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CH. V.]




every description were to be free of stress of weather, to put into Plymouth taxes for ten years. The colonists were harbor, where he was detained and forbidden to make any woolen, linen or threatened with being treated as an cotton cloth, or to weave any other interloper. The Dutch title to New stuffs, on pain of being banished, and Netherland was discussed between the arbitrarily punished “as perjurers,'—a governments of England and Holland, regulation in the spirit of that colonial the former insisting upon her right to system adopted by all the nations of the territory. De Vries, in December Europe, who sought to confine the of this year, brought supplies to the colonists to the production of articles little colony at Swansdale ; but sad to of export, and to keep them dependent relate, not a living being was to be on the mother country for the most found there; the Indians had comnecessary manufactures.

pletely destroyed every thing. De The scheme met with favor: several | Vries subsequently settled on Staten members of the Company selected and Island. purchased the most desirable locations Wouter Van Twiller, who succeeded on the Delaware Bay, and on the west Minuit, appears to have been bank of the Hudson opposite Manhat- appointed through family intan Island. The former was called fluence, and had few or no qualifications Swaanendael, or Swansdale; and the for the post of Director-general. He latter, to which Staten Island and other brought out with him over a hundred tracts were added, was entitled Pavo- soldiers, a school-master, and a clergynia. The agents of Van Rensselaer man named Bogardus. Trade, however, purchased the lands in the vicinity of was still the prevailing object with the Fort Orange: the name Rensselaerwyck Dutch. Nearly twenty years before, was given to this tract, twenty-four Block had ascended the Fresh or Conmiles long and forty-eight broad. De necticut River, where a profitable trade Vries went to Swansdale and settled had commenced with the Indians, and there with a small colony, where the continued to increase in importance.

town of Lewiston now stands; In order to secure this valuable traffic,

and some beginnings were made the Dutch purchased of the Pequods, in colonizing Rensselaerwyck and Pavo- a tract on the west bank of the Connia.

necticut, near where the city of HartDifficulties soon occurred between ford now stands, and built a tradingthe patroons and the Company in re- house which was fortified with two spect to trading privileges, and Minuit, cannon, and named the House of Good who was accused of favoring the claims Hope. Soon after, a small vessel came

of the patroons, was recalled. from Boston with a letter to Van Twil

On his return to Holland with ler, from Winthrop, the governor, asa cargo of furs, he was compelled by serting anew the claims of England,

and expressing surprise that the Dutch Hildreth's “History of the United States," vol. i., p. 142.

had taken possession on the Connecti








cut. The people of Plymouth, mean- the advantages which would ensue from while, had taken steps to establish a colonization in America, and unpost on the Connecticut, which they der his auspices a commercial did, and when Van Twiller sent a com- company was formed for this purpose. pany of soldiers to drive them out, The untimely death of Gustavus, at they stood on their defence, and the the battle of Lutzen, in 1632, and Dutch withdrew without making trial the breaking out of the German war, of force.

prevented any decisive action for some The new governor was zealous in his years. The chancellor Oxenstiern faefforts to improve New Amsterdam: vored the plan of the company,

a church was erected, as were and renewed their patent; but barracks for the soldiers, mills, it was not till the close of 1637 that

But the disputes with the pa- an expedition was actually fitted out. troons proved a serious hindrance to Under the command of Minuit, who the

progress of the colony; to get rid had been previously Director of New of these controversies, it was proposed Netherland, two vessels with fifty men to buy up the patroonships, and Swans- entered the Delaware; lands dale was sold back to the Company for were purchased of the natives about $6,000. On the Connecticut the near the head of the Bay, and a fort was Massachusetts people were gradually built, called Christina, in honor of the crowding the Dutch out, and queen of Sweden.

