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(6) Uncle Lob and nephew Pedr went out into the country and stole a pig. They took it into a cave, made a fire, put on the pot. Uncle Lob sat on one side of the fire, and Pedr on the other. When the pot was almost cooked, Pedr took a little stone, he threw it up to the roof of the cave. As it fell down, he said, "Uncle Lob, the cave is coming down on us, get up and hold it up!" Pedr took out the pot, ate up all the food, he went off, he left uncle Lob holding up the cave. He held it up for three days, then he jumped aside, he fell down, he split open his head.1 When he came home, he asked his wife, Zabel Gongalbe, if she had seen Pedr. "No, I haven't seen Pedr," she answered, "You better let him go and stay home. He'll kill you." — "I'm going to kill him. I am the son of my father and the son of my mother. I'm going to kill him. He is my nephew."

(7) Next day in comes Pedr. He says, "Nha Zabel, where's uncle Lob?" Lob had hidden himself under the bed. He told his wife not to tell where he was. He wanted to catch Pedr. Pedr had a large bottle of molasses which he had dumped on his head. When he took off his hat, Zabel Gongalbe thought the molasses was blood. She screamed. Lob came out from under the bed. "O my son, my son! who has done this thing?" he exclaimed to Pedr.. "This is nothing, uncle Lob," answered Pedr. "I told a man to give it to me on the head with a machad, which he did." Uncle Lob put his hand on Pedr's head, then his fingers into his mouth. He was astounded. He called to his wife to get the machad to give it to him on the head to make the molasses come. "Give it to me, give it to me!" At her first blow she drew blood. "Give it to me again!" he cries. "Give it to me again!" She gave it to him again. She split his head in two. Then she went and collected pailh teixeira, balsam, and fedigosa to make a plaster for his head.

(8) After his head had mended, he started out to the beach to find Pedr. Pedr was a fisherman on the beach. Lob began to pick up and eat snails and crabs. A claw stuck in Lob's teeth. Pedr, who was at the other end of the beach, where he saw uncle Lob, and uncle Lob didn't see him. Pedr came up, and said, "I've come to pull out that claw for you." He took a pick-axe to take it out. "No, not with that," objected Lob. Then he took an iron bar to take it out. "No, not with that," objected Lob. He took a stick. "No, not with that," objected Lob. He said, "I will take it out with my fingers." — "Good," said Nho Lob. He closes his teeth, he takes a piece out of the finger. "Uncle Lob, I came here to tell you where you could get something good to eat," said Subrinh. "Now you've bitten my finger, I won't tell you." — "O Xubrinh! I'll put the piece back, even if I have to take a piece out of my own finger."

(9) Pedr takes Lob to the end of the beach. There was a fish which came in and out every day with the tide, and which Pedr used to nurse. "Say, 'Mama bax' when you want her, 'mama riba' when you've had enough," Pedr said to Lob. Lob said "Mama riba," but he wouldn't let go; and as the tide went out, she went out with it.1 "Mother Peixe Caball', you are carrying me on a good road, rocking among the waves," said Lob. She took him far oat to Ma. "Let me go now!" said Lob. ''I remember Zabel GonTalbe." — "I haven't got you, you've got me," rejoined Peixe Caball*. "Who are you?" — "I'm unde Lob." — "I gave yon my breast, thinking you Pedr. I like Pedr because he stays by me when the tide is low against the birds who would eat me. This time 111 put you ashore. But don't come again."

1 Informant, Matheus Dias of San Anton. For No. 6 see Harris 3: LIV; Jacottet i: 44, n. i; Theal, p. 113; Boas, "Notes on Mexican Folk-Lore" (JAFL 25 [1912]: 206, 237); K. T. Preuss, Die Nayarit Expedition (Leipzig, 1912), i : 290. No. 7 as well as No. 10 are patterns from the cycle of Big Klaus and Little Klaus, or, to use the Cape Verde names, of Jonson and Jonsinh. For No. 7, see this number, pp. 190, 226; for No. 10, p. 229.

1 Variant: "1 came by there yesterday, and saw him still holding it up" (Fogo).

< 10) As soon as unde Lob reached land, he ran home to find Pedr. "Where is Pedr?" he asked Zabel Goncalbe. "Don't ask me," she answered in a temper. "Unless you leave Pedr alone, he wfll kill you." But Lob started out again to find Pedr. Pedr was tied up because they had caught him stealing in a mandiocera* "Xubrinh, what are you doing here?" asked unde Lob. "There's a feda. on here," answered Pedr. "They want me to eat, but I don't feel like eating, so they have tied me up." — "Tie me," says unde Lob. "I'll loose you, and you tie me." Lob sees them coming with a gamella.1 Thinking they are bringing him something to eat, he jumps with joy. "Pedr is crazy not to want those good things!" In the gamella was a red-hot iron, and they shove it at him. "It's not me, it's Pedr!" he yells. "It's not me, it's Pedr!" Away on a little hill stood Pedr, playing his lamborinh and singing, —.

"Drum, drum, my taborinh I

Run,* run, my kinsman!

I tied Pedr

I did not tie Lob,

Lob was who burned."

They shoved the red-hot iron three times into him. "It's not me, it's Pedr!" he kept yelling. Then they untied him. He went home. He kept his bed for one week. He told his wife he had been to a feast and got drunk. She made a broth for him.

