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Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.

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AMENDMENTS

TO THE

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

ART. 1. Restriction on the power of congress. 2. Rights of the people to bear arms, &c.

3. Quartering of soldiers, &c.

4. Search warrants.

5. Proceedings against persons charged with crimes. Their rights.

6. Further rights.

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11. Restriction of judicial powers.

12. Mode of electing the president and vice president of the United States.

FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION.

ARTICLE I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.

ARTICLE II. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

NO SOLDIER TO BE QUARTERED, ETC.

ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

UNREASONABLE SEARCHES PROHIBITED.

ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS.

ARTICLE V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time. of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

MODE OF TRIAL.

ARTICLE VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of council for his defence.

RIGHT OF TRIAL BY JURY.

ARTICLE VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact, tried by a jury shall be

otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

BAIL, FINES, ETC.

ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

RIGHTS NOT ENUMERATED.

ARTICLE IX. The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

POWERS RESERVED.

ARTICLE X. The powers not delegated to the United States, by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

LIMITATIONS OF JUDICIAL POWERS.

ARTICLE XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign

state.

[This amendment was proposed at the second session of the third congress. It is printed in the Laws of the United States, 1st vol., p. 73, as Article 11.]

ELECTION OF PRESIDENT.

ARTICLE XII. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate ;-the president of the senate shall, in the presence

of the senate and house of representatives, open all certificates, and the votes shall then be counted;-the person having the greatest number of votes for president, shall be the president, if such a number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the vice president shall act president, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president. The person having the greatest number of votes as vice president, shall be the vice president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have such majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the senate shall choose the vice president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutianally ineligible to the office of president shall be eligible to that of vice president of the United States.

[The foregoing article proposed at the first session of the eighth congress, is printed in the Laws of the United States as Article 12.1

NOTE.-Another amendment was proposed as Article XIII., at the second session of the eleventh congress, but, not having been ratified by a sufficient number of states, has not yet become valid as a part of the constitution of the United States. It is erroneously given as a part of the constitution, in page 74, vol., 1. Laws of the United States.

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