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NOTE TO NINTH EDITION.
Following the Index are " ADDITIONAL NOTES," arranged accord-
case be had to the "Additional Notes." Their arrangement makes
Besides these additional notes, in an Appendix will be found the
To simplify and abridge the practice, pleadings, and proceed-
WHEREAS, it is expedient that the present forms of actions and
The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate
GENERAL DEFINITIONS AND DIVISIONS.
Civil and criminal remedies not merged in each other.
8. Subjects embraced in this act.
2. Special proceedings.
82. [2.] (Am'd 1849.)
An action is an ordinary proceeding in a court of justice, by which a party prosecutes another party for the enforcement or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offence.
a. WHAT IS AN ACTION :
A creditor's suit (Quick v. Keeler, 2 Sand. 231; Dunham v. Nicholson, ib. 636).
A proceeding for partition (Backus v. Stillwell, 3 How. 318; 1 Code R.
A proceeding to dissolve a moneyed corporation (Kattenstroth v. Astor
Quo warranto (The People v. Cook, 4 Selden, 71; The People v. Clarke, 11
Scire facias (Cameron v. Young, 6 How., 372; Alden v. Clark, 12 ib., 212).
Any judicial proceeding which, if conducted to a determination, will
A proceeding by mandamus (The People v. Colborne, 20 How. 378.)
b. WHAT IS NOT AN ACTION :—
A proceeding under section 376 of the Code (Mills v. Thursby, 2 Abb.
A proceeding under section 372 of the Code (Lang v. Ropke, 1 Duer 702).
A proceeding to obtain discovery of books, &c. (Follett v. Wed, 3 How.
A proceeding to foreclose a mortgage by advertisement (Hall v. Bartlett,
A reference of a claim against the estate of a deceased person (Coe v.
A proceeding to attach for contempt (Holstein v. Rice, 15 Abb. 307; Gray
§ 3. [3.] Special proceeding.
Every other remedy is a special proceeding.
C. WHAT IS A SPECIAL PROCEEDING.
A proceeding before referees appointed to hear appeals from orders of
A proceeding to assess damages on the laying out a plank road under
A proceeding by commissioners to appraise compensation for lands to be
A proceeding to open streets in New York city, query (Re the Bowery, 12 How. 97.)
A certiorari (The People v. Stillwell, 19 N. Y. 532).
A proceeding to attach for contempt (Holstein v. Rice, 15 Abb. 307;
a. WHAT IS NOT A SPECIAL PROCEEDING.
A proceeding supplementary to an execution (Dresser v. Van Pelt, 15
84.  Division of actions.
Actions are of two kinds :
§ 5. [5.] (Am'd 1849.) Criminal action.
A criminal action is prosecuted by the people of the State, as a party, against a person charged with a public offence, for the punishment thereof.
§ 6. [6.] Civil action.
Every other is a civil action.
$7.  Remedies not merged.
Where the violation of a right admits of both a civil and criminal remedy, the right to prosecute the one is not merged
in the other.
§ 8. [8.] (Am'd 1849.) Division of act.
This act is divided into two parts:
The first relates to the courts of justice, and their jurisdiction;
The second relates to civil actions commenced in the courts of this State after the first day of July, 1848, except when otherwise provided therein, and is distributed into fifteen titles. The first four [S$ 69 to 126, both inclusive] relate to actions in all the courts of the State; and the others, to actions in the supreme court, in the county courts, in the superior court of the city of New York, in the court of common pleas for the city and county of New York, in the mayor's courts of cities, and in the recorders' courts of cities, and to appeals to the court of appeals, to the supreme court, to the county courts, and to the superior court of the city of New York.
b. This section limits the provisions of the code to proceedings in suits com menced after the code took effect. (Merrit v. Wing, 4 How. 14; Clarke v. Cran