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10 Pickthatch. This was a disreputable place of resort, supposed to have been in Turnmill Street, near Clerkenwell Green, Ben Jonson also refers to it.

11 Your red-lattice phrases, and your bold-beating oaths. Hanmer printed your bull-baiting oaths.' Red lattice at the doors and windows formerly distinguished the ale-houses.

19 Canaries-quandaries.

13 There has been earls, nay, which is more, pensioners. Gentlemen of the band of Pensioners, who accompanied Queen Elizabeth in her progresses, and whose dress was very gaudy,

14 Nay-word. A watch-word or by-word, as a private mark of recognition and understanding.

15 of great admittance. Admitted largely into society.

16 Amaimon sounds well; Lucifer, well; Barbason, well. In Reginald Scott's Inventory of Spirits, the powers of these demons are described.

17 Aqua-vita. Malone says the Irish aqua-vitae was not brandy, but usquebaugh, 'for which Ireland has long been celebrated.' But the ancient usquebaugh was very different from the modern whisky, if we may credit an old receipt, quoted by Douce, from Plat's Delights for Ladies, 1611. It is as follows: Usquebath, or Irish aqua vitæ. To every gallon of good aqua composita put two ounces of chosen liquorice bruised and cut into small pieces, but first cleansed from his filth, and two ounces of aniseeds that are clean and bruised. Let them macerate five or six days in a wooden vessel, stopping the same close, and then draw off as much as will run clear, dissolving in that clear aqua vitæ five or six spoonfuls of the best molasses you can get (Spanish cute, if you can get it, is thought better than molasses); then put this into another vessel; and after three or four days (the more the better), when the liquor hath fined itself, you may use the same. Some add dates and raisins of the sun to this receipt. Those grounds which remain you may re-distil and make more aqua composita of them, and of that aqua composita more usquebath. The aqua composita, Douce says, was wine of any kind distilled with spices and sweet herbs.

18 To foin was to thrust in fencing, or tilting. Other fencing terms are given in the speech of Mine Host.

19 My heart of elder? The elder-tree has no heart, and hence the poignancy of the joke.

20 Cried I aim? The folio has cride-game : the quarto, cried game. The reading in the text was proposed by Douce; the meaning being, *Did I give you encouragement?' Thus in King John ;

It ill beseems this


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cry aim

Warburton observes that the phrase was taken originally from archery. When any one had challenged another to shoot at the butts, the bystanders used to say, one to the other, cry aim-accept the challenge.





ACT III. 1 Pitty-ward ; perhaps, Petty-ward, as Petty France (now York Street), in Westminster, and Petty Wales in the city. In the folio, the word is spelt pittie-ward.

2. To shallow rivers, to whose falls

Melodious birds sing madrigals,' &c. These lines are from Marlowe's exquisite little pastoral, entitled the Passionate Shepherd to his Love. They first appeared, so far as is known, in a poetical miscellany, The Passionate Pilgrim, 1599, to which Shakespeare's name was prefixed, but afterwards withdrawn. In 1600, the poem was reprinted in England's Helicon, with the name of Marlowe as their author. Izaak Walton also assigns the piece to Marlowe. It was set to music, and highly popular for many years.

I say Gallia and Guallia. In the folio it stands, 'Gallia and Gaule;' but as the host puts 'French' before 'Welsh,' it seems probable that the true reading is what we have given, 'Gallia and Guallia. Mr Halliwell's manuscript confirms this emendation, by having 'Gallia and Wallia;' which was Sir T. Hanmer's conjectural emendation.–COLLIER. Mr Dyce also adopts this reading.

4 No having-no estate or fortune. 5 The whitsters—linen bleachers.

6 How now, my eyas-musket? Eyas, a young hawk; musket (from the Italian muschetto) is the diminutive; so that eyas-musket is a young little hawk.

7 Jack-a-lent, a puppet thrown at in Lent, like Shrove-cocks, for amusement.

8 Have I caught my heavenly jewel? From Sir Philip Sidney's Astrophet and Stella, 1591 :

Have I caught my heavenly jewel

Teaching sleep most fair to be.' 9 The ship-tire, the tire-valiant, or any tire of Venetian admittance. Head-dresses then in fashion, admitted or received from Venice.

10 Semicircled farthingale, a hooped petticoat, then and long afterwards part of a fashionable lady's dress.

11 I see what thou wert, if Fortune thy foe were not, Nature is thy friend. Collier has suggested : ‘Nature being thy friend.'

12 Bucklersbury, a part of London, which in Shakespeare's time was greatly occupied by druggists, who sold herbs or simples.

13 I will ensconce me behind the arras. “The spaces left between the walls and the wooden frames, on which the arras was hung, were not more commodious to our ancestors than to the authors of their ancient dramatic pieces. Borachio in Much Ado About Nothing, and Polonius in Hamlet, availed themselves of this convenient recess.'-HALLIWELL. The species of tapestry called arras took its name, as is well known, from Arras, the place of its manufacture in France.

14 Whiting-time-bleaching-time.

15 Cowl-staff—a staff or pole on which the basket was supported between two men.

16 Uncape-uncover; but in fox-hunting to uncape signified to unearth the fox.

17 What a taking was he in, when your husband asked who was in the basket! The poet has here committed an oversight. In extending the first draft of the play, he had forgotten to make all parts agree. Ford had asked no such question as the above, but only remarked, 'Whither bear you this ?' The quarto has the passage correct : Mrs Page says, 'I wonder what he thought, when my husband bade them set down the basket,' and Falstaff is silent on the point in his speech to Ford.