Little shoes run down the beach.
Whoever is the biggest will go (?) .

Whoever is the smallest will get them.
Whoever does not like it, let him tell his own.1
Newport, R.I.

1 Mama, "mother," "breast;" box (baiio), "down;" riba, "up." We have here a somewhat confused use of the "open sesame, close sesame" pattern. That pattern is well used in another Cape Verde tale in connection with a fruit-tree. "Down" or "up" is said to the tree. (A variant is found in the Bahamas.) In this tale the pattern is transferred from the tree to the fish.

1 Patch of manioc.

'Large wooden platter.

4 Cur up is an onomatopoetic word for the sound of feet.

• This Is one of the formula endings common to all the Cape Verde Islands. Properly told, every tale should have such an ending, although it may be omitted, as in the preceding tales, either from carelessness or from sophistication.

SURINAM FOLK-TALES.

BY A. P. AND T. E. PENARD.

Dutch Guiana, or Surinam, with its diverse population, offers an exceptionally fertile field to the student of folk-lore.

Scattered through the jungles bordering the numerous waterways, especially on the banks of the more or less inaccessible creeks, and in the open savannas, there are several tribes of Indians. There also are the so-called Boschnegers (Bush Negroes), descendants of Negroes who escaped from slavery in the early days, and, in defiance of the authorities of the time, set up independent communities in the wilderness, retaining many of their African customs and beliefs. But for the investigator who does not care to experience the hardships and dangers of a trip through the wild river-lands, in the sun-baked savannas, or to the practically unknown hinterland, there still remain excellent opportunities in city, town, and plantation, among the extremely mixed and interesting population in which the Negro element heavily preponderates.

So far as the writers are aware, no Negro folk-tales from Surinam have ever been published in English, and even in other languages the number published is comparatively small. The following bibliography, comprising only those items in which the tales are actually recorded, while not very extensive, is probably not far from complete.

1. M. D. Teenstra. De Landbouw in de Kolonie Suriname. Groningen

1835, Tweede Deel, p. 213.
Two fragments.

2. J. Crevaux. Voyages dans 1'Amerique du Sud. Paris, 1883. 190 p.

One story.

3. H. Van Cappelle. Surinaamsche Negervertellingen (in Elsevier's

Maandschrift, November, 1904, 14 [No. n]: 314-327).

Two stories and reference by title to six others. The author states also that twenty-five stories were collected for him by Mr. M. H. Nahar. The writers are not aware that they have been published.1

4. —Suriname in Woord en Beeld (in Nederlandsche Zeewezen, July 15,

1905, 4 : 212-214).
One story.

5. (H. F. Rikken). Ma Kankantrie (in De Surinamer, Paramaribo, 1907,

Chapter VI).

Five stories. This work is one of the most interesting dealing with the negro folk-lore of Surinam.

1 Since the above was written the stories referred to (39 instead of 25) have been published by Dr. van Cappelle in Bijdragen tot de Taal-. Land- en Volkenkunde van Ned. Indie; The Hague, 1916. Deel 72, Afl. i en 2, 333-379.

6. H. Siebeck. Buschnegermarchen aus Surinam (in Hessische Blatter

far Volkskunde [Leipzig, 1908], 7 [pt. 1] : 10-16).
Three stories, collected by F. Stahelin.

7. F. Stahelin. Tiermarchen der Buschneger in Surinam (in Hessische

Blatter fur Volkskunde [Leipzig, 1909], 8 [pt. 3]: 173-184).
Six stories.

8. (anonymous). De Spin en de Teerpop (in Voor Onze Jeugd; Bijlage

van het Maandschrift Op de Hoogte, March, 1911, 8 : 40-41).
One story, by " Tante Jo."

9. J. G. Spalburg. Bruine Mina, De Koto-Missi. Paramaribo, 1913,

pp. 10-12.

One story. 10. H. Schuchardt. Die Sprache der Saramakkaneger in Surinam (Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam; Amsterdam 1914, Afd. Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks, Deel 14, No. 6, p. 41).

One story.

The sounds of the words in the Negro language appearing in this article are as follows: —

a like a in what

e "e "red

i "ee "feet

0 "0 "more

au "ow " cow

oe "00 " boot

The consonants have the same sound as in English, with the exception of j, which is pronounced like y in year.

In general, the spelling will be found to agree with that given either in Wullschlagel's Deutsch-Negerenglisches Worterbuch (Lobau, 1856) or in Focke's Neger-Engelsch Woordenboek (Leiden, 1855); but the writers have deviated from both authorities wherever they deemed it advisable for the sake of uniformity, without introducing forms which would confuse the Dutch reader. The Dutch diphthong oe, having the sound of 00 in the English word boot, has been retained for the same reason.

The Surinam Negro is an excellent story-teller, and many of the tales collected show no mean attainment in the art. As may be expected, many of the stories may be traced to African sources, naturally influenced by the New-World surroundings. A number are of undoubted European origin, retold with characteristic alterations and additions. There are also some which seem to have no exact counterpart elsewhere.

The stories lose much by translation, and there can be no doubt that one must be thoroughly familiar with the expressive Negro language in order to appreciate them to the fullest extent. There is

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