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the lawyers; and for the country and rural knowledge, the boors and peasantry can best help you. All rarities are to be seen, especially antiquities; for these shew us the ingenuity of elder times in act; and are, in one, both example and precept. By these, comparing them with modern invention, we may see how the world thrives in ability and brain.
But, above all, see rare men. There is no monument like a worthy man, alive. We shall be sure to find something in him, to kindle our spirits, and enlarge our minds with a worthy emulation of his virtues. Parts of extraordinary note cannot so lie hid, but that they will shine forth, through the tongue and behaviour, to the enlightening of the enraptured beholder. And because there is less in this to take the sense of the eye, and things are more readily drawn from a living pattern, the soul shall more easily draw in his excellencies, and improve itself with greater profit. But unless a man has judgment to order these aright in himself, at his return all is in vain, and lost labour. Some men, by travel, might be changed in nothing; and some, again, will change too much. Indeed, the moral outside, wheresoever we be, may seem best, when something fitted to the nation we are in : but, wheresoever I should go or stay, I would ever keep my God and friend unchangeably.”
Lord Bacon advises, that a traveller should take care not to change the manners of his country for those of foreign states, but only graft some flowers of that he has learned abroad, into the customs of his own country.
Baron Knigge, in his Practical Philosophy, has many excellent observations and directions concerning travelling. What follows is principally abridged from the Baron's work :
Prudence requires, previous to our setting out upon our travels, that we should sufficiently inform ourselves, either from books or by oral instruction, of the road we intend taking, as well as of every thing we have to observe, to see, and to avoid, at the different places through which our way leads, and to inquire minutely after the unavoidable expenses with which our journey will be attended, lest we should be imposed upon, involved in distress, or neglect to see many things that are worthy our notice.
A well-informed man, who is possessed of some talents, a good character, and polished manners, has no occasion for such a number of letters of recommendation, as most travellers of the common class generally take with them.
He will find means of introducing himself in all places to advantage, without being troublesome to others. It may sometimes happen that we are introduced, either by letters of recommendation, or through some other means, to two persons who live at enmity with each other. It will therefore be prudent in every traveller, on arriving at a strange place, not to speak of his connections, in those houses where he is admitted, until he be sufficiently informed of such trifling circumstances, but to hint occasionally, that his being a stranger inclined him not to take any part in such differences.
Travellers are very apt to miscalculate the expenses with which their journey will be attended; I advise you therefore, after having computed the sum which you shall want, to add not only one-third more, but also to take care that your property be addressed to a safe man of business in every principal town through which you are to pass, or to provide other means of being prepared against unforeseen accidents. If you are really desirous of increasing your knowledge of men and countries, mixing with people of all ranks is absolutely necessary. People of a good education resemble each other pretty much in most European states and capitals; but the multitude, and particularly the middling classes, can alone afford us a correct notion of the manners of the country, and give us the only true standard by which we can judge of the degree of culture and illumination.
Travelling requires patience, courage, good humour, and oblivion of all domestic cares. Travellers must be also capable of bearing cheerfully trifling misfortunes, difficulties, bad weather, and the like. This is particularly necessary, if we travel in company; for nothing is more disagreeable and provoking than to be locked up in a coach with a person who is mute and morose, foams and frets at the leașt misfortune, groans at accidents which cannot be remedied, and desires to have, at every little stage, as much con
venience, comfort, and tranquillity, as he enjoys in an inn.
There is much comfort and freedom to be enjoyed at an inn, according to our poet Shenstone, who wrote the following lines at one, in the town of Henley :
To thee, fair Freedom ! I retire
From flatt'ry, cards, and dice, and din;
Than the low cot, or humble inn.
And ev'ry health which I begin,
Such freedom crowns it at an inn.
I fly from falsehood's specious grin!
And choose my lodgings at an inn.
Which lacqueys else might hope to win;
It buys me freedom at an inn.
