Oxford University Press, 23. 12. 2008 - Počet stran: 368
John Buridan (ca. 1300-1362) has worked out perhaps the most comprehensive account of nominalism in the history of Western thought, the philosophical doctrine according to which the only universals in reality are "names": the common terms of our language and the common concepts of our minds. But these items are universal only in their signification; they are singular entities like any other in reality. This book examines what is most intriguing to contemporary readers in Buridan's medieval philosophical system: his nominalist account of the relationship between language, thought and reality. The main focus of the discussion is Buridan's deployment of the Ockhamist conception of a "mental language" for mapping the complex structures of written and spoken human languages onto a parsimoniously construed reality. Concerning these linguistic structures, this book carefully analyzes Buridan's conception of the radical conventionality of written and spoken languages, in contrast to the natural semantic features of concepts. The discussion pays special attention to Buridan's token-based semantics of terms and propositions, his conception of existential import, ontological commitment, truth, and logical validity. Finally, the book presents a detailed discussion of how these logical devices allow Buridan to maintain his nominalist position without giving up Aristotelian essentialism or yielding to skepticism, and pays special attention to contemporary concerns with these issues.
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The Primacy of Mental Language
The Various Kinds of Concepts and the Idea of a Mental Language
Natural Language and the Idea of a Formal Syntax in Buridan
Existential Import and the Square of Opposition
The Properties of Terms Proprietates Terminorum 9 The Semantics of Propositions
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abstract according actual affirmative analysis animal antecedent appellation Aquinas argument Aristotelian Aristotle Aristotle’s Buridan’s theory categorematic concepts categorematic terms categorical proposition claim cognitive act common term complex concept conceive concerning connotative concepts connotative terms consequence context copula corresponding determined discussion disjunctive distinction donkey entities epistemology equum example exist expression false formal individual inference insofar intellect interpretation intuitive John Buridan Klima means Medieval Logic Medieval Philosophy mental proposition Metaphysics mind modern namely natural language nominal definition nominalist object Ockham ontological Peter of Spain philosophical phrase Plato possible precisely predicate logic principle proposition is negative quantification theory quantifiers question quidditative definition reference represent restricted variables semantic complexity semantic values sense sensory sentence significata simple concepts singular concept singular term skeptical Socrates sophism Sophismata sort species subject term subordinated substance substantial concepts syncategorematic syntactical term supposits true truth universal utterance valid verb William of Ockham