The Dutch govFort Nassau, on the Delaware, ernor, Kieft, protested against this inwas attempted to be surprised by a trusion, but to little purpose: it was party from Plymouth. Van Twiller, unwise to attempt hostilities against with an eye to his own interests, se- the Swedes, and he desisted. Emigracured several valuable tracts on Long tion continued to increase for several Island and other smaller islands near years, and Printz, the governor, estabby. Complaints, having been made lished a residence, and built a fort against him at home by Van Dinckla- near Philadelphia : thus Pennsylvania gen, late Schout-fiscal at New Amster- was occupied by the Swedes long be

dam and an able and upright fore Penn became proprietary, and the

man, he was soon after recalled, banks of the Delaware, from the ocean and William Kieft was sent out as his to the falls near Princeton, were known successor, in March of the next

year. as New SWEDEN. At enmity with the While the people of New England Dutch in all other things, the Swedes, were steadily advancing towards pos- nevertheless, joined with them session of the country claimed by the in keeping out the English, who Dutch on the Connecticut, new com- occasionally attempted to settle within petitors also appeared in Delaware the limits which they claimed as their Bay, in the persons of hardy and en- own: all who came were either driven ergetic Swedes. The illustrious Gus-out by force or rigidly compelled to tavus Adolphus had early perceived submit to Swedish authority.




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Interest and importance of New England History - The Reformation --Its effects The English Reformation

Progress under Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth -- James I.-His education and conduct -- Points of variance between the Puritans and the Church of England - The king's feelings toward the Puritan party Internal dissensions - The Brownists or Independents -- Elders Brewster and Robinson Emigration to Holland - Disputes in Amsterdam - Removal to Leyden -- Reasons for desiring to leave Holland - Determination to colonize in America -- Set sail - Stormy voyage Reach the coast near Cape Cod -- Social compact — Plymouth Rock -Sufferings during the winter - Intercourse with the Indians — Apprehensions - Plantation at Wissagusset State of the colony in 1630 Massachusetts Bay colony Question of Religion - Charter and Company transferred to New England - Foundation of Boston Organization of churches - Severe trials Theocratic basis of the Government Position and influence of the ministers.

PECULIAR interest and importance nounced the corruptions in doctrine belong to the early history and pro- and practice of the Church of Rome. gress of New England. Its position When one considers what an astonishamong the English colonies in America; ing change was wrought by the preachthe influence which it has always ex- ing and labors of such men as Luther, erted in American affairs; the persons Zuingle, Calvin, and other eminent Reby whom it was settled; the specialities formers, among a people who had for of opinion and practice among the Pu- centuries been in absolute subjection, ritan colonists; the reasons which led mentally and morally, to papal domito their adoption of views in regard to nation and tyranny; when one calls to religious and civil duties and obliga- mind the vast and incalculable effect tions such as they held, maintained, produced throughout the civilized world and earnestly endeavored to carry into by the art of printing, the revival of full effect,—these, and the like points, learning in Europe, the free use of the seem to render it necessary to inquire Scriptures in the vernacular language with some care into several matters of the people, and free discussion of all antecedent to the landing of the Pil- religious subjects; and further, when grims on the rock-bound coast of New one remembers that there is always a England. It will be our effort to do tendency among men to push matters this as briefly and impartially as pos- of reform to an extreme; it need not sible.

surprise us that good men, and honest It was but natural that the great and conscientious men, held sentiments Reformation in the 16th century should not altogether accordant on many rehave given rise to many varieties of ligious topics, even topics of vital imopinions, and even very serious differ- portance, and adopted practices and ences and disputes among those who re- views of the meaning of Holy Scrip

Vol. I.-9

ture which produced dissension and dif- nity which these could afford. Conficulty in the very earliest days of Pro-scientiously opposed to popery, she yet testantism.

