations, and succeeded in openwere erected for this purpose on the ing friendly relations with different island of Manhattan, the nucleus of the tribes of Indians, the trading monopoly future city of New York. Argall, it is passed into the hands of the said, returning to Virginia from his at- Dutch West India Company, tack on the French settlements, entered who were endowed with the exclusive the harbor, and claimed the right of privilege of trafficking and colonizing possession for England. Too weak to on the coasts of Africa and America.* dispute his claim, the Dutch affected This wealthy and important corporasubmission, but only till his vessels tion, combining military with commerwere out of sight. But this statement cial operations, was divided into five lacks confirmation, and is positively de- chambers, established in five of the nied by the best authorities. The principal Dutch cities. Its affairs were States-general had meanwhile granted managed by a Board of Directors a four years' monopoly to any enter-called the Assembly of Nineteen; and prising traders, and an Amsterdam its attention was devoted more especompany sent out five ships. One of cially to making reprisals on Spanish these adventurers, Adriaen Block, ex- commerce, purchasing slaves, the contended the sphere of discovery by way quest of Brazil, etc. New Netherland

was committed to the charge of the for there was no pursuer; and there were none but wild animals to crop the uncut herbage of the pro- * It deserves to be put on record here, to the credit ductive prairies. Silence reigned,” etc., etc.—Ban- of a Dutch navigator, that, in the year 1616, William croft's “ History of the United States,vol. ii., pp. Cornelis Schouten, a merchant of Hoorn, in North 266-8.

Holland, first sailed around the southernmost point of See Brodhead's History of the State of New South America: in honor of his native city, he called York," First Period, p. 54.

it “ Cape Hoorn."

1621.

1623.

1624.

1629.

66

Amsterdam Chamber. Two vessels the English at New Plymouth, who,

were sent out under command however, with characteristic feeling

of Cornelis Jacobsen May, the on the subject, did not fail to remind companion of Block, who became the them that England claimed the region first Director of New Netherland. Du- of country they were occupying; and ring his brief administration of one when England claimed any thing, she year, a fort was built on the Delaware was not likely very soon or easily to called Nassau: there was also built, on give it up. the Hudson, where Albany now stands, The States-general were induced, ' a fort named Fort Orange. A however, the next

however, the next year, to approve number of Walloons, who had a plan for colonization which been denied the privilege of settlement the Assembly of Nineteen had within the territory of the Virginia drawn up. Any member of the ComCompany, came out in the vessel under pany, who might establish in any part command of May: these, who were, of New Netherland, within four years properly so called, the first colonists, after the notice of his intention, a settled on the north-west corner of colony of fifty persons upwards of fifLong Island, at Waal-Bogt “ Wal- teen years of age, was to be entitled, loon's Bay”-now, Wallabout.

by the name of Patroon, to a grant of In May, 1626, Peter Minuit arrived territory so occupied, sixteen miles in at Manhattan as Director-general of extent along the sea shore, or the bank New Netherland, and entered vigor- of some navigable river, or eight miles ously upon the duties of his office. where both banks were occupied, with Manhattan Island was purchased of an indefinite extent inland. The island

the Indians for sixty gilders- of Manhattan and the fur trade with

about $24—and a block-house, the Indians were expressly reserved to surrounded by a palisade, was built at the Company; and upon all trade the southernmost point: this was called carried on by the patroons, an Fort Amsterdam. Staten Island was knowledgment of five per cent. was to also purchased of the Indians, and the be paid. These patroons were to exDutch sent over to Holland specimens tinguish the Indian title, and were to of wheat, rye, barley, flax, etc., as evi- settle their lands with tenants, farmers dence of the fertility and goodness of having indented servants the same with the soil. Although the fur trade had those of Virginia; but the feudal privialready reached, in the value of the leges reserved to the patroons, some exports, about $20,000 per annum, the traces of which still exist, present a

Dutch had not as yet enter- marked difference between this Dutch

tained seriously the project of scheme of settlement, and the free tenactual colonization and settlement on ure of lands adopted in Virginia. Free the banks of the Hudson. They were settlers who emigrated at their own excontent to enjoy the profits of trade, pense, were to be allowed as much land and to have friendly intercourse with as they could cultivate, and settlers of

1626.

ac

1627.

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