Where'er bis stages may have been,
The warmest welcome at an inn. Travelling renders us sociable; we get acquainted, and in a certain degree intimate, with people whom otherwise we probably should not have chosen for companions; which can produce no bad consequences, if we carefully avoid putting too much confidence in those strangers we meet on the road, lest we should be taken in by adventurers and knaves.
People who are in the habit of travelling much, or are visited frequently by travellers, and have no very good memory, are in danger of meeting often with some old acquaintance, whose name and circumstances they cannot recollect: thus, treating him as an utter stranger, they are suspected of pride. The only means of preventing such disagreeable dilemmas is, to keep a journal, and to peruse it frequently.
Many travellers are fond of making their boast of spending a great deal of money, and of dressing in a splendid style. This, however, is a foolish vanity, and for which they must pay dearly at the inns, without receiving more for their money than the modest traveller. No one recollects the stranger who has lavished away his money to no purpose, when he is gone, and no more can be obtained of him. Prudence, however, requires that a traveller should be dressed like a gentleman, deport himself neither too proudly nor too humbly, display neither too much wealth, nor pretend to be poor, because this will only serve to induce people to take him for a silly blockhead, who is on his first excursion, and consequently may easily be cheated; or for a wealthy man, whose purse promises a rich harvest; or for an adventurer, against whom they must be on their guard, and who must take up with indifferent accommodation.
Consult ease and conveniency in your travelling dress; for an uncomfortable dress renders us impatient and peevish, and is also extremely fatiguing.
When you travel to some watering place for the sake of your health, or to amuse and to exhilarate yourself, you ought to bury all your cares in oblivion. Endeavour at least to forget every thing that can make you ill-tempered and uneasy. Drop all serious correspondence, shun all business which requires exertion, and provide yourself with as much money as will enable you to join in any innocent amusements. If you
be prudent, you will carefully avoid gaming, which ought to be banished for ever from all watering places, and should never become a favourite amusement, but with those only whose mind is destitute of all nobler resources. In watering places, every one ought to contribute towards banishing all troublesome restraint from social circles, and towards preserving decorum and politeness. In such places, particularly if the number of strangers be but small, many of those considerations and rules of prudence we submit to in civil life, must be waved: tolerance and unanimity must prevail, and all party spirit must be carefully suppressed. We live here entirely for innocent gratification and pleasure, and, on returning to our family, resume again the post which Providence has entrusted to us.
People who travel on horseback, either with or without a servant, must not leave the care of their beasts entirely to the servants of the inns where they alight, but either themselves look after them, or order their attendants to see that the horses be put up in a dry and clean stable, well fed, and properly cleaned.
Walking is, undoubtedly, for a vigorous and healthy man, the pleasantest mode of travelling. We enjoy the beauties of nature, can mix with all classes of people without being known, and can learn what we otherwise should not experience: we are free from all troublesome restraint, can choose the finest weather and the best roads, stop when and where we please; the constitution is invigorated, we have a keen appetite, and enjoy sound sleep when hunger seasons our meals, and fatigue has wearied our limbs; and can easily accommodate ourselves to common fare or an indifferent couch. There is an inconvenience attending this mode of travelling; it being rather an uncommon phenomenon to see a gentleman travelling on foot, as it excites the curiosity of the multitude, and the inn-keepers know not how to treat him. If such travellers be better dressed than common pedestrians are, they are thought to be suspicious people, adventurers, or misers; they are attentively watched, and every where inquisitively examined ; in a word, they are looked upon as a singular sort of beings: whereas, if they appear in a mean garb, they are treated like wandering journeymen, quartered in dirty garrets and beds, or are always necessitated to state at large why they do not travel in a chaise or on horseback. On travels of this kind, the society of an intelligent and cheerful friend is particularly agreeable.
Trust not to peasants when they direct you to bypaths, assuring you that they are nearer than the common road. These people, in general, are entirely