did not mean to alienate her Roman But beside considerations of this Catholic subjects, if that were possible, kind, there were marked peculiarities by any undue severity against the rein the origin and progress of the Religion which they professed; equally formation in England, which were al indisposed to the bald, stern simplicity most certain to produce strong feeling of the Puritanical worship, and sagaon both sides, and lead to the formation cious enough to see the inevitable tenof religious parties and sects within the dency of the doctrines which the Purirealm. Henry VIII., as every student tans set forth and maintained, she held of history knows, was not much in- a tight hand, all through her reign, fluenced by love for truth and purity over the heads of those who pleaded in what he did towards setting England further reformation and larger liberty free from papal tyranny and supersti- than the Church of England has ever, tion. On the contrary, he had his own thus far, been willing to allow. She ends to serve, and he looked out for had no liking for those who opposed that in all the steps which he took. her views, and she was not at all disIf he did no good to Protestantism, if posed to tolerate non-conformity to he were a tyrant, and a beastly tyrant what seemed to her and her principal too, he certainly crushed under his heel advisers, good and proper in Church the insolent pretensions of the pope to and State. Such a man as Whitgift, rule over and draw revenue from Eng- archbishop of Canterbury, was both land; and in so far, at least, he was an able and willing to aid the queen in instrument in God's hand for beginning her efforts to enforce conformity under the good work in England. Edward severe penalties, a course not likely, VI. died young, and unhappily before certainly, to produce harmony and conmuch could be done for reformation. cord and brotherly love among the Mary succeeded him, and very soon contending parties. gave the English people a bitter James I. was bred up in early life in draught of that chalice which Rome strict Presbyterian views; but when, has always made her victims quaff, by that strange turn of affairs which when she has had them quite in her brought the son of the murdered Mary power. Elizabeth came to the throne to the throne of her who had so cruelwith a large share of her father's im- ly pursued even to the death the illperiousness, and with energy and ability fated Queen of Scots, James was in probably unsurpassed by any monarch possession of the crown, he adopted at that has ever, as yet, guided the desti- once the high notions of prerogative nies of England. Fond of show and which characterized, as well as finally display in religious things, she deter- ruined, the Stuart dynasty, and he was mined that the Established Church disposed to go to any length against should have all the advantage and dig- dissenters from his wishes and opini, ns,

CH. VI.]



whether in Church or State. He mis- exiles in Queen Mary's reign came liked the Puritans especially, because back, on the accession of Elizabeth, he had capacity enough to understand, full of zeal and determination to try to that if their free opinions prevailed, effect in the English Church a similar they would interfere most materially thoroughness of reform, and a closer with those prerogatives of absolute ir- and more perfect union and concord in responsible exercise of power in Church doctrine and practice with the Calvinand State, which he so eagerly coveted, istic Churches abroad. The bishops and which he claimed as his by what and clergy of the Established Church, he termed “divine right." At all steadily opposed all this, for they held times, too, and sincerely, we believe, Episcopacy to be of divine origin and both James, and Charles, his immediate perpetual obligation; and they counted successor, opposed every attempt to ceremonies, such as were retained in make the English Church conform to the Church, as calculated to help forthe pattern of that which Calvin had ward the cause of truth and godliness. established in Geneva.

These complained of all ceremonies, as The two parties were at variance marring the simplicity and purity of the in several particulars. The Puritans Gospel; those advocated ceremonies as planted themselves upon the open, useful and edifying. These denied the naked Bible, as the only safe chart need of ordination by a bishop in order and guide in religious and civil duties to preach the Gospel and administer and obligations. The defenders of the the sacraments; those refused then, and Church of England, while they freely have always refused, to allow any one and fully declared that Holy Scripture to officiate in the Church of England contains all things necessary to salva- unless he first receive orders by the tion, and that nothing was to be held laying on of a bishop's hands. a matter of faith but what is contained As might have been expected, sharp in or proved from it, claimed that def-contentions ensued, and the breach was erence was due to the testimony and widened. King James, counting the practice of the primitive Church, and Establishment to be his special ally, the decisions of the first four or six and the doctrines set forth by the General Councils. The Puritans scout- clergy peculiarly adapted to further his ed at all tradition without exception, as pretensions to kingly prerogative, it certainly the remnants of popery and soon came to be understood that the superstition: the Church of England Puritans were the party opposed to all men were willing to yield respect to his extravagant claims to irresponsible what they deemed primitive tradition supremacy in civil and religious matand the unanimous consent of the ters. The Puritans were loyal subfathers and doctors of the first ages. jects, and devoted to the sustaining the The Puritans liked well the extent to crown and royalty in the regular line which reformation had been carried of succession. Yet they could not, and on the Continent; and many of the did not, deny the tendency of their

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