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which were likely to nection and interrupt our Corre- respondence. They spondence and Con- too have been deaf nection. They too to the voice of jushave been deaf to the tice and of consanVoice of Justice and guinity, and when of Consanguinity, occasions have been and when occasions given them, by the have been given regular course of them by the regular their laws of removCourse of their ing from their counLaws of removing cils the disturbers of from their Councils, our harmony, they the Disturbers of have by their free our Harmony, they elections re-estabhave by their free lished them in power. Election, re-estab- At this very time lished them in they are permitting Power. At this very their chief magisTime too, they are trate to send over permitting their

not only soldiers of Chief Magistrate to our own blood, but send over not only Scotch and other soldiers of our com- foreign mercenaries, mon Blood, but to invade and deScotch and foreign stroy

These Mercenaries, to in- facts have given the vade and deluge us last stab to agonizing in Blood. These affections, and manFacts have given ly spirit bids us to the last Stab to renounce forever agonizing affection, these unfeeling and manly Spirit brethren. We must bids us to renounce endeavor to forget forever these unfeel- our former love for ing Brethren. We them, to hold them must endeavour to as we hold the rest forget our former of mankind enemies


Love for them, and in



peace to hold them, as we friends. hold the rest of Man We might have kind, enemies in War, been a free and a in Peace Friends. We great people tomight have been a gether; but a comfree and a great Peo munication of granple together but a deur and of freedom Communication of it seems, is below Grandeur and of their dignity. Be it Freedom it seems is so, since they will below their Dignity. have it: the road to Be it so, since they happiness and to will have it: The glory is open to us Road to Happiness too; we will climb and to Glory is open it apart from them, to us too ; we will and acquiesce in the climb it, apart from necessity which dethem, and acquiesce nounces our eternal in the Necessity separation ! which denounces our eternal Separation.

We therefore the We therefore the We, therefore, the Representatives of representatives of Representatives of the United States of the United States in the United States America in General General Congress of America, in GenCongress assembled, assembled in the eral Congress Asdo, in the Name,

and by au sembled, appealing and by the Author- thority of

the to the Supreme ity of the good Peo- good people of Judge of the world ple of these States, these states, reject for the rectitude of reject and renounce and renounce all our intentions, do, all Allegiance and allegiance and sub in the Name, and by Subjection to the jection to the kings Authority of the Kings of Great Brit of Great Britain and good People of ain, and all others, all others who may these Colonies, sol. who may hereafter hereafter claim by, emnly publish and


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claim by, through, through, or under declare, that these or under them ; We


we utterly United Colonies utterly dissolve and dissolve all political are, and of Right break off, all politi- connection which ought to be Free

Connection may heretofore have and Independent which may have subsisted between States; that they heretofore subsisted us and the people are Absolved from between us and the or parliament of all allegiance to the People or Parlia Great Britain, and British Crown, and ment of Great Brit- finally we do assert that all political conain, and finally we and declare these nection between do assert and de colonies to be free them and the State clare these Colonies and independant, of Great Britain, is to be free and inde and that as free and and ought to be topendent States, and independant states, tally dissolved ; and that as free and inde- they have full power that as Free and Inpendent States they to levy war, conclude dependent states, shall hereafter have peace, contract alli they have full Power Power to levy War, ances, establish com to levy War, conconclude Peace, merce, and to do all clude Peace, concontract Alliances, other acts and things tract Alliances, esestablish Commerce, which independent tablish Commerce, and to do all other states may of right and to do all Acts and Things do. And for the other Acts and which independent support of this dec Things which IndeStates may of Right laration we mutually pendent States may do. And for the pledge to each other of right do. Support of this Dec our lives, our for

And for the suplaration, we mutu tunes, and our sa port of this Declaally pledge to each cred honour.

ration, with a firm other our Lives, our

reliance on the Fortunes, and our

protection of diSacred Honour.

vine Providence,
we mutually pledge
to each other our
Lives, our For-
tunes, and our
cred Honor.


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PHILADELPHIA, July 8th, 1776. Dear Sir,-For news, I refer you to your brother, who writes on that head. I enclose a copy of the Declaration of Independence, as agreed to by the House, and also as originally framed: you will judge whether it is the better or worse for the critics. I shall return to Virginia after the uth of August. I wish my successor may be certain to come before that time : in that case, I shall hope to see you, and not Wythe, in convention, that the business of government, which is of everlasting concern, may receive your aid. Adieu, and believe me to be your friend and servant.

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(July ? 1776.] The dignity and stability of government in all its branches, the morals of the people, and every blessing of society, depend so much upon an upright and ! skillful administration of justice, that the judicial power ought to be distinct from both the legislature and executive, and independent upon both, that so it may be a check upon both, as both should be checks upon that. The judges, therefore, should always be men of learning and experience in the laws, of exemplary morals, great patience, calmness and attention; their minds should not be distracted with

From Lee's Life of R. H. Lee, 1, 275. * A fragment from The Balance, 11, 146.

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PHILADELPHIA, July 15th, 1776. Dear Sir,-Yours of the 3rd inst. came to day. I wish I could be better satisfied on the point of Patty's recovery.

I had not heard from her at all for two posts before, and no letter from herself now. I wish it were in my power to return by way of the Forest, as you think it will be impracticable for Mrs. Eppes to travel to the mountains. However, it will be late in August before I can get home, and our Convention will call me down early in October. Till that time, therefore, I must defer the hope of seeing Mrs. Eppes and yourself. Admiral Howe is himself arrived at New York, and two or three vessels, supposed to be of his fleet, were coming in. The whole is expected daily.

Washington's numbers are greatly increased, but we do not know them exactly. I imagine he must have from 30 to 35,000 by this time. The enemy the other day ordered two of their men-of-war to hoist anchor and push by our batteries up the Hudson River. Both wind and tide were very fair. They passed all the batteries with ease, and, as far as is known, without receiving material damage ; though there was an incessant fire kept up on them. This experiment of theirs, I suppose, is a prelude to the passage of their whole fleet, and seems to indicate an intention of landing above New York. I imagine General Washington, finding he cannot prevent their going up the river, will prepare to amuse them wherever they shall

1 From Randall's Life of Jefferson, 111, 582.

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