18 I'll make a shaft or a bolt on't. This is one of the old proverbs collected by Ray, drawn from the practice of archery.

19 Come cut and long-tail. Probably another proverbial expression, meaning' come high or come low.'



ACT IV. 1 Your husband is in his old lines again. This is the reading of the

the quarto has vaine—that is, vein. Theobald substituted lunes for lines, and has been followed by Collier, Dyce, and other editors. But no change seems necessary.

Creep into the kiln-hole. This is assigned to Mrs Ford in all the editions of Shakespeare, except that of Mr Dyce. From the subsequent remark of Mrs Ford, 'He will seek there,' it seems clear that the suggestion was not made by her, but must have come from Mrs Page.

3 The mufiler was generally made of linen, and covered the lower part of the face. It was common also in Scotland: Sir David Lindsay complains that the ladies of his day hide their faces all but their eyes.'

Ging was the old form of the word gang, and is used in the same sense by Milton.

5 Why, this passes! Passes all bounds; hence, 'passing strange.'

6 Leman-lover. "The term is of Saxon origin,' says Douce, 'and leveman can be traced to an Anglo-Norman period. In Saxon, it denoted both man and woman.' It is best rendered by sweetheart.

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-7 Ronyon ; from the Fr. royne, scurf. In Macbeth, the term is applied to a witch.

Upon no trail, a hunting expression; the trail of the game is the scent it leaves.

9 Herne the hunter. Mr Halliwell says that no allusion to this legend of the hunter has been discovered in any other writer. In the quarto, the name is written Horne ; and in a manuscript of the time of Henry VIII., in the British Museum, Mr Halliwell found 'Rycharde Horne, yeoman,' among the names of the hunters 'whiche he examyned and have confessed' for hunting in his majesty's forests. There has been a controversy as to Herne's oak. It is stated, on the authority of George III., that the tree was inadvertently cut down. But Mr Jesse contends that it is still standing—a dead-tree, without a leaf or particle vitality about it, close to an avenue of elms in the Little Park. See Gleanings in Natural History, 1838.

10 Takes the cattle-to take, is to strike or blast the cattle. 11 Eld, from the Saxon, æld, old age.

12 Urchins (from the urchin, or hedgehog) is applied to dwarfish beings; ouph (from the Teutonic alf, a fairy) had a similar but less repulsive signification It seems to have settled down into oaf, a clownish blockhead.

13 And in that tire. The folio has time. Theobald proposed the alteration, which seems the correct reading.

14 There's his chamber, &c. The usual furniture of chambers at that time was a standing-bed, under which was a truckle-bed. In the standingbed lay the master, and in the truckle-bed the servant. In the quarto it is written trundle-bed.

15 Anthropophaginian—a cannibal.

16 Ephesian, a cant term of that period, but the origin of it has not been ascertained.

17 I may not conceal them, sir. Simple, of course, means reveal. The host humours the blunder by saying, 'Conceal them, or thou diest.'

18 Paid for my learning, a punning allusion to the beating he had received from Ford while personating the wise woman of Brentford.

19 Primero, a game at cards, then fashionable.

ACT v. 1 I come to her in white, and cry mum ;' she cries 'budget ;' and by that we know one another. “Mumbudget,' says Douce, ‘may be silence in a budget, a something closed or stopped up. Fr. bouché.' That voluble satirist, Tom Nash, in his attack on Gabriel Harvey, entitled Have with

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you to Saffron Walden, uses the term : 'No villain, no atheist, no murderer but he hath likened me to, for no other reason in the earth, but because I would not let him go beyond me, or be won to put my finger in my mouth and cry mumbudget, when he had baffled me in print throughout England.'

? Green Sleeves. The tune of 'Green Sleeves' was licensed to Richard Jones in 1580 (Chappell's National Airs). It was highly popular. Verses to the new tune of Green Sleeves' were published in a miscellany, entitled A Handful of Pleasant Delites, 1584. Many ballads were written to the tune, one of which may be found in Boswell's Journal of his Tour to the Hebrides.

3 Kissing-comfits-dry sweetmeats. Snow eringoes ; these were herbs used as a kind of restorative confectionary. The eringo is a herbaceous perennial, of which there are several species; one, known as the seaeringo or sea-holly, is frequent on the sandy shores of Britain. Falstaff's allusion appears to be to the candied root, partially incrusted with white sugar, which has been long sold in London as a sweetmeat. Colchester, in Essex, has been famed for the preparation of it since the beginning of the seventeenth century. It is a sweet and agreeable aromatic, and was at one time in repute for its stimulating qualities.

* The speeches of the Fairy Queen in this scene, are given in the folio to Mrs Quickly, to whose character they are not at all adapted. Anne Page personated the queen, and to her we have accordingly assigned the speeches. Knight, Collier, and Dyce, all adopt this alteration.

5 The oyes, or oyez, of the old proclamations. Fr. oyez, hear; silence.

6 Pense, inust here be pronounced as two syllables, or pensé, in order to complete the rhyme.

7 For making their characters or emblems.

8 A fool's cap made out of Welsh materials. Wales was famous for its frieze-cloth.

9 Immediately after this, Theobald inserted the following from the first sketch of the play printed in quarto:

Mrs Ford. Nay, husband, let that go to make amends :
Forgive that sum, and so we'll all be friends.

Ford. Well, here's my hand; all's forgiven at last.'
As inconsistent with the text, this passage does not appear in the
enlarged version of the play.


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